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BIOLOGY

STPM 2009 PAPER 2

SECTION A
1a) X: Chloroplast Y: Vacuole b) P: Glucose Q: PEP /phosphoenol pyruvate R: malate

CAM plants vs C4 plants

Involves one cell type/ mesophyll cells only// Krants anatomy absent

Carbon fixation from atmosphere occurs at night


Involves chloroplast and vacuole Stomata/lenticles open at night

Involves two cell types/ mesophyll and bundle sheath// Krantz anatomy present Carbon fixation from atmosphere occurs during the day and night Involves chloroplast only Stomata open during the day and night

Section A
1d) (i) reduce water loss/transpiration during the day//adaptation to/ can withstand arid condition//carbon fixation more efficient (ii) pineapple/ cactus/ orchid/ dragon fruit

Section A
2a) A: glycolysis B: Lactate/ Lactic acid fermentation C: Alcohol/ alcoholic fermentation D: Krebs/TCA/ Tricarboxylic acid/ Citric acid cycle E: Electron transport chain/ETC/Electron transport system// oxidative phosphorylation Note: spelling must be correct

Section A
2b) A: in cytoplasm/cytosol D: in mitochondrial matrix/ mitochondria matrix c) 22 ATP d) NADH/reduced NAD+ cannot be oxidized oxygen is the final electron/proton acceptor

Section A
3a) (i) as solutes in plasma/by dissolving in plasma// carbonic acid in the plasma (ii) by binding to protein portion of haemoglobin// as carbaminohaemoglobin (iii) as bicarbonate ions/HCO3- in the plasma

Section A
b) the diffusion of chloride ions into the erythrocyte (from the plasma) - to maintain electrical neutrality/ balance electrochemical charge c) (i) Enzyme A: carbonic anhydrase (ii) CO2 + H20 H2C03 H+ + HC03-

Section A
3d) combine with CO2 to form carbaminohemoglobin decreasing the acidity/ increasing the pH - to combine with H+/proton forming HHb/ haemoglobinic acid decrease the acidity/ increasing the pH

Mutant anticodon vs Mutant mRNA codons


5-ACG-3 5-AUU-3 5-AUC-3 5-UUG-3 5-CUG-3 5-AAG-3 5-AGG-3 5-AUA-3

5-CGU-3 5-AAU-3 5-GAU-3 5-CAA-3 5-CAG-3 5-CUU-3 5-CCU-3 5-UAU-3

Section A
4b) 5-CAA- 3 and 5-CAG-3 - One amino acid can be coded by more than one codon// several codons encode for one amino acid

Section B 5(a)
Starch The bond links glucose monomers Linked by -1,4 bonds for linear structure Linked by -1,6 bonds for branched structure Cellulose The bond links glucose monomers Linked by -1,4 bonds for linear structure -1,6 bonds are absent

5(a)(ii) why are the differences are biological important


Starch: Forming storage polysaccharide Insoluble in water//does not affect the osmotic pressure water potential// osmotically inactive Helical/branched structure//compact// space saving The bond can be digested by amylase

5(a)(ii) why are the differences are biological important

Cellulose: Forming structurl polysaccharide of (cell wall) Unbranched/linear structure forming microfibril Tensile strength The bond can be digested by cellulase

5b) The role of carbohydrate in membrane


i) ii) iii)

iv)
v)

Conjugate with lipid/forming glycolipid Conjugate with protein/forming glycoprotein Glycolipid/glycoprotein for tissue recognition// self recognition// cell to cell recognition Glycolipid/glycoprotein for cell adhesion Glycolipid/glycoprotein act as receptor on target organ

6. The process of transcription/ RNA synthesis


Diagram: Initiation (promoter, RNA polymerase, DNA) Elongation (RNA exit, DNA open, polarity of mRNA) Termination (all structures detached) Bonus: 1 mark for all correct/all 3 correct

6. The process of transcription/ RNA synthesis


Description of transcription: i) It is the process by which RNA is synthesised ii) Using DNA as a template//only one of the strands is transcribed iii) Transcription proceeds/RNA molecules is synthesised in the 5 3 direction iv) The process involves 3 stages: initiation, elongation and termination

6. The process of transcription/ RNA synthesis


Initiation: v) RNA polymerase recognise and binds to the promoter vi) Near the transcription start site/beginning of the gene// DNA strands unwind

6. The process of transcription/ RNA synthesis


Elongation: vii) RNA polymerase travels/moves along the DNA template viii) Catalysing the addition of polymerising RNA nucleotides one at a time ix) Complementary to the DNA template// the newly synthesise RNA strand begins to separate from the template (after about the 10-12 nucleotide are synthesised)

6. The process of transcription/ RNA synthesis


Termination: x) The RNA polymerase encounters/meets/ reaches a terminator/stop sequence xi) RNA transcript is released// RNA polymerase detaches from DNA// the two DNA strands reform/rewind

7a) the role of liver in the metabolism of protein


The role of liver: i) Protein is broken down into amino acids ii) The excess amino acid is brought to the liver for removal/regulation iii) Removal/regulation of excess amino acid is by deamination and transamination

