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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, GANDHINAGAR

ERGONOMICS

Cutting Room Ergonomics


Date : 10th oct. 2011
Presented By Abhinay Kumar Satyam Singh Shrey Vij Rishab Tandon Kuldeep Meena

Under Guidance Of Mr. Manoj Tiwari

CUTTING ROOM IN TERMS OF ERGONOMICS


Unlike sewing room, the cutting room mostly consists of equipments and workstations on which work is to be done only in standing position. So, there must be equipments and workstations designed according to the anthropometric data of human body in standing postures. The postures are different from the sitting workstations here. Basically in the standing position the points which are taken under consideration are workers height, arm length, hand length, Hand breadth etc. Consideration is taken care of : Workplace design Task design Equipment design

AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS OF HUMAN BODY

http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/height-chart.shtml

ADVANTAGES OF STANDING WORKSTATION


Reach is greater in standing than in sitting.

Body weight can be used to exert forces.


Standing workers require less leg room than seated workers.

Lumbar disc pressures are lower.


It can be maintained with little muscular activity and requires no attention. Trunk muscle power is twice as large in standing than in semi-standing or sitting.

STANDARD WORKING POSTURE

STANDING POSITIONS

NORMAL POSITION

IDEAL POSITION

IDEAL BODY POSTURE


Maintain the S curve in your spine Feet flat on the floor Knees and hips at a 90 degree angle Elbows at 90 degree angle do not lean on elbows Shoulders relaxed and elbows close to body Head and neck in the upright position Hands and wrist in the neutral position Avoid: Poor body mechanics, twisted torso, slouching, kneeling, squatting, neck rotation/side bending, bent wrists, and reaching overhead.

A WORKERS REACH
Usual work area/reach : (80-100 + 25) cm Occasional work area/reach : (80-100 + 50) cm

CUTTING DEPARTMENT
The primary tasks in the cutting department are: Loading the spreading machine Spreading the fabric Cutting the fabric Stacking cut pieces

LOADING THE SPREADING MACHINE

SPREADING THE FABRIC

CUTTING THE FABRIC

STACKING THE CUT PIECES

EQUIPMENTS USED IN CUTTING ROOM AND THEIR ERGONOMICS FEATURES

SPREADING TABLE
Table dimensions : length - 340(approx.) Width 72 Height 34

Adjustable Height

Air blower beneath the table

Ergonomic features of cutting table :

adjustable height
air blower beneath table for easy movement of layers smooth edges width according to normal human hand movements

Height according to normal human height

Smooth edges

MANUAL SPREADING MACHINE

Rollers for movement

Points for width size adjustment

Ergonomic features : width size adjustable adjustable height according to table and worker manual edge control rollers adjustment for easy movement between one table to another table

STRAIGHT KNIFE

27 height easy to handle

Handle for better grip

Swivel base plate for movement

Handle for movement to other tables

Ergonomic features :

Weight : 34 lbs(15.4 kg) easily moveable by cutting person


Height : 27 For better grip and easy movement extended holder is present For transportation purpose on the upper part gripper is present

For steady and vibration free working base plate is of metal, 8 long and 5 broad
a security handle that automatically drops the presser foot leg and stops the machine when the handle is released ergonomic handle that reduces wrist strain a swivel baseplate that turns easily even in the hardest materials

END CUTTER

Control panel in workers


reach
Track for movement of end cutter

Long Handle for longer reach

Ergonomic features :

For easy movement there is a gripper to move the end cutter length wise
Small in size

Attached to table so that the movement is not dependable only on the cutting man i.e. weight of end cutter is distributed between table and the cutting man
A long rod is attached to the end cutter to move it with the table length without the movement of the operator Easy to attach and detach with tables

Fitted on the tracks from easy to and fro movement across the table
Control panels are in the reach of cutting man

BAND KNIFE

Emergency light

ADJUSTABLE TABLE HEIGHT

Curve inserted for better reach to the blade

Air flotation table

Adjustable Table height according human height

Ergonomic features : Adjustable table height Air flotation for easy movement of layers during use Additional Safety Device to ensure the operators safety The lighting device to reduce operators fatigue Auto Catch Device, to catch the knife when the blade is broken.

