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AN INTRODUCTION TO

CHEMICAL
EQUILIBRIUM

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING
KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
INTRODUCTION
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CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

CONTENTS
• Concentration change during a chemical reaction
• Dynamic equilibrium
• Equilibrium constants
• Le Chatelier’s Principle
• Haber process
• Acid - base theories
• Strong acids and bases
• Weak acids and bases
• Reactions of hydrochloric acid
• Check list
CONCENTRATION CHANGE IN A REACTION

As the rate of reaction is dependant on the concentration of reactants... the forward


reaction starts off fast but slows as the reactants get less concentrated

FASTEST AT
THE START

THE STEEPER THE SLOWS DOWN


GRADIENT, THE AS REACTANTS
FASTER THE REACTION ARE USED UP

TOTAL
CONVERSION
In an ordinary reaction; all reactants end TO PRODUCTS
up as products; there is 100% conversion
EQUILIBRIUM REACTIONS

Initially, there is no backward reaction but, as products form, it speeds up and


provided the temperature remains constant there will come a time when the backward
and forward reactions are equal and opposite; the reaction has reached equilibrium.

FASTEST AT THE START


NO BACKWARD REACTION

FORWARD REACTION SLOWS DOWN


AS REACTANTS ARE USED UP

BACKWARD REACTION
STARTS TO INCREASE

In an equilibrium reaction, not all the


reactants end up as products; there is not a
100% conversion.
AT EQUILIBRIUM THE BACKWARD
BUT IT DOESN’T MEAN THE REACTION AND FORWARD REACTIONS ARE
IS STUCK IN THE MIDDLE EQUAL AND OPPOSITE
DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

IMPORTANT REMINDERS

• a reversible chemical reaction is a dynamic process


• everything may appear stationary but the reactions are moving both ways
• the position of equilibrium can be varied by changing certain conditions

Trying to get up a “down” escalator gives an excellent idea of a non-chemical


situation involving dynamic equilibrium.
DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

IMPORTANT REMINDERS

• a reversible chemical reaction is a dynamic process


• everything may appear stationary but the reactions are moving both ways
• the position of equilibrium can be varied by changing certain conditions

Trying to get up a “down” escalator gives an excellent idea of a non-chemical


situation involving dynamic equilibrium.

Summary When a chemical equilibrium is established ...

• both the reactants and the products are present at all times

• the equilibrium can be approached from either side

• the reaction is dynamic - it is moving forwards and backwards

• the concentrations of reactants and products remain constant


THE EQUILIBRIUM LAW

Simply states
“If the concentrations of all the substances present at equilibrium are raised to the
power of the number of moles they appear in the equation, the product of the
concentrations of the products divided by the product of the concentrations of the
reactants is a constant, provided the temperature remains constant”

There are several forms of the constant; all vary with temperature.

Kc the equilibrium values are expressed as concentrations of mol dm-3

Kp the equilibrium values are expressed as partial pressures

The partial pressure expression can be used for reactions involving gases
THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT Kc

for an equilibrium reaction of the form...

aA + bB cC + dD

then (at constant temperature) [C]c . [D]d = a constant, (Kc)

[A]a . [B]b

where [ ] denotes the equilibrium concentration in mol dm-3


Kc is known as the Equilibrium Constant
THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT Kc

for an equilibrium reaction of the form...

aA + bB cC + dD

then (at constant temperature) [C]c . [D]d = a constant, (Kc)

[A]a . [B]b

where [ ] denotes the equilibrium concentration in mol dm-3


Kc is known as the Equilibrium Constant

Example         Fe3+(aq) + NCS¯(aq) FeNCS2+(aq)

Kc = [ FeNCS2+ ] with units of dm3 mol-1

[ Fe3+ ] [ NCS¯ ]
THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT Kc

for an equilibrium reaction of the form...

aA + bB cC + dD

then (at constant temperature) [C]c . [D]d = a constant, (Kc)

[A]a . [B]b

where [ ] denotes the equilibrium concentration in mol dm-3


Kc is known as the Equilibrium Constant

VALUE OF Kc
AFFECTED by a change of temperature

NOT AFFECTED by a change in concentration of reactants or products


a change of pressure
adding a catalyst
LE CHATELIER’S PRINCIPLE

”When a change is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, the


system reacts in such a way as to oppose the effect of the change.”