7a) the role of liver in the metabolism of protein


In deamination (iv) The amino group is removed from the amino acid (v) The amino group/ammonia then enters the ornithine cycle (vi) If then combine with carbon dioxide (produced by the Krebs cycle) (vii) And converted to urea

7a) the role of liver in the metabolism of protein


In transamination (viii) An amino group from one amino acid is transferred to other organic acid (ix) To form other amino acid (x) Which will be used for synhesis of plasma protein/albumin/globulin/prothrombin

7a) the role of liver in the metabolism of protein


The non-nitrogenous (xi) The non-nitrogenous part of amino acid/ organic acid/keto acids/the remaining carbon chain enters glycolysis/Krebs cycle (xii) Converted to carbohydrates/energy production (xiii) Some will be converted to fat

7(b)The Cori cycle and its function in the metabolism of carbohydrates


(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

The function of Cori cycle is to convert lactate to glucose Lactate/lactic acid produed in the muscle is brought to the liver In the liver, lactate/lactic acid is converted to pyruvate Pyruvate is converted to glucose via gluconeogenesis

7(b)The Cori cycle and its function in the metabolism of carbohydrates


(v) Glucose is returned to the muscle (vi) Glucose is converted to pyruvate through glycolysis (vii) Pyruvate is converted to lactate under anaerobic condition

8(a) interaction of phytochromes in flowering


(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

(vii)

Phytochromes present in the (young) leaf/ leaves Stimulated by light Exist in two forms Pr/R and Pfr/FR Pfr/FR is the active form of pytochrome Day light/red light converts Pr/R to Pfr/FR the process is rapid (dependent on point (v)) In darkness/in shade/at sunset far red light converts Pfr/FR to Pr/R

8(a) interaction of phytochromes in flowering


(viii) The process is slow (dependent on point (vii)) (ix) High Pfr/FR /low Pr (ratio) promotes flowering in long day/short night plants// inhibits flowering in short day/long night plants (x) High Pr/R//low Pfr/FR (ratio) promotes flowering in short day/long night plants// inhibits flowering in long day/short night plants (xi) Pfr/FR converts precursors to florigen (xii) Florigen is translocated to flowering part/ organ/buds

8(b) the involvement of hormones in an apical dominance


(i)

(ii)

(iii) (iv)

The presence of a growing apical bud inhibits the growth Controlled by the interaction of several hormones Auxin produced by the shoot Auxin inhibits the growth of lateral bud// promotes apical growth

8(b) the involvement of hormones in an apical dominance


(v) Gibberelins enhance the action of auxin//gibberellins and auxin work synergistically (vi) Cytokinin is produced by the root (vii) cytokinin promotes the growth of lateral bud/inhibit apical growth (viii) Gibberellins is produced by the apical portion of stem and root

Assumptions that maintain the HardyWeinberg equilibrium


large population* sampling error and other random effects negligible//no effect of genetic drift (dependent on*) (ii) No mutation** no creation/formation of new allele (dependent on**)
(i)

Assumptions that maintain the HardyWeinberg equilibrium


(iii) No migration*** no gene flow (dependent on***) (iv) No natural selection**** all genotype/phenotype have equal change of survival (dependent on****) (v) Random mating***** equal reproductive potential/chance to mate (dependent on*****)

9(b) Phenylketonuria- genetic disorder


(i)

(ii)

(iii)
(iv) (v)

(vi)
(vii)

p represents the dominant allele frequency// q represents the recessive allele frequency P2 + 2pq + q2 = 1// p+q = 1 q2 = 1/15000 = 0.000067 q= 0.000067= 0.0082/0.00816 p= 1-0.0082=0.9918/0.992 Carriers=2pq=2X0.9918X0.0082 = 0.0163/ 0.0162 15000 X 0.0163 = 244/245/242

10(a) Procedure of quadrat sampling


1. 2.

3. 4.

(i) Procedure of quadrat sampling Quadrat of chosen size Laid down randomly//systematically placed (along the transect) Count all individuals in the quadrat Extrapolate the average count/parameters of the whole study area

10(a)(ii) requirement for reliable estimates


1.

2.

3.

The population of each quadrat examined must be determined accurately The size/area and shape of quadrat must be consistent The quadrat counted must be represented of the whole area

10(b)(i) procedure of capture-recapture technique


1. 2.

3.

4.

Applicable for mobile animals Animal captured, recorded/counted/ calculate, marked and released (at time 1) Animal will be captured again and recorded/ counted/calculate for marked and unmarked animals (at time 2) Estimate total population size = marked animals in 1st sample x total animal caught in 2nd sample marked animals in 2nd sample

10(b)(ii) assumptions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

Random mixing of animals within the population Closed population//no migration//no emigration and/or immigration//no changed in population size Sufficient time must elapse between capture and recapture Marking does not hinder movement/change behavior/endangered of the marked animals/ permanent No losses/mortality No natality during sampling period Marked and unmarked animals are captured randomly