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NRC-IRAQ

Presented By: Rakesh Bhatiya + Jhony Mackenzie.


Sealing-Refinery applications.
Sealing Hydrocarbons

What does a oil refinery do ???

Crude oil is a cocktail of various different hydrocarbons.


The typical compound of crude oils is:
83 - 87 wt % Carbon
11 - 15 wt % Hydrogen
0,1 - 7 wt % Sulphur
0,06 - 1,5 wt % Oxygen
0,1 - 0,5 wt % Nitrogen and other compounds

Crude oil cannot be used directly in modern applications


>>> it needs to be refined!
Sealing Hydrocarbons

What does a oil refinery do ???


Refineries transform crude oil into different end-products
by applying physical, physical-chemical and chemical processes.

The long molecule chains of crude oil are split (cracked) into shorter
molecule chains or are re-arranged to form new products.
Principle of a refinery

Main units of a refinery

Crude oil storage tanks

Distillation

Crackers

De-sulphurisation

Naphta Reformer

LPG units

Ready products
Principle of a refinery

Crude Oil tank farm

Storgage of the incoming crude oil

De-salination, pre-heating of crude oil

Transport to first process stage: atmospheric + vacuum distillation


Principle of a refinery

Atmospheric + Vacuum distillation

Seperating the crude oil in:

light >>> LPG, gas


middle >>> Oil, Naptha
heavy >>> Bitumen, tar
...fractions by means of :

high temperature and atmospheric pressure (atm. distillation)

and

moderate temperature and reduced pressure (vacuum distillation)


Principle of a refinery

Thermo - Catalytic - Hydro Crackers

Separated fractions + heavy fractions from the distillation are split


(cracked) into finer sub-fractions be means of:

Thermal cracking >>> high temperatures, no longer common

Catalytic cracking >>> high temperatures + catalysator powder


which has semi-liquid (fluid) characteristics
(FCC = Fluid Catalytic Cracking)
Good yield of high-octane fuel

Hydrocracking >>> moderate temperatures + Hydrogen


Most sophisticated crack-process
Principle of a refinery

De-sulphurisation

Sulphur is an undesired compound in mineral-oil based


hydrocarbons. It can be found in elementary form or as H2S.

It must be removed from the hydrocarbons to receive pure end-


products. Modern environmental protection laws e.g. require low-
sulphur fuels.
H2S is extremely toxic and must be removed.
Principle of a refinery

Naptha Reformer

The pre - stage of gasoline is called Naptha. Naptha or crude


Benzine is not yet suitable to run modern gasoline engines as it
contains a very low octane rate.

Modern gasoline needs to have an octane rate of 91 -98. This is


achieved in Naptha Reformer units.

Katalytic reforming is commonly applied today. Platinium is used as


catalyst - hence the idiom „Platforming“ is commonly used.
Principle of a refinery

Waste products

Refineries produce considerable amounts of non-desired waste


products, which need to be disposed, transformed processed.

Waste gas: characteristic for all refineries are the burning flare
stacks. Here, waste gas is being burnt.

Coking: The residue products (bottom product) is coked


which means superheating under high pressure and
no oxygen. Coke can be used as solid fuel material.

Calcination: Coke can be fully incinerated - creating calcinate.


This material is used in the electronics industry to
make electrodes etc.
Sealing Hydrocarbons

How to seal
Hydrocarbons
echanical seals - principles

Most common seal types in refineries:

puscher – type seals with spring Burgmann


loaded unit and dynamic o-ring
H75

Burgmann
metal bellows seals for
high temperature applications MFL85N
MFLWT80

but:
a refinery also offers low-duty applications where
standard cartridge seals
such as Cartex or Mtex are perfectly suitable.

