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Hematocrito

Neutrófilo Basófilo

Tipo de Intervalo normal


Células (nº de cel/µl )
Características 4.2-5.9
eritrocitos Físicas: x 106
3.8-5.8 x 106
Densidad: 1,055-1,065 Plasma (55% )
Leucocitos
pH: 7,35-7,45 4.000-10.000
plaquetas 150.000-300.000
La viscosidad es 3,5-5,5
veces la del agua monocito
Glóbulos blancos
Volumen: 5-6 L
4,5-5,5 L
8% peso corporal
Glóbulos rojos (45%)

eosinófilo
Plasma
• 3500 mL, osmolaridad: 300 mOsm/L
• Agua 90%
• Proteínas plasmáticas 6-7% (7 g/dL):
– Álbumina (4%)
– Fibrinógeno (0,3%)
– Globulinas (2,7%)
• Sustancias Inorgánicas (0,9%):
– Sales Minerales (0,9%) (Na,Cl,Ca,K,C03H-)
– Oligoelementos: Fe, I, Cu, Mg
• Sustancias Orgánicas:
– Materiales de desecho: Urea, Ac. Urico, Bilirrubina, Creatinina, etc
– Nutrientes: Aminoacidos, Glucosa, Ac. Grasos
• Gases: O2 y CO2
Proteínas plasmáticas
Proteínas Plasmáticas
• Síntesis
• Distribución
• Degradación
Plasma proteins

Synthesized by liver or produced by plasma (B) cells

• Albumin
• Transferrin Transport proteins
• Ceruloplasmin
• Enzymes – coagulation enzymes, complement factors
• C-reactive protein – acute phase reactant
• Immunoglobulins – humoral immunity
ALBUMIN

66 kDa

•Accounts for ~50% of the total plasma protein and ~ 50%


of the total liver protein production

• Half-life ~ 20 days

• Highly polar

• At pH 7.4 it is anionic with 20 negative charges per molecule


Ley de van t’Hoff de la
presión osmótica:

π = cRT
n = m/M
Donde:
n= numero de moles
m= masa del compuesto (o elemento)
M= peso molecular o peso atómico
(según sea el caso).
Equilibrio Gibbs-Donnan
Functions of Albumin

• Transport of long chain fatty acids & sterols


• Transport of bilirubin
• Binding and solubilization of drugs
Regulation of colloidal pressure
Decreases in albumin concentration cause edema

Gaw: Clinical Biochemistry; Churchill Livingstone (1999), p. 44.


Causes of decreased plasma albumin:
I. Decreased synthesis
A. malnutrtion
B. malabsorption
C. advanced chronic liver disease

II. Abnormal distribution or dilution


A. overhydration
B. increased capillary permeability like in
septicemia

XI. Abnormal excretion or degradation


A. nephrotic syndrome
B. burns
C. hemorrhage
D. certain catabolic states
E. protein losing enteropathies

XVIII.Rare congenital defects


A. hypoalbuminemia
B. analbuminemia
TRANSFERRIN

• Transports iron in plasma as ferric ions (Fe3+) – each


transferrin molecule binds 2 Fe3+

• Protects the body against the toxic effects of free


iron

•Normally 30% saturated with Fe3+ - increased or


decreased saturation is indicative of iron overload or
deficiency, respectively

• Decreased in inflammatory states due to excessive


degradation of transferrin- Fe3+ complexes
CERULOPLASMIN

•Major copper transport protein

• Regulates oxidation-reduction,
transport and utilization of iron

• Increased concentrations are


found in active liver disease or
tissue damage

• Decreases are sometimes


observed in individuals with
Wilson’s disease
ENZYMES
• Enzymes of the coagulation and complement cascade have a
defined function in blood

• Others reside elsewhere in the body and appear incidentally


in the blood – their measurement is of diagnostic value

Alanine
Creatine kinase
aminotransferase

Acid phosphatase Amylase


C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (CRP)

• Major component of the acute phase response and


a marker of bacterial infection

• Mediates the binding of foreign polysaccharides,


phospholipids and complex polyanions, as well as the
activation of complement

• <1 mg/mL in normal plasma

• Slightly elevated levels of CRP are indicative of


chronic, low-grade inflammation and have been
correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular
disease
IMMUNOGLOBULINS
• Proteins produced and secreted
by B cells specific for the foreign
particle that stimulated their
synthesis

• Five classes of Ig

• Multiple myeloma: arises from the


aberrant proliferation of a single B
cell. Light chains of Igs are
produced in excess of heavy chains
= paraproteins.

Elevated serum protein levels are


usually due to an increase in the Ig
fraction and may indicate the
presence of a paraprotein.