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GPRS-EDGE

A Brief Introduction

Hemal Doshi

Contents:
1. Few Questions before we start 2. Architecture/Interfaces of GPRS/EDGE Network 3. Some Important Terminologies 4. GPRS Mobile Types 5. GPRS/EDGE Network Entities 6. Difference between GPRS and EDGE 7. Different Coding Schemes

8. Abis Mapping of TRXs and Dynamic Abis Timeslots


9. Optimisation at Network Interfaces 10.GPRS Radio Capacity 11. GPRS and GSM Resource Sharing 12.Attach/Detach

13. Session Management (PDP Context Activation Scenario)


14.GPRS Mobile States

Few questions before we start 1. What is GPRS? GPRS stands for General Packet Radio Service. This is a new technology intended for data transfer within the existing GSM network. GPRS provides user with access to public Internet network. In short, GPRS is a new way of transferring data via mobile phone. 2. Why GPRS?

Reason Why GPRS is so interesting even if a wired/broadband connection is available is it can be accessed from anywhere. GPRS lets you get to the information you need, when you need it. It makes your laptop, handled device, mobile or PDA a true extension of your office. Whether you are in a taxi, an airport or just in a hurry, GPRS keeps you connected wirelessly.

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Architecture/Interfaces of GPRS/EDGE Network

Air Interface (Radio)

PCU/NSEI Abis Gb (FR/IP) UGBI Gn

Um

BTS

BSC

SGSN

GGSN

Gi
To Internet

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Some important Terminologies related to GPRS 1. Temporary Block Flow: "A Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is a physical connection used by the two Radio Resource entities to support the unidirectional transfer of PDUs on packet data physical channels. The TBF is allocated radio resource on one or more PDCHs and comprises a number of RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PDUs. A TBF is temporary and is maintained only for the duration of the data transfer. The TBF is allocated radio resource on one or more PDCHs. Unidirectional separate TBFs are needed for uplink and downlink transfer. 2. Radio Network Management: Mobility management in the GPRS network is handled in a similar way to the existing GSM system. One or more cells form a Routing Area (RA),which is a subset of one Location Area (LA). The Routing Area is unique within a Location Area. Routing Area is defined by Routing Area Code (RAC).

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GPRS Mobile Types Class A MS supports simultaneous operation of GPRS and GSM services.

Class B
MS will be able to register for both GPRS & GSM services. It can only use one of the two services at a given time. Class C

- MS can be used for either GPRS or GSM services.

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GPRS/EDGE Network Entities 1. PCU: Packet Control UnitThe PCU controls the GPRS radio resources and acts as the key unit in

the following procedures:


. GPRS radio resource allocation and management . Data transfer to End-User through BTS.

. Coding scheme selection


. PCU statistics It is the main unit for GPRS in BSC.

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GPRS/EDGE Network Entities 2. SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) Detect and Register new GPRS MS in its serving area

Packet Routing, Transfer & Mobility Management


Authentication, Maintaining user profiles Its location register stores location info. & user profiles

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GPRS/EDGE Network Entities 3. GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) Interfaces GPRS backbone network & external packet data networks Stores the current SGSN address and profile of the user in its location register Many-to- many relations among SGSNs & GGSNs.

The Most Important: IP Address Management.

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Difference between GPRS and EDGE:EGPRS EDGE is to improve the data rates of GSM by means of enhancing the modulation methods. EDGE will use three bits per symbol instead of the one-bit type symbol as in GPRS, thus increasing the data rates. Higher data rates dont fit in 16 kbit/s channels used by TRX. 32, 48, 64 or 80 kbit/s Abis links are needed Fixed Abis allocation of such links would be expensive and would lack flexibility. The Dynamic Abis Pool is a shared extra Abis resource for EGPRS channels. To use EGPRS at the site, Dynamic Abis Pool (DAP) has to be created at the Abis Interface. This pool help us to achieve high data rates in EGPRS. This pool can be of variable size depending upon user/traffic calculations. DAP timeslots are also referred to as Extra Nibble Timeslots or Slave Timeslots.

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Coding Schemes in GPRS & EDGE A higher coding scheme has higher coding rate, and consequently higher peak throughput, but it also tolerates less noise or interference.

Several Coding Schemes help in achieving optimized throughput in all type of radio conditions.

