Anda di halaman 1dari 54

The Endocrine System

B. Pimentel, M.D.
Univeristy of Makati
College of Nursing
Functional Organization

• Endocrine system are composed of glands that secrete

chemical signals into the circulatory system.
• Endocrine Glands – secret chemicals into the body.
• Hormones – secretory products of endocrine glands,
chemical signal
• Ligand – chemical signal of the hormone.
– Produced in small quantities by a group of cells.
– Secreted into the interstitial space
– Enters circulatory system, where it is transported
– Enters a target tissue, where it imparts an influence on the
function of that tissue.
Nervous and Endocrine System

Amplitude Modulated Signals

• Hormones secreted by most endocrine glands

• Either an increase or decrease in hormone secretion

• Concentration of the hormone in the circulatory has a

direct response on the target tissue
Nervous and Endocrine System

Frequency Modulated Signals

• All or none principal of the nervous system

• Low frequency or low action potential will result in a

weak signal

• Strong action potential will result in a strong response

to the stimulus.
Nervous and Endocrine System


• Endocrine system often has a slower and longer

duration of action on target tissues and is more
generally distributed throughout the body.
• Nervous system faster response and shorter duration
than the endocrine system

• Neurohormones released by neurons secrete into the
circulatory system and function similar to endocrine
• Some neurons directly innervate endocrine glands
and influence the secretory activity.
Intercellular Chemical Signals

Intercellular Description Example

Autocrine Secreted by cells in a local area and Prostaglandins
influences the activity of the same
cell type from which it was secreted.

Paracrine Produced by a range of tissues and Histamine

secreted into tissue spaces; usually Prostaglandin
has a localized effect on other tissue.  

Hormone Secreted into the blood by specialized Thyroxine,

cells, travels some distance to target Insulin
tissues, influences specific activities.
Intercellular Chemical Signals

Intercellular Description Example

Chemical Signals

Neurohormone Produced by axons and function Oxytocin,

as hormones Antidiuretic
Neurotransmitter Produced by neurons and Acetylcholine
or secreted into the extracellular Epinephrine
neuromodulator space by presynaptic nerve
terminals, travels short distances,
influences post synaptic cells.
Pheromone Secreted into the environment, Sex pheromones
modifies physiology and
behavior of other individuals.
Structural Categories of Hormones
Category Examples
Proteins Growth hormone, Prolactin, Insulin
Glycoprotein Follicle stimulating hormone
Lutenizing hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormones
Parathyroid hormone
Polypeptides Thyrotropin releasing hormones
Antidiuretic hormone
Adrenocorticotropin hormone
Melanocyte stimulating hormones
Hypothalamic hormones
Structural Categories of Hormones

Category Examples

Amino Acid derivatives Epinephrine

Thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)

Lipids Estrogens
Steroids (cholesterol Progestins
precursor) Testosterone
Structural Categories of Hormones

Category Examples

Lipids Prostaglandins
Fatty acid Thromboxanes
Regulation of Hormones

1. Non Hormonal Regulation of Hormone secretion.

Glucose a carbohydrate in the blood stream regulates
the secretion of insulin (hormone).

a.    Increased blood glucose stimulates increased insulin

secretion from the pancreas.

b.     Insulin increases uptake of glucose by cells, which

decreases levels of glucose in the blood.
Regulation of Hormones

2.  Nervous system regulation of hormonal secretion.

The sympathetic division of the nervous system. The
adrenal gland secretes epinephrine or Norepinephrine
(fight or flight).

a.    Stimuli such as stress or exercise activates the

sympathetic nervous system.

b.    Neurons stimulate the release of epinephrine and

smaller amounts of Norepinephrine from the adrenal
Regulation of Hormones

3.   Hormonal regulation of hormone secretion.

Hormones can stimulate or inhibit the secretion of
other hormones.

a.    Thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) is released from

neurons in the hypothalamus and travels in the blood to the
anterior pituitary gland.

b.    TRH stimulates the release of thyroid stimulating

hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland. TSH
travels in the blood to the thyroid gland.
Regulation of Hormones

c.    TSH stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormones

(T3 & T4) from the thyroid gland into the blood stream.

d.    Thyroid hormones act on tissues.

e. Thyroid hormones also have a negative feed back

effect on the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary to
inhibit both TRH and TSH secretion. This negative feed
back helps keep blood thyroid hormone levels within a
normal range.  
Transport and Distribution

• Hormones are dissolved in blood plasma and

transported either in a free form or bound to a plasma

• As the concentration of the free form hormone in the

blood increases, they will diffuse to target cells.

• As the concentration of the free form hormone

decreases there are decreased diffusion, and fewer
target cells affected.
Transport and Distribution

• Hormones that are bound to plasma proteins are in

equilibrium with the free form hormone.

