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Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 2
Database System Concepts and Architecture

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Data Models
Data Model: Satu set konsep untuk menggambarkan struktur database, dan kendala tertentu yang database harus mematuhi . Data Model Operations:Operasi untuk menentukan retrievals database dan update dengan mengacu pada konsep dari model data. Operasi pada model data dapat mencakup operasi dasar dan user-defined operasi.

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Categories of data models


Konseptual (tingkat tinggi, semantik) model data: Memberikan konsep-konsep yang dekat dengan cara banyak pengguna melihat data. (Juga disebut entitas-based atau berbasis obyek model data.)
Fisik (rendah-tingkat, internal) model data: Memberikan konsepkonsep yang menggambarkan detail bagaimana data disimpan dalam komputer. Implementasi model data (representasional): Memberikan konsepkonsep yang jatuh antara dua di atas, menyeimbangkan pandangan pengguna dengan beberapa rincian penyimpanan komputer.

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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History of Data Models


Relational Model: proposed in 1970 by E.F. Codd (IBM), first commercial system in 1981-82. Now in several commercial products (DB2, ORACLE, SQL Server, SYBASE, INFORMIX). Network Model: the first one to be implemented by Honeywell in 1964-65 (IDS System). Adopted heavily due to the support by CODASYL (CODASYL - DBTG report of 1971). Later implemented in a large variety of systems - IDMS (Cullinet - now CA), DMS 1100 (Unisys), IMAGE (H.P.), VAX -DBMS (Digital Equipment Corp.). Hierarchical Data Model: implemented in a joint effort by IBM and North American Rockwell around 1965. Resulted in the IMS family of systems. The most popular model. Other system based on this model: System 2k (SAS inc.)
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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History of Data Models


Object-oriented Data Model(s): several models have been proposed for implementing in a database system. One set comprises models of persistent O-O Programming Languages such as C++ (e.g., in OBJECTSTORE or VERSANT), and Smalltalk (e.g., in GEMSTONE). Additionally, systems like O2, ORION (at MCC - then ITASCA), IRIS (at H.P.- used in Open OODB). Object-Relational Models: Most Recent Trend. Started with Informix Universal Server. Exemplified in the latest versions of Oracle-10i, DB2, and SQL Server etc. systems.
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Hierarchical Model
ADVANTAGES:
Hierarchical Model is simple to construct and operate on Corresponds to a number of natural hierarchically organized domains - e.g., assemblies in manufacturing, personnel organization in companies Language is simple; uses constructs like GET, GET UNIQUE, GET NEXT, GET NEXT WITHIN PARENT etc.

DISADVANTAGES:
Navigational and procedural nature of processing Database is visualized as a linear arrangement of records Little scope for "query optimization"
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Network Model
ADVANTAGES:
Network Model is able to model complex relationships and represents semantics of add/delete on the relationships. Can handle most situations for modeling using record types and relationship types. Language is navigational; uses constructs like FIND, FIND member, FIND owner, FIND NEXT within set, GET etc. Programmers can do optimal navigation through the database.

DISADVANTAGES:
Navigational and procedural nature of processing Database contains a complex array of pointers that thread through a set of records. Little scope for automated "query optimization
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Schemas versus Instances


Database Schema: Skema database: Deskripsi dari database. Termasuk deskripsi struktur database dan kendala yang harus berpegang pada database. Skema Diagram (Schema Diagram) : Sebuah tampilan diagram (beberapa aspek) skema database. Skema Bangun: Sebuah komponen dari skema atau objek dalam skema, misalnya, MAHASISWA, KURSUS.
Database Instance: Data aktual yang disimpan dalam database

pada saat tertentu dalam waktu. Juga disebut database (atau kejadian).

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Database Schema Vs. Database State

Basis Data Negara(Database State ): Mengacu pada isi dari database pada saat dalam waktu.
Negara database awal(Initial Database State ): Mengacu ke database ketika dimuat Negara Hari(Valid State ): Sebuah negara yang memenuhi struktur dan kendala dari database.

perbedaannya Skema database perubahan yang sangat jarang. Database state: berubah setiap kali database diperbarui. Skema juga disebut kehebatan(intension), sedangkan state disebut extension.

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Three-Schema Architecture
Proposed to support DBMS characteristics of:
Program-data independence. Support of multiple views of the data.

Usulan untuk mendukung karakteristik DBMS:


Program-data independence. Dukungan beberapa pandangan dari data.

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Three-Schema Architecture
Defines DBMS schemas at three levels:
Internal schema at the internal level to describe physical storage structures and access paths. Typically uses a physical data model. Conceptual schema at the conceptual level to describe the structure and constraints for the whole database for a community of users. Uses a conceptual or an implementation data model. External schemas at the external level to describe the various user views. Usually uses the same data model as the conceptual level.

