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Lecture 21 Columns

July 25, 2003


CVEN 444
Lecture Goals
Columns Interaction Diagrams
Using Interaction Diagrams

Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Consider an square column (20 in x 20 in.) with 8 #10
( = 0.0254) and f
c
= 4 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi. Draw the
interaction diagram.
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Given 8 # 10 (1.27 in
2
) and f
c
= 4 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi
( )
( )
2 2
st
2
2
g
2
st
2
g
8 1.27 in 10.16 in
20 in. 400 in
10.16 in
0.0254
400 in
A
A
A
A

= =
= =
= = =
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Given 8 # 10 (1.27 in
2
) and f
c
= 4 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 c g st y st
2 2
2
0.85
0.85 4 ksi 400 in 10.16 in
60 ksi 10.16 in
1935 k
P f A A f A = +
=
+
=
( )
n 0
0.8 1935 k 1548 k
P rP =
= =
[ Point 1 ]
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Determine where the balance point, c
b
.
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Determine where the balance point, c
b
. Using similar
triangles, where d = 20 in. 2.5 in. = 17.5 in., one can
find c
b
b
b
b
17.5 in.
0.003 0.003 0.00207
0.003
17.5 in.
0.003 0.00207
10.36 in.
c
c
c
=
+
| |
=
|
+
\ .
=
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Determine the strain of the steel

( )
( )
b
s1 cu
b
b
s2 cu
b
2.5 in. 10.36 in. 2.5 in.
0.003
10.36 in.
0.00228
10 in. 10.36 in. 10 in.
0.003
10.36 in.
0.000104
c
c
c
c
c c
c c
| |

| |
= =
|
|
\ .
\ .
=
| |

| |
= =
|
|
\ .
\ .
=
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Determine the stress in the steel

( )
( )
s1 s s1
s2 s s1
29000 ksi 0.00228
66 ksi 60 ksi compression
29000 ksi 0.000104
3.02 ksi compression
f E
f E
c
c
= =
=
= =
=
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
c c 1
s1 s1 s1 c
2
2
s2
0.85
0.85 4 ksi 20 in. 0.85 10.36 in.
598.8 k
0.85
3 1.27 in 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
215.6 k
2 1.27 in 3.02 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
0.97 k neglect
C f b c
C A f f
C
| =
=
=
=
=
=
=
= :
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )
( )
2
s s s
n c s1 s2 s
3 1.27 in 60 ksi
228.6 k
599.8 k 215.6 k 228.6 k
585.8 k
T A f
P C C C T
= =
=
= + +
= +
=
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Compute the moment about the center

( )
c s1 1 s 3
2 2 2 2
0.85 10.85 in.
20 in.
599.8 k
2 2
20 in.
215.6 k 2.5 in.
2
20 in.
228.6 k 17.5 in.
2
6682.2 k-in 556.9 k-ft
h a h h
M C C d T d
| | | | | |
= + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
+
|
\ .
| |
+
|
\ .
=
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
A single point from interaction diagram,
(585.6 k, 556.9 k-ft). The eccentricity of the point is
defined as




6682.2 k-in
11.41 in.
585.8 k
M
e
P
= = =
[ Point 2 ]
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Now select a series of additional points by selecting
values of c. Select c = 17.5 in. Determine the strain
of the steel. (c is at the location of the tension steel)
( )
( )
s1 cu
s1
s2 cu
s2
2.5 in. 17.5 in. 2.5 in.
0.003
17.5 in.
0.00257 74.5 ksi 60 ksi (compression)
10 in. 17.5 in. 10 in.
0.003
17.5 in.
0.00129 37.3 ksi (compression)
c
c
f
c
c
f
c c
c c

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
= =

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
= =
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )( )( )( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
c c 1
2
s1 s1 s1 c
2
s2
0.85 0.85 4 ksi 20 in. 0.85 17.5 in.
1012 k
0.85 3 1.27 in 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
216 k
2 1.27 in 37.3 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
86 k
C f b c
C A f f
C
| = =
=
= =
=
=
=
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )
( )
2
s s s
n
3 1.27 in 0 ksi
0 k
1012 k 216 k 86 k
1314 k
T A f
P
= =
=
= + +
=
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Compute the moment about the center

( )
c s1 1
2 2 2
0.85 17.5 in.
20 in.
1012 k
2 2
20 in.
216 k 2.5 in.
2
4213 k-in 351.1 k-ft
h a h
M C C d
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
+
|
\ .
=
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
A single point from interaction diagram,
(1314 k, 351.1 k-ft). The eccentricity of the point is
defined as


4213 k-in
3.2 in.
1314 k
M
e
P
= = =
[ Point 3 ]
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Select c = 6 in.