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Abis Mapping of TRXs and Dynamic Abis Timeslots


TSL 0

One master time slot In case data rate does not fit into 16kbit/s time slot => always allocate straightly 4*16kbit/s from the "pool"

Example: 16k permanent + 4*16k in the pool

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

TRX 1 BTS 1 TRX 2 BTS 1 TRX 1 BTS 2 TRX 2 BTS 2 TRX 3 BTS 2

TRX 1 BTS 3
TRX 1 BTS 4 TRX 2 BTS 4

POOL

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Optimisation at Network Interfaces

Interface/Device
Radio Abis PCU

What to look at interface/device


Reserved & Switchable Timeslots Extra Nibble Ts/Dynamic Abis Pool/64K TRAU PCU Capacity in terms of Timeslots, TRXs and cells.

Gb
SGSN (Huawei) Gn/Gi GGSN

Gb Utilization
UGBI Card Utilization, Attach Success Rate Gn and Gi BW and Utilization PDP Context Activation Success Rate, IP Pool Utilization

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GPRS Radio Capacity GPRS Radio Capacity can be divide into three types: 1. Reserved/Dedicated Capacity

2. Switchable/Dynamic Capacity
3. Additional/Upgraded Capacity

Additional Capacity is referred to timeslots that are above and beyond the Reserved + Switchable Capacity.

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GPRS and GSM Resource Sharing


TRX 1 TRX 2
BCCH SDCCH TS TS TS TS TS TS

Circuit Switched Territory Packet Switched Territory

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

TS

Additional GPRS Capacity

Dedicated/Reserved GPRS Capacity Default (Switchable+Reserved) GPRS Capacity

Territory border moves Dynamically based on both Circuit and Packet Switched traffic load Circuit Switched traffic has priority

Packet Switched territories are defined for each cell GPRS territories consist of consecutive timeslots

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Attach & Detach in GPRS GPRS attach User is registered in SGSN, after authentication check from HLR. Subscriber Information is downloaded from the HLR to the SGSN
Attach Request Attach Accepted

GPRS detach Disconnection of MS from GPRS network is called GPRS detach It can be initiated by MS or by network(SGSN or HLR)

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Session Management Mobile Station applies for PDP address For each session PDP context is created & it contains

PDP addressed assigned to MS Address of GGSN that serves specific access point.

With active PDP context only, MS will be able to send or receive data packets. Allocation of PDP address can be static or dynamic.

PDP Context Request 155.131.33.55

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PDP Context Activation - 1

(1) MS sends "Activate PDP Context Request" to HLR BTS BSC SGSN (2) SGSN checks against HLR SS7

2.

1.
APN= "Intranet.Ltd.com"

SGSN
DNS GPRS Backbone IP Network

Access Point
GGSN

Intranet

Internet
Access Point Name = Reference to an external packet data network the user wants to connect to
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PDP Context Activation 2: Finding the GGSN

(1) SGSN gets the GGSN IP address from DNS (2) SGSN sends "Create PDP Context Request" to GGSN

BTS

BSC

SGSN

1.
GPRS Backbone IP Network

DNS

2.

Access Point
GGSN

Intranet

Internet
DNS = Domain Name System = mechanism to map logical names to IP addresses
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PDP Context Activation 3: Access Point Selection

Access Point Name refers to the external network the subscriber wants to use BTS BSC

SGSN
DNS GPRS Backbone IP Network GGSN Internet APN= "Intranet.Ltd.com"

Intranet

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PDP Context Activation 4: Context Activated

User (dynamic) IP address allocated (1) GGSN sends "Create PDP Context Response" back to SGSN BTS BSC (2) SGSN sends "Activate PDP Context Accept" to the MS

2.
SGSN

GPRS Backbone IP Network GGSN Intranet

1.
Internet

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GPRS Mobile States


GPRS Attach/ Detach

Idle

Ready
Packet

Standby

TX/RX MS location known to

MS location known to MS location not known. SGSN level. MS is capable of recieving Point-to-Multipoint data and being paged for Point-to-Point data

cell level. MS is transmitting or has just been transmitting. MS is capable of receiving Point-to-Point data and Point-to-Multipoint data.

Subscriber is not
reachable by the GPRS NW.

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For any questions please write to: www.alcatel-lucent.com Hemal.Doshi@alcatel-lucent.com

Thanks

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