> so: don‘t forget to look out for these


echanical seals - principles

basic seal arrangements and layouts:

single seal

single seal with quench

double seal – unpressurised buffer fluid

double seal – pressurised barrier fluid

whatever seal arrangement – they all have one thing in commo

> all seals are desigend as ready-to-install cartridge seals !


ic seal arrangements and layouts:

Single seal flush connection +


multipoint injection

balanced seal design

dynamic o-ring

low emission principle:


„V“ means support ring
under the carbon face
ic seal arrangements and layouts:
same design features as
Single seal with quench single seal + additionally:

quench connection port

floating throttle bushing


ic seal arrangements and layouts:

Single seal with quench


pose of a quench:
ute and remove leakage
event deposits on atmospheric side of the seal
ep away air (oxygen) from leaked media in order to prevent oxid
.g.: hot oil will create coke sediments when in contact with air)
ep the seal cool or hot

Typical quench media in


refineries:
Purpose Quench media
Prevent coking of hot oil Nitrogen or steam
Cooling the seal Cool liquid, diesel, oil
Heating the seal Hot steam
Removing deposits, Clean liquid which will dilute
cleaning the seal the deposits
ic seal arrangements and layouts:

Double Seal
flush connection +
buffer fluid IN
multipoint injection buffer fluid OUT

product side (inboard) sealatmospheric side (outboard) seal


ic seal arrangements and layouts:
Double seal – unpressurised buffer fluid
higher product lower buffer atmospheric
pressure (p1) pressure (p3) pressure (p2)

p3 = p2

leakage of media into the buffer fluid


leakage of buffer fluid into the atmosphere

Consequences:
- media will accumulate in the buffer fluid
-TS vessel level will rise
- Traces of media will get contact with the atmosphere
ic seal arrangements and layouts:
Double seal – pressurised barrier fluid
product higher barrier atmospheric
pressure (p1) pressure (p3) pressure (p2)

p1 < p3 >p2 p3 = p2

leakage of barrier fluid into media


leakage of barrier fluid into the atmosphere
Consequences:
- barrier fluid will escape into the media
-TS vessel level will drop
- Visible leakage on atmospheric side
will be only clean barrier fluid
cret: the most common API Plans in refineries

API Plan 11 Description: Flush

Layout: Pipe from


pump discharge
through 3 mm
orifice to stuffing box
chamber

Purpose: Cooling,
diluting gas ring,
preventing
vaporisation

Common applications:
Flashing
hydrocarbon
Media which tends
cret: the most common API Plans in refineries

API Plan 02 Description:Dead End

Layout: Connection
port, plugged

Purpose: For customer‘s


determination

Common applications:
where plan 11 will
cause
problems:
high temperature and
high content of solids
cret: the most common API Plans in refineries

API Plan 62 Description: Quench

Layout: Introduction of clean fluid betwe


atmospheric end of seal and throttle
bushing

Purpose: Diluting and removing leakage


deposits
Cooling & heating of seal
preventing coking of hot oil

Common applications:
Hot oil
Bitumen / tar
media with solids
cret: the most common API Plans in refineries

API Plan 52 Description: Pressureless buffer fluid

Layout: Circulation of buffer fluid throu


a pressureless TS vessel

Purpose: Lubricating the 2nd backup sea


Diluting leakage
Monitoring seal behaviour
(leakage, failure)
Improving lubrication of seal

Common applications:
Media with poor lubricity
Harmful media
cret: the most common API Plans in refineries

API Plan 53A Description: pressurised barrier fluid


circulation through TS
vessel

Layout: TS vessel pressurised


with Nitrogen

Purpose: Media may not leak towards


the atmosphere. Media must be
kept inside pump

Common applications:
Media with high content of solids
Dangerous Media
Media with very poor lubricity
cret: the most common API Plans in refineries

API Plan 53B Description: pressurised barrier fluid


circulation through TS
vessel

Layout: TS vessel pressurised


with bladder accumulator

Purpose: Media may not leak towards


the atmosphere. Media must be
kept inside pump

Common applications:
Media with high content of solids
Dangerous Media
Media with very poor lubricity
cret: the most common API Plans in refineries

Description: pressurised barrier fluid


circulation through pressure
API Plan 53C
transmitter (DRU)

