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Day 10 September 26th

Youtube Assignment #4 is now closed

Why is the treatment for cancer often considered as bad as the disease?

Sexual reproduction requires special cells made by meiosis.

gametes diploid haploid maintains


a stable genome size in a


achieves more than just a reduction in the amount of genetic material in gametes. have two copies of every gene!


Meiosis has two important features:

1. It reduces the amount of genetic material in gametes. (sperm and egg)

2. It produces gametes that all differ from each other with respect to the combinations of alleles they carry.

Sperm and egg are produced by meiosis: the details, step-by-step.

Mitosis occurs almost everywhere in an animals body. Meiosis only occurs in one place. Where?

Meiosis starts with a diploid cell.


homologous pair, or homologues

the maternal and paternal copies of a chromosome

Cells undergoing mitosis divide once. Cells undergoing meiosis divide twice
There are two major parts to meiosis:
1. The homologues are separated. 2. Each of the two new cells divides again, separating the sister chromatids into two even newer cells

Separate Once

Separate Again

6.12 Male and female gametes are produced in slightly different ways.
How do you distinguish a male from a female?

Why? Cytoplasm

6.13 Crossing over and meiosis are important sources of variation

6.14 What are the costs and benefits of sexual reproduction?

Sexual reproduction advantages?

Sexual reproduction leads to offspring that are all genetically different from each other and from either parent in three different ways:
1. Crossing over in the production of gametes
2. Shuffling and reassortment of homologues during meiosis 3. Combining alleles from two parents at fertilization

Bacteria reproduce asexually, while most plants and animals reproduce sexually. Which is a better method?

Sexual reproduction disadvantages?

Drowning in dung

Sexual Selection is best in variable environments

With asexual reproduction, the advantages and disadvantages are more or less reversed.
Fast Easy Efficient Stable Environments Great diversity of habitats in the world

There are two fundamentally different ways that cells and organisms can reproduce: 1. Mitosis and asexual reproduction via binary fission make offspring that are genetically identical.

Meiosis and sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction leads to offspring that are genetically different from one another and either parent.

sexual reproduction takes more time and energy and can be risky.

6.15 How is sex determined in humans?

Which parent determines the sex of their baby?


Sex Chromosomes

6.16 The sex of the offspring is determined in a variety of ways in other species.
Plants make both male and female gametes Earthworms hermaphrodites

The sex of the offspring is determined in a variety of ways in other species.

Males are haploid, having only a single set of chromosomes, and females are diploid, carrying two full sets of chromosomes. Females come from fertilized eggs, Males come from unfertilized eggs!

The sex of the offspring is determined in a variety of ways in other species.

6.17 Down syndrome can be detected before birth: karyotypes reveal an individuals entire chromosome set.

a display of an individuals complete set of chromosomes

Occurrence of birth defects increase as women get older

1. Amniocentesis


the unequal distribution of chromosomes during meiosis

error of cell division that creates a gamete with zero or two copies of a chromosome rather than a single copy

Turner Syndrome: X_

98% of the time this condition occurs the fertilized egg is spontaneously aborted long before a baby can come to term

Klinefelter Syndrome: XXY

XYY Males

XXX Females