Mendefinisikan skema DBMS pada tiga tingkat:


Skema internal di tingkat internal untuk menjelaskan struktur penyimpanan fisik dan jalur akses. Biasanya menggunakan model data fisik. Konseptual skema di tingkat konseptual untuk menggambarkan struktur dan kendala untuk seluruh database untuk komunitas pengguna. Menggunakan konseptual atau model data pelaksanaan.

Skema eksternal pada tingkat eksternal untuk menggambarkan pandangan berbagai pengguna. Biasanya menggunakan model data yang sama sebagai tingkat konseptual.

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Three-Schema Architecture
Mappings among schema levels are needed to transform requests and data. Programs refer to an external schema, and are mapped by the DBMS to the internal schema for execution. Pemetaan antara tingkat-tingkat skema yang diperlukan untuk mengubah permintaan dan data. Program mengacu pada skema eksternal, dan dipetakan oleh DBMS untuk skema internal untuk eksekusi.
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Data Independence
Logical Data Independence: The capacity to change the conceptual schema without having to change the external schemas and their application programs. Physical Data Independence: The capacity to change the internal schema without having to change the conceptual schema. Logical data Kemerdekaan: Kapasitas untuk mengubah skema konseptual tanpa harus mengubah skema eksternal dan program aplikasi mereka.
Data fisik Kemerdekaan: Kapasitas untuk mengubah skema internal tanpa harus mengubah skema konseptual.
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Data Independence
When a schema at a lower level is changed, only the mappings between this schema and higher-level schemas need to be changed in a DBMS that fully supports data independence. The higher-level schemas themselves are unchanged. Hence, the application programs need not be changed since they refer to the external schemas. Ketika skema di tingkat yang lebih rendah berubah, hanya pemetaan antara skema dan lebih tinggi tingkat skema perlu diubah dalam DBMS yang sepenuhnya mendukung independensi data. Semakin tinggi tingkat skema sendiri tidak berubah. Oleh karena itu, program aplikasi tidak perlu dirubah karena mereka mengacu pada skema eksternal.
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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DBMS Languages
Data Definition Language (DDL): Used by the DBA and database designers to specify the conceptual schema of a database. In many DBMSs, the DDL is also used to define internal and external schemas (views). In some DBMSs, separate storage definition language (SDL) and view definition language (VDL) are used to define internal and external schemas. Data Definition Language (DDL): Digunakan oleh DBA dan desainer database untuk menentukan skema konseptual database. Dalam banyak DBMS, DDL juga digunakan untuk mendefinisikan skema internal dan eksternal (pandangan). Dalam beberapa DBMS, penyimpanan terpisah bahasa definisi (SDL) dan melihat definisi bahasa (VDL) digunakan untuk mendefinisikan skema internal dan eksternal.

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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DBMS Languages
Data Manipulation Language (DML): Used to specify database retrievals and updates.
DML commands (data sublanguage) can be embedded in a generalpurpose programming language (host language), such as COBOL, C or an Assembly Language. Alternatively, stand-alone DML commands can be applied directly (query language).

Data Manipulasi Language (DML): Digunakan untuk menentukan database dan update retrievals.
Perintah DML (Data sub-bahasa) dapat tertanam dalam bahasa pemrograman untuk tujuan umum (host language), seperti COBOL, C atau Majelis Bahasa. Atau, yang berdiri sendiri perintah DML dapat diterapkan secara langsung (bahasa query).
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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DBMS Languages
High Level or Non-procedural Languages: e.g., SQL, are setoriented and specify what data to retrieve than how to retrieve. Also called declarative languages. Low Level or Procedural Languages: record-at-a-time; they specify how to retrieve data and include constructs such as looping. Tingkat Tinggi atau Non-prosedural Bahasa: misalnya, SQL, adalah set-oriented dan menentukan apa data untuk mengambil dari bagaimana untuk mengambil. Juga disebut bahasa deklaratif.
Tingkat rendah atau Bahasa Prosedural: catatan-di-waktu-, mereka menentukan bagaimana untuk mengambil data dan termasuk konstruksi seperti perulangan.

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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DBMS Interfaces
Stand-alone query language interfaces. Programmer interfaces for embedding DML in programming languages: Pre-compiler Approach/Pendekatan Procedure (Subroutine) Call Approach User-friendly interfaces: Menu-based, popular for browsing on the web Forms-based, designed for nave users Graphics-based (Point and Click, Drag and Drop etc.) Natural language: requests in written English Combinations of the above

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Other DBMS Interfaces


Speech as Input (?) and Output Web Browser as an interface Parametric interfaces (e.g., bank tellers) using function keys. Interfaces for the DBA:
Creating accounts, granting authorizations Setting system parameters Changing schemas or access path
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Database System Utilities


To perform (tugas dan fungsi)certain functions such as:
Loading data stored in files into a database. Includes data conversion tools. Backing up the database periodically on tape. Reorganizing database file structures. Report generation utilities. Performance monitoring utilities. Other functions, such as sorting, user monitoring, data compression, etc.

