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TRANLATION

BY: VERA I LINGGA NK LING-08

SOME DEFENITIONS OF TRANSLATION


Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL). (Catford, 1965) Translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. (Newmark, 1988: 5) Translation is a general term referring to the transfer of thoughts and ideas from one language to another. (Brislin (1976: 1)

Translation is studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. (Larson, 1984: 3)

THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRANSLATION AND TRANSLATING


"Translation" is always a noun, while "translating" can be a verb (as in "I am translating all my TFD posts into Klingon"). So, you could love translation without doing it yourself, but if you love translating you imply that you yourself are the one doing it.

KINDS OF TRANSLATION
According to the purpose, translation can be divided into four kinds: Pragmatic translation is the translation of a message with an interest in accuracy of the information meant to be communicated in the target language form. Aesthetic-poetic translation that does not only focus on the information, but also the emotion, feeling, beauty involved in the original writing. Ethnographic translation that explicates the cultural context of the source and second language versions. Linguistic translation, the one that is concerned with equivalent meanings of the constituent morphemes of the second language and with grammatical form.

Technical Translation is the kind that can be considered one of the most highly demanded, as such translation requires technical knowledge of some specific field, be it reciprocating compressors or an anti-spam program. Scientific translation that refer to medical translations, translations of scientific works in various fields of studies (such as chemistry, physics, mechanics), different research works. Literary translations require a thorough knowledge of the source and target languages and the ability to correctly translate the original feelings and to employ the most appropriate language means in the translation.

Translation of documents is a kind of translation that in all cases has to be ordered from a translation agency because almost always it requires a special certification. General translation is the simplest kind of all because it deals with a language without any special terminology or literary means.

THE OBSTACLES IN DOING TRANSLATION


The lack of vocabularies The lack of knowledge about grammar Problems of ambiguity, problems that originate from structural and lexical differences between languages and multiword units like idioms and collocations. Problems with the source text: Text difficult to read or illegible text Spelled incorrectly or printed incorrectly Unfinished text Badly written text

Language problems: Idiom terms and neologisms Unsolved acronyms and abbreviations Proper name of people, organizations, and places. Slang difficult to understand Respect to punctuation conventions.