Everyday example
A rose bush grows with increased vigour after it has been pruned.

Chemistry example
If you do something to a reaction that is in a state of equilibrium, the equilibrium
position will change to oppose what you have just done
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
CONCENTRATION

The equilibrium constant is not affected by a change in


concentration at constant temperature. To maintain the
constant, the composition of the equilibrium mixture changes.

If you increase the concentration of a substance, the value of


Kc will theoretically be affected. As it must remain constant at
a particular temperature, the concentrations of the other
species change to keep the constant the same.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
CONCENTRATION

example CH3CH2OH(l) + CH3COOH(l) CH3COOC2H5(l) + H2O(l)

the equilibrium constant Kc = [CH3COOC2H5] [H2O] = 4 (at 298K)


[CH3CH2OH] [CH3COOH]
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
CONCENTRATION

example CH3CH2OH(l) + CH3COOH(l) CH3COOC2H5(l) + H2O(l)

the equilibrium constant Kc = [CH3COOC2H5] [H2O] = 4 (at 298K)


[CH3CH2OH] [CH3COOH]

increasing
[CH3CH2OH] - will make the bottom line larger so Kc will be smaller
- to keep it constant, some CH3CH2OH reacts with CH3COOH
- this reduces the value of the bottom line and increases the top
- eventually the value of the constant will be restored
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
CONCENTRATION

example CH3CH2OH(l) + CH3COOH(l) CH3COOC2H5(l) + H2O(l)

the equilibrium constant Kc = [CH3COOC2H5] [H2O] = 4 (at 298K)


[CH3CH2OH] [CH3COOH]

increasing
[CH3CH2OH] - will make the bottom line larger so Kc will be smaller
- to keep it constant, some CH3CH2OH reacts with CH3COOH
- this reduces the value of the bottom line and increases the top
- eventually the value of the constant will be restored

decreasing
[H2O] - will make the top line smaller
- some CH3CH2OH reacts with CH3COOH to replace the H2O
- more CH3COOC2H5 is also produced
- this reduces the value of the bottom line and increases the top
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
CONCENTRATION

example CH3CH2OH(l) + CH3COOH(l) CH3COOC2H5(l) + H2O(l)

the equilibrium constant Kc = [CH3COOC2H5] [H2O] = 4 (at 298K)


[CH3CH2OH] [CH3COOH]

increasing
[CH3CH2OH] - will make the bottom line larger so Kc will be smaller
- to keep it constant, some CH3CH2OH reacts with CH3COOH
- this reduces the value of the bottom line and increases the top
- eventually the value of the constant will be restored

decreasing
[H2O] - will make the top line smaller
- some CH3CH2OH reacts with CH3COOH to replace the H2O
- more CH3COOC2H5 is also produced
- this reduces the value of the bottom line and increases the top
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM

SUMMARY

REACTANTS PRODUCTS

THE EFFECT OF CHANGING THE CONCENTRATION ON THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM


INCREASE CONCENTRATION OF A REACTANT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE RIGHT

DECREASE CONCENTRATION OF A REACTANT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE LEFT

INCREASE CONCENTRATION OF A PRODUCT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE LEFT

DECREASE CONCENTRATION OF A PRODUCT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE RIGHT


FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM

SUMMARY

REACTANTS PRODUCTS

THE EFFECT OF CHANGING THE CONCENTRATION ON THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM


INCREASE CONCENTRATION OF A REACTANT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE RIGHT

DECREASE CONCENTRATION OF A REACTANT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE LEFT

INCREASE CONCENTRATION OF A PRODUCT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE LEFT

DECREASE CONCENTRATION OF A PRODUCT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE RIGHT

Predict the effect of increasing the concentration of O2 on the equilibrium position

2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

Predict the effect of decreasing the


concentration of SO3 on the equilibrium position
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM

SUMMARY

REACTANTS PRODUCTS

THE EFFECT OF CHANGING THE CONCENTRATION ON THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM


INCREASE CONCENTRATION OF A REACTANT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE RIGHT

DECREASE CONCENTRATION OF A REACTANT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE LEFT

INCREASE CONCENTRATION OF A PRODUCT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE LEFT

DECREASE CONCENTRATION OF A PRODUCT EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO THE RIGHT

Predict the effect of increasing the concentration of O2 on the equilibrium position

2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO RHS

Predict the effect of decreasing the


concentration of SO3 on the equilibrium position EQUILIBRIUM MOVES TO RHS
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
PRESSURE

When studying the effect of a change in pressure, we consider the number of gaseous
molecules only.

The more particles you have in a given volume, the greater the pressure they exert.
If you apply a greater pressure they will become more crowded (i.e. they are under a
greater stress). However, if the system can change it will move to the side with fewer
gaseous molecules - it is less crowded.

No change occurs when equal numbers of gaseous molecules appear on both sides.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
PRESSURE

When studying the effect of a change in pressure, we consider the number of gaseous
molecules only.

The more particles you have in a given volume, the greater the pressure they exert.
If you apply a greater pressure they will become more crowded (i.e. they are under a
greater stress). However, if the system can change it will move to the side with fewer
gaseous molecules - it is less crowded.

No change occurs when equal numbers of gaseous molecules appear on both sides.

THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM


INCREASE PRESSURE MOVES TO THE SIDE WITH FEWER GASEOUS MOLECULES
DECREASE PRESSURE MOVES TO THE SIDE WITH MORE GASEOUS MOLECULES
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
PRESSURE

When studying the effect of a change in pressure, we consider the number of gaseous
molecules only.

The more particles you have in a given volume, the greater the pressure they exert.
If you apply a greater pressure they will become more crowded (i.e. they are under a
greater stress). However, if the system can change it will move to the side with fewer
gaseous molecules - it is less crowded.

No change occurs when equal numbers of gaseous molecules appear on both sides.

THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM


INCREASE PRESSURE MOVES TO THE SIDE WITH FEWER GASEOUS MOLECULES
DECREASE PRESSURE MOVES TO THE SIDE WITH MORE GASEOUS MOLECULES

Predict the effect of an increase of pressure on the equilibrium position of..


2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

H2(g) + CO2(g) CO(g) + H2O(g)


FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
PRESSURE

When studying the effect of a change in pressure, we consider the number of gaseous
molecules only.

The more particles you have in a given volume, the greater the pressure they exert.
If you apply a greater pressure they will become more crowded (i.e. they are under a
greater stress). However, if the system can change it will move to the side with fewer
gaseous molecules - it is less crowded.

No change occurs when equal numbers of gaseous molecules appear on both sides.

THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM


INCREASE PRESSURE MOVES TO THE SIDE WITH FEWER GASEOUS MOLECULES
DECREASE PRESSURE MOVES TO THE SIDE WITH MORE GASEOUS MOLECULES

Predict the effect of an increase of pressure on the equilibrium position of..


2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) MOVES TO RHS :- fewer gaseous molecules

H2(g) + CO2(g) CO(g) + H2O(g) NO CHANGE:- equal numbers on both sides


FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
TEMPERATURE

• temperature is the only thing that can change the value of the equilibrium constant.
• altering the temperature affects the rate of both backward and forward reactions
• it alters the rates to different extents
• the equilibrium thus moves producing a new equilibrium constant.
• the direction of movement depends on the sign of the enthalpy change.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
TEMPERATURE

• temperature is the only thing that can change the value of the equilibrium constant.
• altering the temperature affects the rate of both backward and forward reactions
• it alters the rates to different extents
• the equilibrium thus moves producing a new equilibrium constant.
• the direction of movement depends on the sign of the enthalpy change.

REACTION TYPE ∆Η INCREASE TEMP DECREASE TEMP


EXOTHERMIC - TO THE LEFT TO THE RIGHT
ENDOTHERMIC + TO THE RIGHT TO THE LEFT
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
TEMPERATURE

• temperature is the only thing that can change the value of the equilibrium constant.
• altering the temperature affects the rate of both backward and forward reactions
• it alters the rates to different extents
• the equilibrium thus moves producing a new equilibrium constant.
• the direction of movement depends on the sign of the enthalpy change.