• Each hormone will have a specific plasma protein

• Hormones bound to plasma proteins remain at a

relatively constant concentration.

• A large decrease in the plasma protein concentration

can result in the loss of a free form hormone from the
Binding to Target Cells

1. Binding site – portion of a protein or glycoprotein

where a Ligand will bind

2. Receptor Site – a protein or glycoprotein receptor,

where the receptor site allows only a specific type of
Ligand to bind.

3. Specificity – the tendency for each type of Ligand to

bind to a specific type of receptor, and not others.
Binding to Target Cells
Binding to Target Cells

4. Membrane bound receptors – receptors for ligands

that span across the plasma membrane and have their
receptor sites exposed extracellularly.
– Examples; large hormones that are proteins glycoproteins,
polypeptides, and some smaller molecules such as
epinephrine and Norepinephrine.

5. Intracellular receptors – are for lipid soluble ligands

that can pass through the plasma membrane.
Example; thyroid, testosterone, estrogen,
progesterone, aldosterone, and cortisol.
Binding to Target Cells
Down Regulation

• The rate at which receptors are synthesized decreases

in some cells after exposure to a Ligand.

• The combination of ligands and receptors can increase

the rate at which the receptor molecules are degraded.

• Tissues that exhibit down regulation of receptor

molecules are adapted to respond to short-term
increases of the hormone concentration.
Down Regulation

– Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which is released
from neurons of the hypothalamus → secretion of LH
(leutinizing hormone) and follicle stimulating hormone
(FSH) from the anterior pituitary cells → number of GnRH
receptors molecules in the pituitary to decrease several hours
after exposure to the hormone
Up Regulation

• Periodic increases in the sensitivity of some cells to


• Increase of receptor molecule synthesis.

– increased number of receptor molecules for leutinizing
hormone (LH) in cells of the ovary during each menstrual
cycle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) molecules secreted
by the pituitary increase the rate of LH receptor molecule
synthesis in cells of the ovary.
Pituitary Gland

• 1cm. Diameter, 0.5 to 1.0 grams.

• Located on the sella turcica, inferior to the
hypothalamus and is connected to it by a stalk of
tissue the infundibulum.
• Divided into two functioning parts
– Posterior Pituitary or Neurohypophysis
• Continuous with the brain
– Anterior Pituitary or Adenohypophysis
Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland

Communication of the Pituitary and the Brain

• Hypothalamohypophysial Portal System – extends

from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.

• Act as either releasing hormones – increasing

secretion of the anterior pituitary, or inhibiting
hormones – decreasing the secretions of anterior
pituitary hormones
Pituitary Gland

Stimulating Hormone Inhibiting Hormone Effects

Thyroid-stimulating Release of thyroid

hormone releasing stimulating hormone
hormone (TRH)
Corticotropin-releasing Release of
hormone (CRH) adenocorticotropic
hormone (ACTH)

Growth-hormone Release of growth

releasing hormone hormone
Growth-hormone Inhibits the release of
inhibiting hormone growth hormone
Pituitary Gland

Stimulating Hormone Inhibiting Hormone Effects

Somatostatin Inhibits the release of

growth hormone

Gonadotropin-releasing Release of luteinizing

hormone (GnRH) hormone (LH) and
Follicle stimulating
hormone (FSH)

Prolactin-inhibitory Inhibits prolactin

factor secretion
Pituitary Gland

Hormones Target Tissue Response


Antidiuretic Kidney Increased water

Hormone reabsorption
Oxytocin Uterus, mammary Increased uterine
glands contractions, increased
milk expulsion
Pituitary Gland

Hormones Target Tissue Response


Growth Most tissues Increased; growth in

Hormone tissues, amino acid uptake
and protein synthesis,
breakdown of lipids and
release of fatty acids,
glycogen synthesis, blood
glucose levels, and
somatomedin production.
Pituitary Gland

Hormones Target Tissue Response

Thyroid Thyroid gland Increased thyroid hormone

stimulating secretion
Hormone (TSH)

Adrenocorticotr Adrenal cortex Increased glucocorticoid

opic Hormone hormone secretion

Lipotropins Fat tissue Increased fat breakdown

Pituitary Gland

Hormones Target Tissue Response

Beta endorphins Brain Analgesia in the brain,

inhibition of gonadotropin
releasing hormone

Melanocyte Melanocytes Increased melanin

Stimulating production to make skin
Hormone (MSH) darker

Luteinizing Ovaries Ovulation and progesterone

Hormone (LH) Testes production in ovaries;
testosterone synthesis and
support for sperm cell
production in testes
Pituitary Gland

Hormones Target Tissue Response

Follicle Follicles in ovaries in Follicle maturation and

Stimulating females; seminiferous estrogen secretion in
Hormone (FSH) tubules in males ovaries; sperm cell
production in males
Prolactin Ovaries and mammary Milk production in
glands lactating women; increased
response of follicle to LH
and FSH.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

• Transported to and stored in the posterior pituitary.