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Other Tools
Data dictionary / repository:
Used to store schema descriptions and other information such as design decisions, application program descriptions, user information, usage standards, etc. Active data dictionary is accessed by DBMS software and users/DBA. Passive data dictionary is accessed by users/DBA only.

Data dictionary / repository: Digunakan untuk menyimpan deskripsi skema dan informasi lain seperti keputusan desain, deskripsi program aplikasi, informasi pengguna, standar penggunaan, dll
Kamus data aktif diakses oleh DBMS perangkat lunak dan pengguna / DBA. Pasif kamus data diakses oleh pengguna / DBA hanya Application Development Environments and CASE (computer-aided software engineering) tools:
Examples Power builder (Sybase), Builder (Borland)

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Centralized and Client-Server Architectures


Centralized DBMS: combines everything into single system including- DBMS software, hardware, application programs and user interface processing software. Sentralisasi DBMS: menggabungkan semuanya ke dalam sistem tunggal termasuk-DBMS software, hardware program aplikasi, dan pengguna perangkat lunak antarmuka pengolahan

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Basic Client-Server Architectures


Specialized Servers with Specialized functions
Clients DBMS Server

Server khusus dengan fungsi khusus


klien DBMS Server

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Specialized Servers with Specialized functions:


File Servers Printer Servers Web Servers E-mail Servers

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Clients:
Provide appropriate interfaces and a client-version of the system to access and utilize the server resources. Clients maybe diskless machines or PCs or Workstations with disks with only the client software installed. Connected to the servers via some form of a network. (LAN: local area network, wireless network, etc.)

Menyediakan antarmuka yang sesuai dan klien-versi sistem untuk mengakses dan memanfaatkan sumber daya server.

Klien mungkin mesin diskless atau PC atau Workstation dengan disk dengan hanya perangkat lunak klien diinstal.
Terhubung ke server melalui beberapa bentuk jaringan. (LAN: jaringan area lokal, jaringan nirkabel, dll)

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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DBMS Server
Provides database query and transaction services to the clients Sometimes called query and transaction servers Menyediakan query database dan layanan transaksi kepada klien
Kadang-kadang disebut query dan transaksi server

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Two Tier Client-Server Architecture


User Interface Programs and Application Programs run on the client side Interface called ODBC (Open Database Connectivity see Ch 9) provides an Application program interface (API) allow client side programs to call the DBMS. Most DBMS vendors provide ODBC drivers.

User Interface Program dan Program Aplikasi berjalan di sisi klien Antarmuka yang disebut ODBC (Database Connectivity Terbuka lihat Bab 9) menyediakan program aplikasi antarmuka (API) memungkinkan klien untuk memanggil program sisi DBMS. Kebanyakan DBMS vendor menyediakan driver ODBC.

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Two Tier Client-Server Architecture


A client program may connect to several DBMSs. Other variations of clients are possible: e.g., in some DBMSs, more functionality is transferred to clients including data dictionary functions, optimization and recovery across multiple servers, etc. In such situations the server may be called the Data Server.

Sebuah program klien dapat terhubung ke beberapa DBMS. Variasi lain dari klien yang mungkin: misalnya, dalam beberapa DBMSs, fungsionalitas lebih ditransfer ke klien termasuk fungsi kamus data, optimasi dan pemulihan di beberapa server, dll Dalam situasi seperti server dapat disebut Data Server.
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Three Tier Client-Server Architecture


Common for Web applications Intermediate Layer called Application Server or Web Server: stores the web connectivity software and the rules and business logic (constraints) part of the application used to access the right amount of data from the database server acts like a conduit for sending partially processed data between the database server and the client. Additional Features- Security: encrypt the data at the server before transmission decrypt data at the client

Umum untuk aplikasi Web Lapisan intermediate yang disebut Application Server atau Server Web: toko perangkat lunak konektivitas web dan aturan-aturan dan logika bisnis (kendala) bagian dari aplikasi yang digunakan untuk mengakses jumlah yang tepat data dari database server bertindak seperti saluran untuk mengirim data sebagian diproses antara database server dan klien.

Tambahan Fitur-Keamanan: mengenkripsi data pada server sebelum transmisi mendekripsi data pada klien

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Classification of DBMSs
Based on the data model used:
Traditional: Relational, Network, Hierarchical. Emerging: Object-oriented, Object-relational.

Other classifications:
Single-user (typically used with microcomputers) vs. multi-user (most DBMSs). Centralized (uses a single computer with one database) vs. distributed (uses multiple computers, multiple databases)
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Classification of DBMSs
Distributed Database Systems have now come to be known as client server based database systems because they do not support a totally distributed environment, but rather a set of database servers supporting a set of clients. Sistem Basis Data Terdistribusi kini telah dikenal sebagai sistem database berbasis client server karena mereka tidak mendukung lingkungan yang sama sekali didistribusikan, melainkan satu set database server mendukung satu set klien.
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Variations of Distributed Environments:


Homogeneous DDBMS Heterogeneous DDBMS Federated or Multidatabase Systems

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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