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The Climate Of

 Bangladesh has a subtropical monsoon climate
characterized by wide seasonal variations in rainfall,
moderately warm temperatures, and high humidity.
Regional climatic differences in this flat country are
minor. Three seasons are generally recognized:

 Hot, humid summer from March to June

 A cool, rainy monsoon season from June to October
 A cool, dry winter from October to March
In general, maximum
summer temperatures
range between
32°C and 38°C.
April is the warmest month in most parts
of the country.

January is the coldest month, when the

average temperature for most of
the country is 10°C.

From March to May, violent thunderstorms,

called northwesters by local English speakers,
produce winds of up to sixty kilometers per hour.
During the intense storms of the early summer and
late monsoon season, southerly winds of more than
160 kilometers per hour cause waves to crest as high
as 6 meters in the Bay of Bengal, which brings
disastrous flooding to coastal areas.

Heavy rainfall is characteristic of

Bangladesh. With the exception of the
relatively dry western region of
Rajshahi, where the annual rainfall is
about 160 centimeters, most parts of
the country receive at least 200
centimeters of rainfall per year.
About 80 percent of
Bangladesh's rain falls during the
monsoon season.
Between 1947 and 1988, thirteen
severe cyclones hit Bangladesh, causing
enormous loss of life and property. In
May 1985, for example, a severe
cyclonic storm packing 154 kilometer-
per-hour winds and waves 4 meters
high swept into southeastern and
southern Bangladesh, killing more than
11,000 persons, damaging more than
94,000 houses, killing some 135,000
head of livestock, and damaging nearly
400 kilometers of critically needed
Primary concept on Climate

The planet named the Earth is becoming hotter

day by day. This global warming is bringing the
problem like climate change and sea level
change. For the influence of global warming
advanced sea water will submerge the coastal
area with saline water and will increase the
natural calamity day by day.
Adaptation Strategies

Adaptation is defined as any adjustment

of physical infrastructure, natural
systems, social and economic activities
or institutional arrangements that
reduce the vulnerability to climate
change or enhances the opportunities
these changes offer (Bangladesh
climate change and sustainable
development, World Bank, July, 2001)
Why adaptation is

Most of the effect of climate change in

Bangladesh is long term, irrevocable and
gradual. In some cases the impact increases the
intensity of extreme events. In both cases to
minimize the losses or to increase the
effectiveness of mitigation measure it is
necessary to implement the anticipatory
adaptation measure. Beside this, to implement
or to construct any long term structural
measure it is required to consider the climate
change to avoid any affect in the long run.
Risks in Individual
Coastal Zone of
 Drainage congestion is one of the important
problems in the coastal area. Drainage
congestion caused by the high water flow and
over sedimentation in the flood plain.
 Saline water intrusion is increasing as the sea
water encroaches the land due to the sea level
rise and Lower River flows.
 Coastal land is degrading due to the erosion by
the changing dynamics in river flow.
 Coastal storm-surges make serious impact on
the adjacent area due to the imbalance
between the coastal land and the sea level.
Fresh Water Resources

 Fresh water availability is decreasing due to

the increasing demand (increased population),
increase of evapo-transpiration and lower river
 Drainage congestion for the high water flow
and increased the level of the bed due to the
sedimentation in the flood plain.
 Land erosion is increasing due to the change in
dynamics in the river flow but not filling up in
that way.

 Due to the increase in temperature the

agricultural production is under threat.
 During the flood period a vast area/amount of
agricultural product is damaged by the food
 In the coastal area due to the intrusion of
saline water and for the increase in salinity in
water and soil the agricultural production is
Public Health
 Diarrhea, Cholera and other water born
diseases increases due to climate
 Reduction of drinking water availability
 Risk in human lives is increasing with
the increased intensity of extreme
 Loss in agricultural production cause
ultimate threat to the food chain.
Ecosystem and
 Increased salinity cause adverse effect
on the trees of Sunderban.
 Lower river and ground water flow may
cause desertification in the coastal zone
in some sensitive area.
 Increase in temperature reduces the
availability of fishes.
Adaptive Measures/Steps in different
 To avoid the drainage congestion in the coastal zone it is necessary to
make infrastructure for over sedimentation in the flood plain or in the
 To protect the morphological change by erosion different structures
like- mangrove greenbelt, river training, dams etc can be made.
 To minimizing the impact of storm surge, cyclone etc cyclone centre,
advanced forecasting system and plantation (mangrove greenbelt)
can constructed.
 To increase the fresh water availability it is important to increase the
flow in upstream and any alternative like water storage can be made.
 Improved drainage system after flooding is required to avoid the
congestion of fresh water.
 To adapt the increased morphological dynamics of the river physical
adaptation is required to build protection against bank erosion and
dredging of navigation channels.
 For improved and efficient irrigation, crops diversification and
conjunctive use of surface and ground water is important to reduce
the impact of drought.
 To provide safe and quality drinking water, water treatment facility
can be established.
Adaptive Measures/Steps in different

 Sewage treatment is another important issue should

consider to keep the local water body clean.
 Improved public health education for reproductive
health system is essential.
 In case of Sundarban a sustainable water flow is
required in the water body.
 Coastal green belt, agro-forestry is very important as an
adaptive measure.
 To aware the people about the adaptation of the
ecosystem is indispensable.
 To adapt different important species of Sundarban can
be attempted.

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