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February 26, 2008

Science and Technology IV (Physics)

Heat and Temperature


Jayson G. Chavez
High School Department
Malate Catholic School
Malate, Manila
• Galileo Galilei (1602) invented the first thermal meter.

• Anders Celsius (1701-1744) a Swiedish astronomer


who suggested the Celsius scale.

• Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) the German


physicist who popularized the use of the Fahrenheit
scale. However this standard of temperature will
become obsolete if the U.S. of A. will go metric.

• William Thomson— The first Baron Kelvin (1824-


1907), suggested a scale which is favored by
scientists: The Kelvin Scale.
• The energy transferred from one object to another
because of a temperature difference between them is
termed heat.

• Matter does not contain heat, yet it contains


molecular kinetic energy and “possibly” potential
energy.

• Heat is energy in transit from a body of higher


temperature to one that has lower temperature.

“A body does not contain work, it does work or has


work done on it.”
• It is the quantity that indicates how hot or cold an
object is based on a particular standard.

• It measures the amount heat.


• The length Lo of an object changes by an amount ΔL
when its temperature changes by an amount ΔT.

ΔL= αL0ΔT

Where:
ΔL= change in length
α = coefficient of linear expansion
L0 = initial length
ΔT= change in temperature

“The common unit for the coefficient of linear


expansion is 1/oC”
• A steel aircraft carrier is 450 m long when moving
through the icy North Atlantic at a temperature of 1.5
o
C. By how much does the carrier lengthen when it is
travelling the Philippine Sea at a temperature of 27 oC?

The coefficient of linear expansion of steel is 12 x 10-6


ΔL = αL0ΔT
= (12 x 10-6 /oC) (450 m)(27 oC- 1.5 oC)
= (12 x 10-6 /oC) (450 m)(25.5 oC)
= (12 x 10-6 /oC) (11475m · oC)
=
• The volume Vo of an object changes by an amount ΔV
when its temperature changes by an amount ΔT.

ΔV=βV0ΔT

Where:
ΔV= change in volume
β = coefficient of volume expansion
Vo = initial volume
ΔT= change in temperature

“The common unit for the coefficient of volume


expansion is 1/oC”
A swimming pool contains 213 m3 of water. The sun
heats the water from 17 oC to 27 oC. What is the change
in the volume of water?

The coefficient of volume expansion of water is 207 x 10-


6
ΔV =βV0ΔT
= (207 x 10-6 /oC) (213 m3 )(27 oC- 17 oC)
= (207 x 10-6 /oC) (213 m3 )(10 oC)
= (207 x 10-6 /oC) (2130m3 · oC)
=
• Conduction is the transfer of heat energy by
molecular and electron collisions within a substance
(especially solids).

• Convection refers to the transfer of heat energy in a


gas or liquid by means of currents in the heated fluid.

“The fluid moves, carrying energy with it.”

• Radiation is the transfer of energy by means of


electromagnetic waves.
• Heat transfer by conduction through the vacuum is
impossible. Some heat escapes by conduction
through the glass and the stopper, but this is a slow
process, since glass, plastics, and corks are ought to
be poor conductors.

• The vacuum gas no fluid to convect, so there is no


heat loss through the walls by convection.

• Heat loss by radiation is reduced by the silvered


surfaces of the walls which reflect heat waves back in
the bottle.
• The heat Q that must be supplied or removed to
change the temperature of a substance of mass m by
an amount of ΔT is:

Q = mcΔT

Where:
Q= heat
m= mass of the object
c= specific heat capacity
ΔT= change in temperature

“The common unit for the specific heat capacity of a


substance is J/(kg· oC)”
“Simply specific heat capacity is the quantity of heat
required to change the temperature of a unit mass of a
substance by 1 oC.”
• Cold water at a temperature of 15 0C enters a heater,
and the resulting hot water, has a temperature of 61
o
C. A person uses 120 kg of hot water in taking a
shower Find the number of joules needed to heat the
water.

The specific heat capacity of water at 15 oC is 4186 J/(kg·


o
C).
Q = mcΔT
= (120 kg) [4186 J/(kg· oC)] (61oC – 15oC)
= 2.3 x 107 Joules
• In a half hour, a 65-kg jogger can generate 8.0 x 105 J
of heat. This heat is removed from the jogger’s body
by a variety of means, including the body’s own
temperature regulating mechanisms. If the heat were
not removed, how much would the body temperature
increase?

The specific heat capacity of the human body at 37 oC is


3500 J/(kg· oC)
Q = mcΔT
ΔT= Q/mc
= 8.0 x 105 J/ (65 kg [3500 J/(kg· oC)])
= 3.5 oC
• A technique used in determining the specific heat
capacity of a substance.
• The calorimeter cup is made from 0.15 kg aluminum
and contains 0.20 kg of water. Initially, the water and
the cup have a common temperature of 18.0 oC. An
unknown material (m= 0.040 kg) is heated to a
temperature of 97 oC and then added to the water.
The temperature of the water, the cup, and the
unknown material is 22.0 oC after thermal equilibrium
is reestablished. Ignoring the small amount of heat
gained by the thermometer, find the specific heat
capacity of the unknown material.

The specific heat capacity of water and aluminum are


4186 J/(kg· oC) and 9.00 x 102 J/(kg· oC) respectively.
• The latent heat L is the heat per kilogram that must
be added or removed when a substance changes
from one phase to another at constant temperature.

The SI Unit of Latent Heat is J/kg.


• Evaporation is the change of phase from liquid to gas,
this occurs at the surface of the liquid.

• Condensation the opposite of evaporation, the


changing of gas to a liquid.

• Boiling is the change of phase throughout the liquid.

• Melting and Freezing

• Sublimation
• L is the heat per kilogram that must be added or
removed when a substance changes from one phase
to another at a constant temperature.

The SI Unit for Latent Heat is J/kg


• Latent Heat of Fusion (Lf ) is the change between solid
and liquid phases.

• Latent Heat of Vaporization (Lv ) applies to the change


between liquid and gas phases.

• Latent Heat of Sublimation (Ls ) refers to the change


between solid and gas phases.
• The amount of energy required to change a unit mass
of a substance from solid to liquid ( vice versa).
• The amount of energy needed to change a unit mass
of a substance from liquid to gas (and vice versa).
• Ice at 0 oC is placed in a Styrofoam cup containing
0.32 kg of lemonade at 27 oC. Let us say that the
specific heat capacity of lemonade is the same as
water. After the ice and lemonade reach an
equilibrium temperature, some ice still remains.
Ignore the specific heat capacity of the cup and any
heat lost to the surroundings. Determine the mass of
ice that has melted.

The specific heat of water is 4186 J/(kg· oC)


Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice is 33.5J/kg
• A 7 kg glass bowl [c= 840 J /(kg· oC)] contains 16 kg
of punch at 25.0 oC. Two and a half kilograms of ice
[c= 2 x 103 J /(kg· oC)] are added to the punch. The ice
has an initial temperature of -20.0 oC, having been
kept in a very cold freezer. The punch may be treated
as if it were water [c= 4186 J /(kg· oC)], and it may be
assumed that there is no heat flow between the
punch bowl and the external environment. What is
the temperature of the punch, ice, and bowl when
they reach thermal equilibrium.
Study Hard, Dream Big, and Reach
Your Goals!!!
Thank you and God Bless
J.G.Chavez