A curvy portion is provided to fit the cutting man for easy reach to the blade

BAND KNIFE WORKERS REACH

80-100cm

25cm 50cm

LABELLING GUN

Handle for grip

Extra plastic griper

Ergonomic features : gripper is provided for fast use of the labelling gun small in size weight is less extra plastic grip is also provided

FUSING MACHINE

Control panel near the operator Automatic sensor

Ergonomic features : continuous fusing is done so no need to move the cut pieces every time automatic sensor in case of any emergency 35 height of the machine bed which is according to normal human height Control panel is near the operators position to avoid any emergency Operator friendly side swing design Operator is protected from heat radiation

GENERAL ERGONOMIC CONCERNS DURING WORK


Static postures constantly work with their arms above shoulder level

Awkward body postures


the height of the workstation Repetition of movements Standing in one position for long periods of time No foot rest Awkward wrist postures Workers should try not to twist their upper body when placing objects besides them Vibration caused by different equipments

PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES


Avoid static postures For standing work, the height of the workstation should allow workers to function with elbows at 90 degrees

workers should try and sit for short periods of time while working to give their leg and back muscles a rest
Change position after a period of time There must be a raised foot rest provided for standing workstations majority of work should be done between knuckle height and shoulder level

Workers should move their feet, instead of twisting at the waist, in order to face the area where the object is going to be placed
Avoid repetition of movements Assign job according to worker, not worker according to job

NORMAL WORK FLOOR ARRANGEMENT


Anti-fatigue mats for those who must stand for extended periods of time

Footrest to allow the employee to put one foot up and change positions often
Floor surface is free of obstacles and flat

Keep work at comfortable height to maintain erect posture


Footwear with good support

Avoiding MSDs needs Work Smarter, Not Harder


Work in neutral postures Reduce excessive force & repetition Keep everything in easy reach and at proper heights Minimize static unsupported postures and pressure points Use proper lifting techniques and lift aides Ask for assistance with difficult tasks Take micro-breaks (stand, stretch, change tasks) Maintain a comfortable environment

GAPS IDENTIFIED IN WORK ENVIRONMENT AND EQUIPMENTS

AREAS Cutting table

SUPPORTIVE FINDINGS Complaints of postural discomfort and pain in shoulders, neck and hands Complaints of postural Sorting table Work height too high discomfort and pain in shoulders, neck and hands Inadequate lighting Low level of lighting Complaints of visual strain and blurred vision Excessive noise Noise level exceeds 90dB Workers complaints Dust Increased level in cutting Complaints of respiratory section problems Hot and humid work place Heat Humidity 23 to 57% Heat Workers complaints Identified exposure as risk factor by hazard identification and risk assessment Blade guard of the cutting Defects in design of blade Fifty per cent of workers machine guard, non use of blade guards reported accidental cuts General safety measure Personal protective equipment Absence of general safety Observed gaps measures Absence of personal protective Observation and devices incidences

GAPS IDENTIFIED Work height too high

reported

SUGGESTED ERGONOMIC FEATURES IN CUTTING ROOM


Efficient spacing between the cutting tables, racks, band knife machine, fusing machines for better movement of man and material. Cutting table heights are according to normal human height Dustbins are provided according to the height of the cutting table and band knife machine Racks heights are according to the normal humans hand reach

Fabric store is near the cutting room so less movement of man and material
The illumination level is kept to standard illumination level i.e. 750 lx.

Cont
Provision of local exhaust ventilation that uses suction, based on the principle of a vacuum cleaner, is to be encouraged in the cutting and stitching sections to remove dust from the air. Workers are suggested to wear fine mesh cloth dust protectors.

The handles should be made of flexible polyethylene materials, which even after prolonged and regular use give a comfortable feel.
The blade guards of the cutting machines are to be redesigned. These guards can be designed either as enclosure guards or as interlocking guards. Enclosure guards will cover the entire blade. Interlocking guards will allow the machine to function only after the blade guards are lowered.

AN ERGONOMIC LAYOUT OF CUTTING ROOM

CONCLUSION
During this project we came to know that ergonomics features in the cutting rooms in most of the industries are very poor. Our observation turns out that modern equipments and tools are manufactured based on ergonomic designs and suggestions. But the cutting room work floor management and the building layout do not support the concern of workers and ergonomics. These interventions made in the units would help to improve the work environment of the garment manufacturing units. This study demonstrates that there is ample room for ergonomic improvements in the clothing industry.

We need to continue to identify problems and, more importantly, implement solutions to reduce the risk of injuries in situations where we know problems exist.
So, there is a huge scope of improvement in the field of ergonomics in apparel industry.

REFERENCES
PDFS Ergonomics In The Garment Manufacturing Industry Ergonomics Awareness Training Ergonomic Interventions To Improve Work Environment In Garment

Thank you