REACTION TYPE ∆Η INCREASE TEMP DECREASE TEMP


EXOTHERMIC - TO THE LEFT TO THE RIGHT
ENDOTHERMIC + TO THE RIGHT TO THE LEFT

Predict the effect of a temperature increase on the equilibrium position of...

H2(g) + CO2(g) CO(g) + H2O(g) ∆Η = + 40 kJ mol-1

2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) ∆Η = - ive


FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
TEMPERATURE

• temperature is the only thing that can change the value of the equilibrium constant.
• altering the temperature affects the rate of both backward and forward reactions
• it alters the rates to different extents
• the equilibrium thus moves producing a new equilibrium constant.
• the direction of movement depends on the sign of the enthalpy change.

REACTION TYPE ∆Η INCREASE TEMP DECREASE TEMP


EXOTHERMIC - TO THE LEFT TO THE RIGHT
ENDOTHERMIC + TO THE RIGHT TO THE LEFT

Predict the effect of a temperature increase on the equilibrium position of...

H2(g) + CO2(g) CO(g) + H2O(g) ∆Η = + 40 kJ mol-1 moves to the RHS

2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) ∆Η = - ive moves to the LHS


FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
CATALYSTS

Catalysts work by providing an alternative reaction


pathway involving a lower activation energy.

MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION
NUMBER OF MOLECUES WITH

OF MOLECULAR ENERGY
A PARTICULAR ENERGY

EXTRA MOLECULES
WITH SUFFICIENT
ENERGY TO
OVERCOME THE
ENERGY BARRIER

MOLECULAR Ea
ENERGY
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
CATALYSTS

An increase in temperature is used to speed up chemical reactions but it can have an


undesired effect when the reaction is reversible and exothermic.

In this case you get to the equilibrium position quicker but with a reduced yield because
the increased temperature moves the equilibrium to the left.

In many industrial processes a compromise temperature is used (see Haber and Contact
Processes). To reduce the problem one must look for a way of increasing the rate of a
reaction without decreasing the yield i.e. with a catalyst.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM
CATALYSTS

An increase in temperature is used to speed up chemical reactions but it can have an


undesired effect when the reaction is reversible and exothermic.

In this case you get to the equilibrium position quicker but with a reduced yield because
the increased temperature moves the equilibrium to the left.

In many industrial processes a compromise temperature is used (see Haber and Contact
Processes). To reduce the problem one must look for a way of increasing the rate of a
reaction without decreasing the yield i.e. with a catalyst.

Adding a catalyst DOES NOT AFFECT THE POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM. However, it


does increase the rate of attainment of equilibrium. This is especially important in
reversible, exothermic industrial reactions such as the Haber or Contact Processes
where economic factors are paramount.
HABER PROCESS

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) : ∆Η = - 92 kJ mol-1

Conditions Pressure 20000 kPa (200 atmospheres)


Temperature 380-450°C
Catalyst iron
HABER PROCESS

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) : ∆Η = - 92 kJ mol-1

Conditions Pressure 20000 kPa (200 atmospheres)


Temperature 380-450°C
Catalyst iron

Equilibrium theory favours


low temperature exothermic reaction - higher yield at lower temperature
high pressure decrease in number of gaseous molecules
HABER PROCESS

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) : ∆Η = - 92 kJ mol-1

Conditions Pressure 20000 kPa (200 atmospheres)


Temperature 380-450°C
Catalyst iron

Equilibrium theory favours


low temperature exothermic reaction - higher yield at lower temperature
high pressure decrease in number of gaseous molecules

Kinetic theory favours


high temperature greater average energy + more frequent collisions
high pressure more frequent collisions for gaseous molecules
catalyst lower activation energy
HABER PROCESS

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) : ∆Η = - 92 kJ mol-1

Conditions Pressure 20000 kPa (200 atmospheres)


Temperature 380-450°C
Catalyst iron

Equilibrium theory favours


low temperature exothermic reaction - higher yield at lower temperature
high pressure decrease in number of gaseous molecules

Kinetic theory favours


high temperature greater average energy + more frequent collisions
high pressure more frequent collisions for gaseous molecules
catalyst lower activation energy

Compromise conditions
Which is better? A low yield in a shorter time or
a high yield over a longer period.

