Anda di halaman 1dari 33

Process of Organizational Learning Characteristics of Learning Organizations

Learning is considered to be one of the fundamental

basis of human behavior. It takes place everywhere and throughout the entire existence of an individual. Its the modification of behavior as the result of past experiences. Learning represents a broad behavioral area that encompasses training, the acquisition of skills, education, management development or any other similar change or modification process.

What is Learning ?

Learning is change in behavior: Learning to avoid fire, to walk, to drive vehicle, memorize a lesson, etc all these activities are based on the occurrence of mechanism that produce a change or an act to modify behavior. Learning is any change in behavior, resulting from behavior Learning is an Organization of behavior: Learning is that activity by virtue of which we organize our response with new habits. Learning is the Re-inforcement of a New activity: Temporary changes are not learning, they are relatively permanent. Reinforcement helps in forming successful response and weeding out the unsuccessful ones.

There are two Schools of thought regarding learning.

Schools Of Thought

Stress on external factors (Change in behavior)

Stress on Internal factors (Change in perception of individual)

Integrating both views, Murphy states Learning can

be said as the modification of both behavior and the way of perceiving According to Hilgrad Learning is the process by which an activity originates or is changed through reacting to an encountered situation, provided that the characteristics of the change in activity cannot be explained on the basis of native response tendencies, maturity or temporary status of the organism

Factors Of Learning:
Set Or Learning to Learn Knowledge of Results


Types of Learning
1) Simple non-associative learning Habituation - In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition stimulus. Sensitization - Sensitization is an example of nonassociative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus

2) Associative learning - Associative learning is the process by which an element is taught through association with a separate, pre-occurring element. It is also referred to as classical conditioning. The typical paradigm for classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing an unconditioned stimulus with another previously neutral stimulus. Following conditioning, the response occurs both to the unconditioned stimulus and to the other, unrelated stimulus (now referred to as the "conditioned stimulus").

Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from Pavlovian Conditioning in that operant conditioning uses reinforcement/punishment to alter a behavior.
3) Observational learning - The learning process

most characteristic of humans is imitation; one's personal repetition of an observed behavior, such as a dance. Humans can copy three types of information simultaneously: the demonstrator's goals, actions and environmental outcomes.

4) Informal learning - Informal learning occurs through the experience of day-to-day situations (for example, one would learn to look ahead while walking because of the danger inherent in not paying attention to where one is going). It is learning from life, during a meal at table with parents, play, exploring, etc. 5) Formal learning - Formal learning is learning that takes place within a teacher-student relationship, such as in a school system.

6) Cognitive learning Cognition refers to an individual thoughts , knowledge interpretations, understanding or ideas about himself and his environment. The primary emphasis is on knowing, how events and objects are related to each other. Most of the learning that takes place in classroom is cognitive learning. It increases the chance that the learner will do the right thing first time.

7) Non formal learning - Nonformal learning is organized learning outside the formal learning system. For example: learning by coming together with people with similar interests and exchanging viewpoints, in clubs or in (international) youth organizations, workshops.

Learning Curves:
Learning is a not a continuous process. Some times

there is steady progress in learning, while at other times there is hardly any progress in learning.
Psychologists have been able to plot learning curves to

represent the performance of an individual or a group over a time or series of trials.

Acquisition Extinction Rest Reconditioning

Response strength

CS only
CS + UCS CS + UCS Spontaneous recovery CS only




Types Of Learning Curves

There are four types of learning curves

Decreasing Returns Curve 2. Increasing Returns Curve 3. S Learning Curve 4. Learning Plateau

Types Of Learning Curves

There are four types of learning curves

Decreasing Returns Curve 2. Increasing Returns Curve 3. S Learning Curve 4. Learning Plateau

Types Of Learning Curves

There are four types of learning curves 1. Decreasing Returns Curve

Increasing Returns Curve S Learning Curve 4. Learning Plateau

2. 3.

Types Of Learning Curves

There are four types of learning curves

Decreasing Returns Curve 2. Increasing Returns Curve 3. S Learning Curve 4. Learning Plateau







Organizational learning is a social process, involving interactions among many individuals leading to wellinformed decision-making It is an area of knowledge within organizational theory that studies models and theories about the way an organization learns and adapts In Organizational development, learning is a characteristic of an adaptive organization

Organizational learning is more than individual learning. Shifting from
individual to organizational learning involves a non-linear transformation. Once someone learns something, it is available for their immediate use. In contrast, organizations need to create, capture, transfer, and mobilize knowledge before it can be used. -The purpose of organizational learning often leans toward positive organizational change. -Arises through the interaction of individuals of groups and teams of different sizes -Needs the right environment to thrive, one that allows time for reflections on past actions and outcomes Human values and emotions play a significant role in effective organizational learning





Retention / Extinction


Components of learning process are:1.Drive :- Drive is any strong stimulus that impels action. It is the basis of motivation 2.Stimuli :- Stimuli are any objects or language which draw the attention of people. Employees get stimuli from the actions of their seniors. 3.Responses :- The stimulus results into responses which may be in physical form or in terms of attitudes, familiarity, perception or other complex phenomena

4.Reinforcement :-It is a fundamental condition of learning. Without reinforcement,no measurable modification of behaviours take place. Reinforcement may be defined as, environmental events effecting the probability of occurrence of responses with which they are associated 5.Retention :- The stability of learned behaviour over time is defined as retention and the converse is forgetting.

Learning Organizations
A learning Organization is one which is skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights. Gravin
Learning Organizations take proactive actions in the light of anticipated environmental changes. They emphasize on continuous organizational learning. It adopts Generative Learning, which is a double-loop learning that allows and encourages people to constantly question and test existing norms, beliefs, values, and even goals to ensure alignment with fast-changing environment.

Organizational Learning Vs Learning Organizations

Organizational learning can be defined as :A system of actions, symbols and processes that enables an organization to transform information into valued knowledge which in turn increases its long run adaptive capacity And

Learning organizations can be defined as :A learning organization is one that is able to change its behaviors and mind-sets as a result of experience


1.There exists a shared vision which everyone agrees on. 2. People discard their old ways of thinking and the standard routines they use for solving problems or doing their jobs. 3. Members think of all organizational processes, activities, functions, and interactions with the environment as part of a system of interrelationships. 4. People openly communicate with each other (across vertical and horizontal boundaries) without fear of criticism or punishment. 5. People sublimate their personal self interest and fragmented departmental interest to work together to achieve the organizations shared vision.

Learning Process has identifiable 3-stage Model :1. Knowledge Acquisition (Creation) 2. Knowledge Sharing 3. Knowledge Utilization

[I] Knowledge Acquisition

The development or creation of skills, insights, relationships

[II] Knowledge Sharing

The dissemination of what has been learned

[III] Knowledge Utilization

The integration of learning so it is broadly available and can be generalized to new situations

What managers do to make their firms learning organizations

1. Establish a strategy :- Management needs to make explicit commitment to change, innovation and continuous improvements. 2. Redesign the organizations structure :- The formal structure can be a serious impediment to learning. By flattening the structure, eliminating or combining departments and increasing the use of cross functional teams, interdependence is reinforced and boundaries between people are reduced.

3. Reshape the organizations culture: Learning organizations are characterized by risk taking oneness and growth. Management sets the tone for the organizations culture both by what it says (strategy) and what it does (behavior)

Lack of knowledge, skill, aptitude and favourable

attitude Psychological problems like fear and shy Heavy dependence on repetetion,demonstration and practice Unwilling to change Lack of interest about the knowledge of results Absence of self-motivation

Thank You