Layout: seal pressurised


by DRU pressure transmitter

Purpose: Media may not leak towards


the atmosphere.
Pressure difference between
product and atm. side very high

Common applications:
Media with high content of solids
Dangerous Media
Very high pressure
cret: the most common API Plans in refineries

API Plan 54 Description: pressurised barrier fluid


circulation through external
supply system

Layout: Seal connected with external


supply system (SPA)

Purpose: Media may not leak towards


the atmosphere. Media must be
kept inside pump

Common applications:
Media with high content of solids
Dangerous Media
Media with very poor lubricity
aterials for refinery seals

Seal Faces
 Clean medium:
Carbon, antimony impregnated <> Silicon Carbide
(Buko 03 <> Buka 22)
 Medium containing solids:
Silicon Carbide <> Silicon Carbide (Buka 22 <> Buka
22)

Secondary Sealing Elements


 Chemical resistance > usually Viton is suitable for
most HC.
However, never use EPDM (not resistent to mineral
oils)!
 Temperature range. Most Elastomers are limited at
180°C - 200°C.

Construction Materials
eal selection in refineries

1) knowing the media:

 name,
 vapour pressure,
 density (spec. gravity),
 viscosity,
 hazards,
 solids,
 corrosive?
eal selection in refineries

2) Temperature
range
< - 40°C: Metal bellows seal with Graphite
secondary seals (MFLCT80)

- 40°C to + 220°C : Pusher-type o-ring seal (e.g. H75)

+ 220°C to + 300°C: Standard metal bellows seals


(e.g. MFL85, Mtex)

> +300°C : Metal bellows seal with Graphite


secondary seals (MFLWT80)
eal selection in refineries

3) Pressure

 suction, discharge, stuffing box

 the margin between stuffing box pressure


and vapour pressure of media shall be
approx. 2 bar
H75 type seals have a pressure limit of approx. 40 bar
MFL type seals are limited to 25 bar.
eal selection in refineries

• density – spec. gravity – spec.


weight > lubricity

is the media in liquid phase at all times – or


is there a risk of dry running?
If vapour pressure is not indicated, this will
give a rough
Density kg/m³
estimation, which seal
Seal Type
arrangement is suitable:
>750 Single
750– 650 Single, withmultipointinjection(Plan11)
650– 550 Doubleseal, pressureless buffer fluid(Plan52)
<550 Doubleseal, pressurisedbarrier System(Plan53)
eal selection in refineries

5) sliding velocity

most process pumps in refineries have a speed of


approx. 2950 rpm.
More important than the rpm is the resulting sliding
velocity of the
calculating the sliding velocity in m/s:
mechanical seal.
mean diameter of the seal face X rpm X 3,14
60.000

> In most cases, seal max. velocity is 25 m/s


ISO/NP21049
(API 682, 2nd Edition)
Scope
ISO / NP 21049 - General

ISO / NP 21049

is guideline
a

the
forminimum requirement
for

Shaft
Sealing Systems
for
Centrifugal
and
Rotary Pumps

usedin
petroleum
natural
,
gas and chemical industry
Scope
ISO / NP 21049 - General

ISO / NP 21049 covers shaft


seals for diameters

from 20 mm (0,75 in)

to 110 mm (4,3 in)


Scope
ISO / NP 21049 – Seal categories

Category 1
For non-
ISO 13709SealChambers

Temperatures from
-40 °C (-40 °F) to 260 °C (500 °F)

AbsolutePressures
up to 22 bar (315
psi)
Scope
ISO / NP 21049 – Seal categories

Category 2
For
ISO 13709SealChambers
(Table 1 only)

Temperatures from
-40 °C (-40 °F)
400to °C (750 °F)

AbsolutePressuresup to
42 bar (615
psi)
Scope
ISO / NP 21049 – Seal categories

Category 3
Must meet
specification
full (incl. documentation)

For
ISO 13709SealChambers
(Table 1 only)

Temperatures from
-40 °C (-40 °F)
400to°C (750 °F)