The conditions used are a compromise with the catalyst


enabling the rate to be kept up, even at a lower temperature.
HABER PROCESS

IMPORTANT USES OF AMMONIA AND ITS COMPOUNDS

MAKING
FERTILISERS 80% of the ammonia produced goes to make fertilisers such as
ammonium nitrate (NITRAM) and ammonium sulphate

NH3 + HNO3 ——> NH4NO3

2NH3 + H2SO4 ——> (NH4)2SO4

MAKING
NITRIC ACID ammonia can be oxidised to nitric acid

nitric acid is used to manufacture... fertilisers (ammonium nitrate)


explosives (TNT)
polyamide polymers (NYLON)
ACIDS AND BASES

LEWIS THEORY

LEWIS ACID electron pair acceptor H+ , AlCl3

LEWIS BASE electron pair donor NH3 , H2O , C2H5OH , OH¯

e.g. H2O: H+ ——> H3O+


base acid

H3N: BF3 ——> H3N+— BF3¯ see co-ordinate bonding


base acid
ACIDS AND BASES

BRØNSTED-LOWRY THEORY

ACID proton donor HCl ——> H+(aq) + Cl¯(aq)

BASE proton acceptor NH3 (aq) + H+(aq) ——> NH4+(aq)


ACIDS AND BASES

BRØNSTED-LOWRY THEORY

ACID proton donor HCl ——> H+(aq) + Cl¯(aq)

BASE proton acceptor NH3 (aq) + H+(aq) ——> NH4+(aq)

Conjugate systems
Acids are related to bases ACID PROTON + CONJUGATE BASE

Bases are related to acids BASE + PROTON CONJUGATE ACID


ACIDS AND BASES

BRØNSTED-LOWRY THEORY

ACID proton donor HCl ——> H+(aq) + Cl¯(aq)

BASE proton acceptor NH3 (aq) + H+(aq) ——> NH4+(aq)

Conjugate systems
Acids are related to bases ACID PROTON + CONJUGATE BASE

Bases are related to acids BASE + PROTON CONJUGATE ACID

For an acid to behave as an acid, it must have a base present to accept a proton...

HA + B BH+ + A¯
acid base conjugate conjugate
acid base

example CH3COO¯ + H2O CH3COOH + OH¯


base acid acid base
STRONG ACIDS AND BASES

STRONG
ACIDS completely dissociate (split up) into ions in aqueous solution

e.g. HCl ——> H+(aq) + Cl¯(aq) MONOPROTIC 1 replaceable H


HNO3 ——> H+(aq) + NO3¯(aq)

H2SO4 ——> 2H+(aq) + SO42-(aq) DIPROTIC 2 replaceable H’s


STRONG ACIDS AND BASES

STRONG
ACIDS completely dissociate (split up) into ions in aqueous solution

e.g. HCl ——> H+(aq) + Cl¯(aq) MONOPROTIC 1 replaceable H


HNO3 ——> H+(aq) + NO3¯(aq)

H2SO4 ——> 2H+(aq) + SO42-(aq) DIPROTIC 2 replaceable H’s

STRONG
BASES completely dissociate into ions in aqueous solution

e.g. NaOH ——> Na+(aq) + OH¯(aq)


WEAK ACIDS

Weak acids partially dissociate into ions in aqueous solution

e.g. ethanoic acid CH3COOH(aq) CH3COO¯(aq) + H+(aq)

When a weak acid dissolves in


water an equilibrium is set up HA(aq) + H2O(l) A¯(aq) + H3O+(aq)

The water stabilises the ions

To make calculations easier


the dissociation can be written... HA(aq) A¯(aq) + H+(aq)
WEAK ACIDS

Weak acids partially dissociate into ions in aqueous solution

e.g. ethanoic acid CH3COOH(aq) CH3COO¯(aq) + H+(aq)

When a weak acid dissolves in


water an equilibrium is set up HA(aq) + H2O(l) A¯(aq) + H3O+(aq)

The water stabilises the ions

To make calculations easier


the dissociation can be written... HA(aq) A¯(aq) + H+(aq)

The weaker the acid the less it dissociates


the more the equilibrium lies to the left.

