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IS GROUP IMPORTANT? ??

GROUPS
Groups A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.

Group Types

Formal

Informal

Classification of Groups
1. Task Groups Group 3. Interest Group 2. Command

4. Friendship Groups

WHY PEOPLE JOIN GROUPS???

Security Status Self-esteem Affiliation Power Goal Achievement

Stages of Group Development


Forming stage

Storming stage

Norming stage

Performing stage

Adjourning stage

Stages of Group Development

GROUP PROPERTIES:ROLES
ROLE

IDENTITY ROLE PERCEPTION ROLE EXPECTATION ROLE CONFLICT

NORMS & STATUS


THE HAWTHORNE STUDIES A series of studies undertaken by Elton Mayo at Western Electric Companys Hawthorne Works in Chicago between 1924 and 1932. Research Conclusions:
Worker behavior and sentiments were closely related. Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting individual behavior. Group standards (norms) were highly effective in establishing individual worker output. Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.

DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR

Category

Examples

Production

Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resources Sabotage Lying about hours worked Stealing from the organization Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkers Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkers

Property

Political

Personal Aggression

STATUS
** A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. **SOURCES FROM WHICH STATUS CAN BE DERIEVED: The power a person wields over others A persons ability to contribute to a groups goals An individuals persons characteristics

SIZE
The

size of the group affects the groups overall performance.

Generally smaller groups are preferred over larger ones. Odd number groups better than even.

SOCIAL LOAFING
The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually

COHESIVENESS
The degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in group is known as group cohesiveness.

Advantages of High cohesiveness

Disadvantages of Low cohesiveness

Goal achievement Satisfaction Quantity & Quality of interaction Group think

Less interaction Difficulty in achieving goals I approach Less commitment to group goals

GROUP DECISION MAKING


Group decision making is a process where decisions are taken on the basis of the consent of group members.

Strengths

Weaknesses

Feeling of belongingness Better and effective decisions No individual bias decision Increased acceptance of solution

Time consuming process


Costly process Domination by one or a few members Increased pressure to conform

GROUP THINK & GROUP SHIFT


Group Think - A phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action.
Group Shift - A change in decision risk between a groups decision and an individual decision that a member within the group would make; the shift can be toward either conservation or greater risk

GROUP DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUE

Interacting Group

Brainstorming Nominal Group Technique Electronic Meeting

QUESTIONS
1. Has Preeti made a good decision about the way she is going to make the decisions? 2. Which investments would you choose? Why? 3. Which investments do you think most people would choose? 4. Based on what you have learned about group shifting which investments do you think Preeti s family will choose?

CONCLUSION

Group provides a social atmosphere which is similar to the real world. It provides member with a moral support.

Members in the group can practice new interpersonal skills


While in group, cohesiveness can play an important function in influencing a group level of productivity, whether it depends on groups- performance level of norms.