AbsolutePressuresup to
42 bar (615
psi)
Scope
ISO / NP 21049 – Seal types

Type A

• Balanced
internally
• - - mounted
•cartridge
• pusher
m
• ultiple springs
• flexible
element rotating
secondary
• sealing by elastomer o-rings
Scope
ISO / NP 21049 – Seal types

Type B

• Balanced

internally- mounted
•cartridge
• non-pushermetal
( )
bellows
• flexible
element rotating
secondary
• sealing by elastomer
o-rings
Scope
ISO / NP 21049 – Seal types

Type C

• Balanced
internally
• - mounted
•cartridge
• non-pusher metal
( )
bellows
• flexible
element stationary
secondary
• sealingflexible
by graphite
Scope
ISO / NP 21049 – Seal arrangements

ISO / NP 21049 covers 3 Arrangements:

Arrangement 1: one seal per


cartridge assembly

Arrangement 2: two sealsper


cartridge assembly
with
a containment
seal chamber at pressure
less
than the seal
chamber pressure

Arrangement 3: two sealsper


cartridge assembly
with externally supplied barrier
fluid
Scope
ISO / NP 21049 – Sealing methods

ISO / NP 21049 covers 3 Designs:

• Contacting Wet Seals (CW)

• Non-contacting Seals (wet or dry, NC)

• Containment Seals
(contacting or non-contacting, CS)
Scope
ISO / NP 21049 – Sealing methods

ISO / NP 21049 covers 3 orientations for


Arrangements 2 & 3:

• Face-to-Back
(arr.2 default selection & arr. 3 wet seals)

• Back-to-Back
(arr. 3 default for gas seals; option for wet seals)

• Face-to-Face
(arr.3 optional selection for wet or gas seals)
ISO / NP 21049 – design requirements

Materials
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3
Mech. Seal Face Carbon Carbon Carbon
Mating Ring SSSiC RBSiC RBSiC
(Buka 22) (Buka 20) (Buka 20)
Hard / Hard SSSiC/ RBSiC/ RBSiC/
SSSiC RB SiC RBSiC
Secondary elements Fluoroelastomer
Perfluoroelastomer
(altern.: TFE, Nitrile ..)
Flexible graphite
Springs Alloy C-276 or Alloy C-4
(single: SS 316 or 1.4571)
Bellows Alloy C.276 (Type B)
Alloy 718 (Type C)
Sleeves SS 316 or 1.4571
Housing SS 316 or 1.4571
BURGMANN Mechanical Seal Type

H75 Type A Arrangement 1


API 682 Code: C2A1A1161

Pressure: 0... 42bara /


580psia
Temperature
: -40 °C .. +180°C
-40°F.. +350°F
Speed: 20 m / 65,6ft.
persecond
BURGMANN Mechanical Seal Type

H75K & H75F Type A Arrangement 2 or 3


API 682 Code:
C2A2A1152 or
C2A3A1153

Pressure0... 42 bara /
580psia
Temperature
: -40°C .. +180°C/
-40° F.. +350°F
Speed: 20 m / 65,6ft . per
second
BURGMANN Mechanical Seal Type

MFL85N Type B Arrangement 1

API 682 Code: C2A1B1161

Pressure: 0... 25bara/ 365psia

Temperature
: -40
°C / +180°C
-40°F /+350°F

Speed
: 20 m/ 65,6 .ftper sec.
BURGMANN Mechanical Seal Type

MFL85N + MFL85F Type B Arrangement 2 and 3

API 682 Code: C2A2B1152 or


C2A3B1153

Pressure: 0... 25 bara


0 ..365psia

Temperature
: -40
°C .. +180°C
-40°F..+ 350°F

Speed: 20m/s
65,6 ft
. per sec
BURGMANN Mechanical Seal Type

MFL65 Type C Arrangement 1

API 682 Code:


C2A1C0262

Pressure: 0...25bara/
362,5psia

Temperature
: -20°C / +400°C
-4°F / 752°F

Speed: 50 m /164.ftper sec.


