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Impact on the Population

Approximately 200 million deaths since 1850 Current trend: fewer deaths each year due to improved prevention Likely reasons: raise in awareness and vaccine usage

Origins of Measles
Derived from rinderpest virus, which mainly infects cattle First originated probably during 11th12th centuries Medium: Direct contact (touching, sneezing, coughing, etc.) Virulence: normally non-fatal, unless other complications develop (bronchitis, panencephalitis) Fatal in about 2 out of 1000 cases

The Rinderpest virus

Key Tests for Diagnosis


Similarity to other diseases: method of spreading, symptoms. Examples: mumps, Rubella (German measles) Observations of certain symptoms: fever and cough, coryza, or conjuncitivitis Alternate symptoms: Presence of Kopliks spots (miniscule, white spots usually on inside of ones cheeks)

Effects on Cells/Organs
Single-stranded antisense RNA (complement of mRNA) First infects respiratory tract, then rest of body Renders endothelial cells of blood vessels dysfunctional Triggers response from Tcells rash on body

Measles-affected skin

Symptoms
High fever (105 degree F) Tiredness Muscle and body aches Irritability Red, watery eyes Eyelid Swelling Hacking cough Runny Nose One way to tell if someone is infected is: One to two days before rashes appear, Kopliks spots appear. (clustered white lesions)

Protection
Best protection is to get a vaccination Ventilation can help if you already are infected. Reduces the chances of infection through contact. Bed rest, maintenance of fluid intake, keep the room comfortably warm. There is no real cure once you are infected with measles. Cures are methods to alleviate symptoms and support recovery.

Vaccines

Vaccine is made from strains of measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. (MMR) Strains of measles viruses weaken due to cell culture adaption. Measles cells are used to growing inside a human body. When placed in a chick embryo, it is less accustomed to reproducing in human cells. This effectively weakens it when it enters the human body. There are currently no new experiments on measles.

Epidemiology

Measles affects people more during the winter time. Tropical regions suffer less from measles. In third world countries, there is a higher chance of children under 2 to be infected. (Central America, South America, Africa, Southern Asia)

Yearly Deaths
Globally, over 1 million die from measles. 43 million are estimated to get infected by this disease. 350 cases are reported each year in the U.S.

Is this disease seasonal?


Mostly random Niger - Dry season to onset of seasonal rain Niger Population density

Are there environmental factors that enhance its spread?


Poor Sanitation Overcrowded dwellings Improper management of infectious discharge Ethiopia

Websites for info and updates


http://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/ health/ephti/library/modules/FinalModuleMe asles.pdf http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/content/in-thenews/measles.aspx

How can the public help fight?


Keep everything clean Isolate! Vampire cough Wash hands!