Determine the strain of the steel, c =6 in.
( )
( )
s1 cu
s1
s2 cu
s2
s3 cu
2.5 in. 6 in. 2.5 in.
0.003
6 in.
0.00175 50.75 ksi (compression)
10 in. 6 in. 10 in.
0.003
6 in.
0.002 58 ksi (tension)
17.5 in. 6 in.
c
c
f
c
c
f
c
c
c c
c c
c c

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
= =

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
= =

| |
= =
|
\ .
( )
s3
17.5 in.
0.003
6 in.
0.00575 60 ksi (tension) f
| |
|
\ .
= =
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )( )( )( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
c c 1
s1 s1 s1 c
2
2
s2
0.85
0.85 4 ksi 20 in. 0.85 6 in.
346.8 k
0.85
3 1.27 in 50.75 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
180.4 k C
2 1.27 in 58 ksi
147.3 k T
C f b c
C A f f
C
| =
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )
( )
2
s s s
n
3 1.27 in 60 ksi
228.6 k
346.8 k 180.4 k 147.3 k 228.6 k
151.3 k
T A f
P
= =
=
= +
=
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Compute the moment about the center

( )
( )
( )
c s1 1 s 3
2 2 2 2
0.85 6 in.
346.8 k 10 in.
2
180.4 k 10 in. 2.5 in.
228.6 k 17.5 in. 10 in.
5651 k-in 470.9 k-ft
h a h h
M C C d T d
| | | | | |
= + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
| |
=
|
\ .
+
+
=
Example: Axial Load Vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
A single point from interaction diagram,
(151 k, 471 k-ft). The eccentricity of the point is
defined as



5651.2 k-in
37.35 in.
151.3 k
M
e
P
= = =
[ Point 4 ]
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Select point of straight tension.

The maximum tension
in the column is




( )
( )
2
n s y
8 1.27 in 60 ksi
610 k
P A f = =
=
[ Point 5 ]
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Point c (in) P
n
M
n
e
1 - 1548 k 0 0
2 20 1515 k 253 k-ft 2 in
3 17.5 1314 k 351 k-ft 3.2 in
4 12.5 841 k 500 k-ft 7.13 in
5 10.36 585 k 556 k-ft 11.42 in
6 8.0 393 k 531 k-ft 16.20 in
7 6.0 151 k 471 k-ft 37.35 in
8 ~4.5 0 k 395 k-ft infinity
9 0 -610 k 0 k-ft
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Column Analysis
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
M (k-ft)
P

(
k
)
Use a series of c
values to obtain the
P
n
verses M
n
.
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Column Analysis
-800
-600
-400
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 100 200 300 400 500
|Mn (k-ft)
f
P
n

(
k
)
Max. compression
Max. tension
C
b

Location of the
linearly varying |.
Behavior under Combined
Bending and Axial Loads
Interaction Diagram Between Axial Load and Moment
( Failure Envelope )
Concrete crushes
before steel yields
Steel yields before
concrete crushes
Note: Any combination of P and M outside the envelope will cause failure.
Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Column Types
Tied Column - Bars in 2 faces (furthest from axis
of bending.
- Most efficient when e/h > 0.2
- rectangular shape increases efficiency
3)
Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Spices
Typically longitudinal bars spliced just above
each floor. (non-seismic)
Type of lap splice depends on state of stress (ACI
12.17)
Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Spices
All bars in compression Use compression lap splice
(ACI 12.16)
15 . 12 ACI
splice lap tension B Class
spliced) bars 1/2 (
B Class
) splice bars 2 / 1 (
lap A tension Class
5 . 0
face on tension 5 . 0 0
y s
y s

>
<

>
s s
f f
f f
Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Column Shear
( ) 4 - 11 ACI
2000
1 2
w c
g
u
c
d b f
A
N
V
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Recall
( Axial
Compression )
5 . 0 If
c u
> V V | Ties must satisfy ACI 11 and
ACI Sec. 7.10.5
Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Additional Note on Reinforcement Ratio
( ) 10.9.1 ACI 0.08 0.01 Recall s s
For cross-section larger than required for
loading:
Min. reinforcement may be computed for
reduced effective area, A
g
, ( 1/2 A
g
(total) )
Provided strength from reduced area and
resulting A
st
must be adequate for loading.
>
(ACI 10.8.4 )
-
Non-dimensional Interaction
Diagrams
See Figures B-12 to B-26
or ACI Common 340 Design Handbook Vol 2
Columns (ACI 340.2R-91)
n n
c g c g
versus
P M
f A f A h
n n
n n
c g c g
e
versus R
P P
K
f A f A h
= =
or
Non-dimensional Interaction
Diagrams
Design using Non-dimensional
Interaction diagrams
Calculate factored loads (P
u
, M
u
) and e for
relevant load combinations
Select potentially governing case(s)
Use estimate h to calculate h, e/h for governing
case(s)
1.)
2.)
3.)
Design using Non-dimensional
Interaction diagrams
Use appropriate chart (App. A) target
g



(for each governing case)
Select
4.)
5.)
n
c g


P
f A

u c
g
n
c g

P f
A
P
f A
|
=
| |
|
|
\ .
Read
Calculate
required
h b A b * h &
g
=
Design using Non-dimensional
Interaction diagrams
If dimensions are significantly different from
estimated (step 3), recalculate ( e / h ) and redo
steps 4 & 5.
Revise A
g
if necessary.
Select steel
6.)
7.)
g st
A A =
Design using non-dimensional
interaction diagrams
Using actual dimensions & bar sizes to check all
load combinations ( use charts or exact:
interaction diagram).