The relative strengths of acids can be expressed as Ka or pKa values

The dissociation constant for the weak acid HA is Ka = [H+(aq)] [A¯(aq)] mol dm-3
[HA(aq)]
WEAK BASES

Partially react with water to give ions in aqueous solution e.g. ammonia

When a weak base dissolves in water an equilibrium is set up

NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) NH4+ (aq) + OH¯ (aq)

as in the case of acids it is more simply written

NH3 (aq) + H+ (aq) NH4+ (aq)


WEAK BASES

Partially react with water to give ions in aqueous solution e.g. ammonia

When a weak base dissolves in water an equilibrium is set up

NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) NH4+ (aq) + OH¯ (aq)

as in the case of acids it is more simply written

NH3 (aq) + H+ (aq) NH4+ (aq)

The weaker the base the less it dissociates


the more the equilibrium lies to the left

The relative strengths of bases can be expressed as Kb or pKb values.


REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID

Is a typical acid in dilute aqueous solution HCl ——> H+ (aq) + Cl¯(aq)

Hydrogen chloride is a colourless


covalent gas; it is a poor conductor
of electricity because there are no
free electrons or ions present. It
has no action on dry litmus paper
because there are no aqueous
hydrogen ions present.
REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID

Is a typical acid in dilute aqueous solution HCl ——> H+ (aq) + Cl¯(aq)

Hydrogen chloride is a colourless If the gas is passed into water, the


covalent gas; it is a poor conductor hydrogen chloride molecules dissociate
of electricity because there are no into ions. The solution now conducts
free electrons or ions present. It electricity showing ions are present. For
has no action on dry litmus paper each hydrogen chloride molecule that
because there are no aqueous dissociates one hydrogen ion and one
hydrogen ions present. chloride ion are produced. The solution
turns litmus paper red because of the H+(aq)
ions.
REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID

Is a typical acid in dilute aqueous solution HCl ——> H+ (aq) + Cl¯(aq)

Hydrogen chloride is a colourless If the gas is passed into water, the


covalent gas; it is a poor conductor hydrogen chloride molecules dissociate
of electricity because there are no into ions. The solution now conducts
free electrons or ions present. It electricity showing ions are present. For
has no action on dry litmus paper each hydrogen chloride molecule that
because there are no aqueous dissociates one hydrogen ion and one
hydrogen ions present. chloride ion are produced. The solution
turns litmus paper red because of the H+(aq)
ions.
REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID

Is a typical acid in dilute aqueous solution HCl ——> H+ (aq) + Cl¯(aq)

HYDROGEN CHLORIDE HYDROCHLORIC ACID

colourless gas Appearance colourless soln.


covalent molecule Bonding aqueous ions
HCl(g) Formula HCl(aq)
poor Conductivity good
no reaction Dry blue litmus goes red
REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID

Is a typical acid in dilute aqueous solution HCl ——> H+ (aq) + Cl¯(aq)

Hydrogen chloride is a colourless If the gas is passed into water, the


covalent gas; it is a poor conductor hydrogen chloride molecules dissociate
of electricity because there are no into ions. The solution now conducts
free electrons or ions present. It electricity showing ions are present. For
has no action on dry litmus paper each hydrogen chloride molecule that
because there are no aqueous dissociates one hydrogen ion and one
hydrogen ions present. chloride ion are produced. The solution
turns litmus paper red because of the H+(aq)
Appearance Bonding ions.
and formula Conductivity Dry litmus
hydrogen chloride colourless gas covalent molecule HCl(g) poor no reaction
hydrochloric acid colourless soln. aqueous ions HCl(aq) good goes red
REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID
Metals magnesium + dil. hydrochloric acid ——> magnesium chloride + hydrogen

Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) ——> MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

1. WRITE OUT THE BALANCED EQUATION FOR THE REACTION


REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID
Metals magnesium + dil. hydrochloric acid ——> magnesium chloride + hydrogen

Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) ——> MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) ——> Mg2+(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) + H2(g)

• WRITE OUT THE BALANCED EQUATION FOR THE REACTION


• DILUTE ACIDS AND SALTS CONTAIN IONS; WATER, HYDROGEN & CARBON DIOXIDE DON’T
REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID
Metals magnesium + dil. hydrochloric acid ——> magnesium chloride + hydrogen

Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) ——> MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) ——> Mg2+(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) + H2(g)

cancel ions Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) ——> Mg2+(aq) + H2(g)

• WRITE OUT THE BALANCED EQUATION FOR THE REACTION


• DILUTE ACIDS AND SALTS CONTAIN IONS; WATER, HYDROGEN & CARBON DIOXIDE DON’T
• CANCEL OUT THE IONS WHICH APPEAR ON BOTH SIDES OF THE EQUATION
REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID
Metals magnesium + dil. hydrochloric acid ——> magnesium chloride + hydrogen

Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) ——> MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) ——> Mg2+(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) + H2(g)

cancel ions Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) ——> Mg2+(aq) + H2(g)

Basic
Oxides copper(II) oxide + dil. hydrochloric acid ——> copper(II) chloride + water

CuO(s) + 2HCl(aq) ——> CuCl2(aq) + H2O(l)

Cu2+O2-(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) ——> Cu 2+ (aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) + H2O(l)

cancel ions O2- + 2H+(aq) ——> H2O(l)


REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID
Alkalis sodium hydroxide + dil. hydrochloric acid ——> sodium chloride + water

NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) ——> NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Na+(aq) + OH¯(aq) + H+(aq) + Cl¯(aq) ——> Na+ (aq) + Cl¯(aq) + H2O(l)

cancel ions H+(aq) + OH¯(aq) ——> H2O(l)


REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID
Alkalis sodium hydroxide + dil. hydrochloric acid ——> sodium chloride + water

NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) ——> NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Na+(aq) + OH¯(aq) + H+(aq) + Cl¯(aq) ——> Na+ (aq) + Cl¯(aq) + H2O(l)

cancel ions H+(aq) + OH¯(aq) ——> H2O(l)

Carbonates calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid ——> calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water

CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) ——> CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Ca2+CO32-(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) ——> Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

cancel ions CO32- + 2H+(aq) ——> CO2(g) + H2O(l)


REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID
Alkalis sodium hydroxide + dil. hydrochloric acid ——> sodium chloride + water

NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) ——> NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

Na+(aq) + OH¯(aq) + H+(aq) + Cl¯(aq) ——> Na+ (aq) + Cl¯(aq) + H2O(l)

cancel ions H+(aq) + OH¯(aq) ——> H2O(l)

Carbonates calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid ——> calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water

CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) ——> CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Ca2+CO32-(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) ——> Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

cancel ions CO32- + 2H+(aq) ——> CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Hydrogen carbonates H+(aq) + HCO3¯ ——> CO2(g) + H2O(l)


REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID

SUMMARY

METALS react to give a salt + hydrogen

METAL OXIDES react to give a salt + water

METAL HYDROXIDES react to give a salt + water

CARBONATES react to give a salt + water + carbon dioxide

HYDROGENCARBONATES react to give a salt + water + carbon dioxide

AMMONIA reacts to give an ammonium salt


REVISION CHECK
What should you be able to do?

Understand how concentration changes during chemical reactions


Recall the the characteristics of dynamic equilibrium
Construct an expression for the equilibrium constant Kc
Recall the factors which can affect the position of equilibrium
Apply Le Chatelier’s Principle to predict changes in the position of equilibrium
Recall and explain the conditions used in the Haber process
Recall the importance of ammonia and its compounds
Recall the definitions of and differences between weak acids and bases
Recall the properties of hydrochloric acid and its role in salt formation

CAN YOU DO ALL OF THESE? YES NO


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