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Traditional vs. Non-Traditional

Traditional vs. Non-Traditional

Traditional Teaching and Learning

Traditional instruction has focused on memorization or what we call surface

knowledge. -teacher-dominated -textbooks and lectures -maintaining the “good behavior”

Because the specifics of instruction are always tied to larger • Instruction has shifted to a

Because the specifics of instruction are always tied to larger

Instruction has shifted to a more cognitive approach, away from

understanding and purposes, we believe teachers must help their

memorizing information to meaningful learning (Caine and Caine,

students see the meaning of new information by using non-

1995).

.

traditional methods (Caine and Caine, 1995).

importance of patterning

we resist learning isolated bits of information

• Carl Jung’s work is the basis of learning styles. From his work on the nature

Carl Jung’s work is the basis of learning styles. From his work on the

nature and structure of the human psyche, came the concept that the

healthy personality has four developed functions: sensing, intuition,

thinking and feeling (Shields).

Jung argued that a well-balanced person draws on these four functions on a regular basis but that each function is influenced by the psychic attitude

of each person: introversion or extroversion (Shields).

A learning style is a way of learning. YOUR preferred learning style is the way in which YOU learn best.

• A learning style is a way of learning. YOUR preferred learning style is the way

Auditory Visual Tactile/Kinesthetic

Three main learning styles (Silverman, 2006)

VISUAL,, AUDITORY

VISUAL,

VISUAL

AUDITORY,, KINESTHETIC

AUDITORY,

KINESTHETIC

KINESTHETIC (tactile)

(tactile)

(tactile)

VISUAL,, AUDITORY VISUAL, VISUAL AUDITORY,, KINESTHETIC AUDITORY, KINESTHETIC KINESTHETIC (tactile) (tactile) (tactile) • Visual Learners learn

Visual Learners learn

Auditory Learners

Tactile/Kinesthetic

best when information

learn best when

Learners learn best

is presented in a

information is

in hands-on learning

written language

presented in an

settings in which they

format or in another

auditory language

can physically

visual format such as

format.

manipulate

pictures or diagrams.

something in order to

learn about it.

VAK INVENTORY

• Determine the styles present for the students and the teacher, by using self-reporting inventories that

Determine the styles present for the students and the teacher, by using self-reporting inventories that assess learning traits:

The VAK Learning Styles Test The VARK Questionnaire

Though the teacher has his/her preferred learning style, incorporating the other learning styles into their teaching means that the teacher can ensure the learning of all students. (Haar, Hall, Schoepp, & Smith).

Research:

Students could achieve higher academic success if the initial instruction is provided in a manner consistent with each students learning style (Caldwell & Ginthier, 1996)

Teaching to a student’s style, teaching with styles in mind, and teaching students about learning styles,
Teaching to a student’s style, teaching with styles in mind, and teaching students about learning styles,

Teaching to a student’s style, teaching with styles in mind, and teaching students about learning styles, can help teachers ensure the success of all the students in their classrooms (Silverman, 2006).

Learning styles give the teacher more options than just the traditional approach of presenting the material.

• Other Types of Learning Styles (Silverman, 2006): • Mastery Learners • Understanding-Intuitive Learners • Self-Expressive

Other Types of Learning Styles (Silverman, 2006):

Mastery Learners

Understanding-Intuitive Learners

Self-Expressive Learners

• There are study skills associated with the three main learning styles (Cell, 1984): – Visual

There are study skills associated with the three main learning styles

(Cell, 1984):

Visual

Auditory

Kinesthetic/Tactile

Auditory Study Skills (Hannon, 2000) -Recording classes/discussion instead of note taking -Narration/Description -Speaking Assignments Visual Study

Auditory Study Skills (Hannon, 2000) -Recording classes/discussion instead of note taking -Narration/Description -Speaking Assignments

Visual Study Skills (Fry, 1999)

-Pictures

-Creating mental images -Video tape classes instead of taking notes

Kinesthetic Study Skills (Cell, 1984) -Taking notes -Projects -Creative homework -Internet homework

• Use treatments of disorders adapted for use as study skills (Nevid et al): -Down Syndrome/Autistic

Use treatments of disorders adapted for use as study skills (Nevid et

al):

-Down Syndrome/Autistic Spectrum

-Dyslexia

-ADHD

-Deafness

• Incorporate visual, auditory, and kinesthetic study skills into teaching (Dunn & Griggs, 2000) – Use

Incorporate visual, auditory, and kinesthetic study skills into teaching (Dunn & Griggs, 2000)

Use visual aids

Handouts/demonstrations

Projectors

Tapes

Videos

Projects

Self-driven homework assignments

Student taught lessons

• Is what you’re doing working and how can you tell (Dunn & Griggs, 2000)? –

• Is what you’re doing working and how can you tell (Dunn &

Griggs, 2000)?

Look at the before and after picture of the class

Use assessment tools

Try new ideas and techniques

Have others come in to observe

– Don’t always tell them why, but have them reason it out

Ask the students their opinion

References

Caine, R. N., & Caine, G.(1995). Reinventing school through brain- based learning. Educational Leadership, 52(8), 43-50.

Caldwell, G. P, & Ginthier, D. W.(1996). Differences in learning styles of low socioeconomic status for low and high achievers. Education, 117(1), 141-147.

Cell, Edward (1984). Learning to Learn From Experience. Albany State University of New York Press.

Dunn, R. S. & Griggs, S.A.(2000). Practical Approaches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Fry, Ronald W. (1999). The Great Big Book of How to Study. Franklin Lakes, N.J.: The Career Press.

Hannon, Peter (2000). Reflecting On Literacy in Education. Master Classes in Education Series. London; New York Routledge.

Nevid, J. S., Rathus, S. A., Greene, B. (2005). Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World (Rev. ed.). Pearson Education, Inc, NJ.

Nunn, G. D.(1995). Effects of a learning styles and strategies intervention upon at-risk middle school students’ achievement and locus of control. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 22(1),

34-39.

Shields, C. J. (1993). Learning Styles: Where Jung, the Beatles, and schools intersect. Curriculum Review; 33 (2), 4-9.

Silverman, F. (2006) Learning styles: want to have teachers reach every student? Think seeing, feeling, touching. District Administration, 42(9), 70-72.