Design lateral reinforcement.
8.)
9.)
Example: Column design using
Interaction Diagrams
Determine the tension and compression
reinforcement for a 16 in x 24 in. rectangular tied
column to support P
u
= 840 k and M
u
= 420 k-ft. Use
f
c
= 4 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi. Using the interaction
diagram.
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the initial components
u
n
840 kips
1292 k
0.65
P
P
|
= = =
u
n
u
12 in.
420 k-ft
ft
e 6.0 in.
840 k
M
P
| |
|
\ .
= = =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the initial components
24 in. 5.0 in. 19.0 in. h = =
19.0 in.
0.79
24 in.
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the coefficients of the column
( )( )( )
n
n
g c
1292 k
16 in. 24 in. 4 ksi
0.84
P
K
A f
= =
=
( )( )
( )( )( )( )
n
n
g c
1292 k 6 in.
e
16 in. 24 in. 4 ksi 24 in.
0.21
P
R
A f h
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using an interaction
diagram, B-13
( ) ( )
n n
c y
, 0.21, 0.84
0.7
4 ksi 60 ksi
0.042
R K
f f

=
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using an interaction
diagram, B-14
( ) ( )
n n
c y
, 0.21, 0.84
0.9
4 ksi 60 ksi
0.034
R K
f f

=
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using linear interpolation to find the of the column
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0.9 0.7
0.7
0.7
0.9 0.7
0.034 0.042
0.042 0.79 0.7
0.9 0.7
0.0384

= +

=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Determine the amount of steel required


Select the steel for the column, using #11 bars
( )( )( )
st g
2
0.0384 16 in. 24 in.
14.75 in
A A = =
=
2
st
2
b
14.75 in
9.45 bars 10 bars
1.56 in
A
A
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The areas of the steel:


The loading on the column
2
st
2 2
s1 t
15.6 in
7.8 in , 7.8 in
A
A A
=
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The compression components are


( )
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
2
s1 s1 y c
c c
0.85 7.8 in 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
441.5 k
0.85 0.85 4 ksi 16 in. 0.85
46.24
C A f f
C f ba c
c
= =
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The tension component is


( )
2
s1 s s
s s cu
7.8 in
21.5 in.
29000 ksi 0.003
21.5 in.
87 ksi
T A f f
d c c
f E
c c
c
c
c
= =

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .

| |
=
|
\ .
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Take the moment about the tension steel


( ) ( )
n s1 c
e
2
a
P C d d C d
| |
' '
= +
|
\ .
e 6 in. 9.5 in.
15.5 in.
'
= +
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The first equation related to P
n



( ) ( )
n
2
2
n
15.5 in. 441.5 k 21.5 in. 2.5 in.
0.85
46.24 21.5 in.
2
8388.5 k-in. 994.2 19.65
541.2 k 64.14 1.27
P
c
c
c c
P c c
=
| |
+
|
\ .
= +
= +
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The second equation comes from the equilibrium
equation and substitute in for P
n



n s1 c
2
s
2
s
2
s
541.2 k 64.14 1.27 441.5 k 46.24 7.8
7.8 1.27 17.9 99.7
0.1628 2.282 12.782
P C C T
c c c f
f c c
f c c
= +
+ = +
=
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Substitute the relationship of c for the stress in the
steel.

The problem is now a cubic solution
c f
s
RHS
15 in. 37.7 -10.38
19 in. 11.45 2.64
19.5 in. 8.92 4.63
20.0 in. 6.52 6.70
19.98 in. 6.62 6.62
2
21.5 in.
87 0.1628 2.282 12.782
c
c c
c

| |
=
|
\ .
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute P
n



Compute M
n
about the center
( ) ( )
2
n
541.2 k 64.14 19.98 in. 1.27 19.98 in.
1313.7 k 1292 k
P = +
= >
n s1 c
2 2 2 2
h h a h
M C d C T d
| | | | | |
'
= + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute M
n
about the center
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
n
2
441.5 k 12 in. 2.5 in.
0.85 19.98 in.
46.24 19.98 in. 12 in.
2
7.8 in 6.62 ksi 21.5 in. 12 in.
4194.25 k-in. 3241.4 k-in. 490.54 k-in.
7926.2 k-in. 660.5 k-ft.
M =
| |
+
|
\ .
+
= + +
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Check that M
n
is greater than the required M
u



Check the P
n
is greater than the required P
u
( )
n
0.65 660.5 k-ft.
429.33 k-ft. 420 k-ft.
M | =
= >
( )
n
0.65 1313.7 k
853.9 k 840 k
P | =
= >
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Determine the tie spacing using #4 bars

( )
( )
b
stirrup
16
spacing smallest 48
smallest dimension
16 1.41 in. 22.56 in.
48 0.5 in. 24 in.
16 in.
d
d

= =

Use 16 in.