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BORDER SECURITY USING FIBER OPTICS INTRUSION SENSOR

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SUBMITTED BY MITESH GOLCHHA (08BEI044) 4/13/12 VINEET JESWANI (08BEI080)

INTRODUCTION
A distributed FOS offers a low cost approach to

monitor the border for intruders.

It monitors long distances by analyzing the

RAYLEIGH Backscattered Signal.

A phase sensitive OTDR senses changes in the

optical phase of the back scattered light.

Intruder in the vicinity of the buried fiber produces

pressure and seismic waves which produces a 4/13/12 change in the optical path length and detected by OTDR. Monitoring can be extended to hundreds of

FIG : Rayleigh backscattered signal with and without 4/13/12 an intruder

INTRUSION DETECTION
Light pulses from semiconductor laser are

injected into the fiber and backscattered light is detected by a photo detector.

Laser with a narrow line width is necessary

for OTDR.
Disturbances along the fiber are detected

by comparing the consecutive pulses.


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Distance is proportional to the time delay.

OTDR SYSTEM

FIG : Block diagram for -OTDR based intrusion detection system. EDFA = erbium doped fiber amplifier BPF = band pass filter PBS = polarization beam splitter 4/13/12 PD = photo detector

A highly coherent laser is used to introduce

pulses of light in the fiber.

The pulse period should be longer than time for

the optical pulse to propagate the length of the fiber and backscattered light to be completely detected to avoid overlap of data.

Circulator is used for separation of the signals.

4/13/12 PBS is used for optimizing the probability of

INTRUSION LOCALIZATION
It is possible by knowing the difference in consecutive pulses.

FIG : Plot showing two consecutive pulses of the back reflected signal, and the difference between them.
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If the speed of the light in the fiber is known,

time differences in the consecutive pulses can be converted to distance, using relationd=(v*t)/2

factor is necessary because the pulse must

travel the fiber twice , i.e., to that location, and the Rayleigh backscattered light back to the detector.
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DATA ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING


The FPGA is programmed through LabVIEW to

handle data acquisition and processing.

The FPGA constantly acquires data over two

channels at 1.5 MS/sec and processes it in real-time.


The data is filtered to remove noise and is

compared against a preprogrammed intrusion criterion.


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The FPGA is programmed to maintain a 10

second buffer of data.

When an intrusion criterion is met, intrusion

signal is triggered.

After creating the file, the software resets itself

and waits for another intrusion.


Buffer and recording times are fully adjustable.
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INTRUSION ANALYSIS
The intrusion

file created by the software as shown in fig.

Contain both

raw and filtered data over two channels.

FIG: An intrusion file triggered by a single human intruder on foot.

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INTRUSION SIGNATURES

FIG: Intrusion signatures for (a) a single human intruder on foot, and (b) an automobile4/13/12 on a

For a single intruder in (a), individual

footsteps are clearly identifiable.

For the automobile intruder in (b),there is

continuous disturbance while it is in the range of the buried fiber.

The amplitude of the disturbance is

proportional to the distance from the fiber as the car drives by.
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CONCLUSION
The scalability of real-time signal

processing is limited by the amount of memory available on the FPGA unit.

This system allows for detection along

the length of buried optical fiber while localizing intrusion to a specific point.
The exact location of the intrusion can be

detected without the knowledge of 4/13/12 intruder.

THANK YOU

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