MFL

MFL
MFL

Design of a MFL-seal
While common pusher-seals are built-up
by a large number of single parts, the
MFL-Seal contains only very few
components:
Bellows unit stationary seat

sec. seal
Bellows unit
Stationary seat
Secondary seals

set screw secondary seal


MFL

Design of a Bellows Unit

bellows carrier metal bellows seal face housing seal face


MFL
Advantages

• No blocking of the shaft seal

The spring-loaded mechanical seal is The MFL-Seal is equipped with a static


blocked by deposits at the dynamic shaft seal. Therefore no blocking of the
O-ring and therefore unable to self-align. rotating seal due to deposits will occur.

• No wear of the shaft


• Self-cleaning bellows
• Balanced arrangement
• High-temperature applications
• Compact design
MFL

Bellows - Types

• Membrane bellows (lamella bellows)

Unlike rolled metal


bellows, membrane
bellows consist of multiple
membrane leaves which
are welded at the inner
and outer diametric
edges.

Cross-section of a Burgmann
membrane bellows
MFL
Balanced at Internal & External Pressurization

AH Dual Operation
A internally pressurized
p3 > p1
d Hi

AH Tandem or single
operation
A
externally pressurized
d Ha

p3 < p1
 The MFL tandem dual seal is either used with pressurized barrier
fluid or with unpressurized buffer fluid
 The seal remains closed even if barrier pressure breaks down
 Advantage: max. operational reliability is provided in case barrier
pressure break down is not discovered at once
MFL Seal Classification

MFL Seals

Rotating bellows unit Stationary bellows unit

standard engineered standard engineered

MFL85N
MFLS (low temperature)
MFLWT80S MFL65

MFLWT80 (MFLW80) MFLCT80


(high temperature) (low temperature)
MFLW81S MFLS
(shaft sealing) (Aerospace)

MTEX
MFL Seal Types

• Basic model of the MFL series


MFL85N
• Fitting dimensions acc. to DIN 24960
• Balanced even on a plain shaft
• External- and internal pressurization
(positively retained stationary seat required at
internal pressurization)
• Amplitude limitation in order to avoid cracking
of bellows in case of undue radial excentricity
(e.g. flashing hydrocarbons)

1.1 Seal face with bellows unit


1.2 O - ring
1.3 Set screw
2. Stationary seat
3. O - ring
MFL Seal Types

MFL85F • Dimensions, positions, designation, and

properties identical to MFL85N


- however additionally equipped with
pumping screw.

1.1 Seal face with bellows unit


1.2 O - ring
1.3 Set screw
1.4 Pumping screw
2. Stationary seat
3. O - ring
MFL Seal Types

MFLW(T)80

Operating Limits:

d 1= 16 ... 100 mm vg = 15 m/s (50ft/s)


(0,6 ... 3,9")

p 1= 25 bar (360 psi) t = - 20°C ... + 400°C


(- 4°F ... + 752°F)
MFL Seal Types

MFL65 - API 682 Operating Limits:


d1 = 16 ... 100 mm
(0,6 ... 3,9 ")

p1 = 25 bar (360 psi)

t = - 20°C ... + 400°C


(- 4°F ... +752°F)

vg = 50 m/s (165 ft/s)


MFL85 - Stationary Seats

MFL85N/dw-00

MFL85N/dw-G16

MFL85N4/dw-00

MFL85N/dw-G82

MFL85N/dw-G320

MFL85N/dw-G60

MFL85N/dw-GX
MTEX - Cartridge Concept

MTEX
MTEX - Cartridge Concept

MTEX - SO x

x  Single seal
 Balanced
 Independent of direction
of rotation
 Cover without supply
connections ("dead-end")
 Sturdy design
Burgmann Total Seal Care Program – Middle East
References

2. ARAMCO - Riyadh Refinery, KSA


3. ISO Octane Refinery – Dubai
4. KNPC – MAB Refinery, Kuwait
5. ADCO – Abu Dhabi
6. Total E&P Qatar
7. Maersk Oil Qatar
8. Borouge- Abudhabi
9. Sohar Refinery.

Note : Scope of the contract is suited to the needs /


wants of the Customer.