• Released in blood stream to the kidneys.

• Functions in the regulation of osmolality and volume

of the extracellular fluid.

• Stimulates smooth muscle cells of the uterus.

• Responsible for milk ejection in lactating females.

Thyroid Gland

• Location: lateral to the superior portion of the trachea just

inferior to the larynx.

• Gross Anatomy: two lobes connected by a narrow band of

thyroid tissue called the isthmus.

• Histology: numerous follicles, which are small spheres,

composed of simple cuboidal epithelium. The center of each
follicle is filled with thyroglobulin to which thyroid hormones
are bound. Parafollicular cells are found between follicles and
produce and secrete Calcitonin.
Thyroid Gland

• Triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) target most
cells of the body.
• Calcitonin targets bone tissue.

– TSH from the anterior pituitary must be present to maintain thyroid

hormone synthesis and secretion.
Thyroid Gland

Thyroid Hormone Synthesis

Iodide trapping in the follicular cells → iodide is

oxidized to iodine → released in to the follicular
colloid → combines with thyroglobulin → mono/di-
iodotyrosine (MIT, DIT) → triiodotyrosine (T3),
thyroxine (T4) bound to thyroglobulin → re-enters the
follicule cells by pinocytosis → split by lysosomes
from thyroglobulin → free T3 and T4
Thyroid Gland (Regulation)




Ant. pituitary


Thyroid gland Negative Feedback

T3/ T4

Target organ
Thyroid Gland (Regulation)
Parotid Glands

• Location: embedded in the posterior part of each lobe

of the thyroid gland. Four parathyroid glands are

• Histology: cells are organized in densely packed

Parotid Glands

• Hormone: Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium

levels in body fluids. Targets bone, kidneys, and

• Stimulates osteoclast activity in bone and can cause

the number of osteoclasts to increase.

• Increases calcium reabsorption in the kidneys

• The primary regulation for secretion of PTH is blood

calcium levels.
Vit. D, Kidneys and Parathyroid Gland

↓ (liver) Inhibition
↓ (kidney) Activation Parathyroid hormone

Intestinal epithelium Inhibition

Intestinal absorption of calcium

Plasma calcium concentration
Adrenal Glands

• Location: superior poles of the kidneys.

• Gross Anatomy: surrounded by abundant adipose

tissue, enclosed in connective tissue and have a well
developed vascular supply. They are composed of an
inner medulla and an outer cortex

• Histology: the medulla consists of closely packed

polyhedral cells centrally located in the gland
Adrenal Glands
Adrenal Glands

• Adrenal Medulla
– Epinephrine and Norepinephrine. Target tissues are heart,
blood vessels, liver and fat cells.

• Adrenal Cortex
– Three types: Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids, and
Adrenal Glands

• Mineralocorticoids – aldosterone is the in the greatest

amount. Increases blood levels of sodium by
increasing the rate of sodium reabsorption in the
kidneys. Increases potassium secretion.

• Glucocorticoids – major one is cortisol. Targets many

cells and tissues. Increase fat catabolism, decrease
glucose and amino acid uptake in skeletal muscle,
increase gluconeogenesis, and increase protein
degradation. Also responsible for maturation of fetal

• Androgens – androstenedione, stimulates pubic and

axillary hair growth and sexual drive in females.
Adrenal Glands
Adrenal Steroid Synthesis



Progesterone 17-OH-Pregnenolone


Aldosterone Cortisol Androgen

Regulation Of Cortisol Sercretion



Ant. pituitary

ACTH Adrenal cortex Negative Feedback


• Location: between the greater curvature of the

stomach and the duodenum.

• Gross Anatomy: elongated structure approx. 15 cm

long. The head of the pancreas lies near the
duodenum, and its body and tail extend toward the

• Histology: the pancreas is both an exocrine

and endocrine gland. The exocrine portion
contains acini, which produce pancreatic
enzymes, and a duct to the small intestine.
The endocrine portion is composed of
pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans). These
islets contain alpha, beta, and delta cells.

Cells in Hormone Target tissue Response


Beta Insulin Liver, skeletal Increased uptake and use

muscle, adipose of glucose and amino
tissue acids.

Alpha Glucagon Liver Increased breakdown of

glycogen, release of
glucose into the circulatory
Delta Somatostatin Alpha and beta Inhibition of insulin and
cells glucagon secretion