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# Lecture 21 Columns

## July 25, 2003

CVEN 444
Lecture Goals
Columns Interaction Diagrams
Using Interaction Diagrams

Interaction Diagram
Consider an square column (20 in x 20 in.) with 8 #10
( = 0.0254) and f
c
= 4 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi. Draw the
interaction diagram.
Interaction Diagram
Given 8 # 10 (1.27 in
2
) and f
c
= 4 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi
( )
( )
2 2
st
2
2
g
2
st
2
g
8 1.27 in 10.16 in
20 in. 400 in
10.16 in
0.0254
400 in
A
A
A
A

= =
= =
= = =
Interaction Diagram
Given 8 # 10 (1.27 in
2
) and f
c
= 4 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 c g st y st
2 2
2
0.85
0.85 4 ksi 400 in 10.16 in
60 ksi 10.16 in
1935 k
P f A A f A = +
=
+
=
( )
n 0
0.8 1935 k 1548 k
P rP =
= =
[ Point 1 ]
Interaction Diagram
Determine where the balance point, c
b
.
Interaction Diagram
Determine where the balance point, c
b
. Using similar
triangles, where d = 20 in. 2.5 in. = 17.5 in., one can
find c
b
b
b
b
17.5 in.
0.003 0.003 0.00207
0.003
17.5 in.
0.003 0.00207
10.36 in.
c
c
c
=
+
| |
=
|
+
\ .
=
Interaction Diagram
Determine the strain of the steel

( )
( )
b
s1 cu
b
b
s2 cu
b
2.5 in. 10.36 in. 2.5 in.
0.003
10.36 in.
0.00228
10 in. 10.36 in. 10 in.
0.003
10.36 in.
0.000104
c
c
c
c
c c
c c
| |

| |
= =
|
|
\ .
\ .
=
| |

| |
= =
|
|
\ .
\ .
=
Interaction Diagram
Determine the stress in the steel

( )
( )
s1 s s1
s2 s s1
29000 ksi 0.00228
66 ksi 60 ksi compression
29000 ksi 0.000104
3.02 ksi compression
f E
f E
c
c
= =
=
= =
=
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
c c 1
s1 s1 s1 c
2
2
s2
0.85
0.85 4 ksi 20 in. 0.85 10.36 in.
598.8 k
0.85
3 1.27 in 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
215.6 k
2 1.27 in 3.02 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
0.97 k neglect
C f b c
C A f f
C
| =
=
=
=
=
=
=
= :
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )
( )
2
s s s
n c s1 s2 s
3 1.27 in 60 ksi
228.6 k
599.8 k 215.6 k 228.6 k
585.8 k
T A f
P C C C T
= =
=
= + +
= +
=
Interaction Diagram
Compute the moment about the center

( )
c s1 1 s 3
2 2 2 2
0.85 10.85 in.
20 in.
599.8 k
2 2
20 in.
215.6 k 2.5 in.
2
20 in.
228.6 k 17.5 in.
2
6682.2 k-in 556.9 k-ft
h a h h
M C C d T d
| | | | | |
= + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
+
|
\ .
| |
+
|
\ .
=
Interaction Diagram
A single point from interaction diagram,
(585.6 k, 556.9 k-ft). The eccentricity of the point is
defined as

6682.2 k-in
11.41 in.
585.8 k
M
e
P
= = =
[ Point 2 ]
Interaction Diagram
Now select a series of additional points by selecting
values of c. Select c = 17.5 in. Determine the strain
of the steel. (c is at the location of the tension steel)
( )
( )
s1 cu
s1
s2 cu
s2
2.5 in. 17.5 in. 2.5 in.
0.003
17.5 in.
0.00257 74.5 ksi 60 ksi (compression)
10 in. 17.5 in. 10 in.
0.003
17.5 in.
0.00129 37.3 ksi (compression)
c
c
f
c
c
f
c c
c c

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
= =

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
= =
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )( )( )( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
c c 1
2
s1 s1 s1 c
2
s2
0.85 0.85 4 ksi 20 in. 0.85 17.5 in.
1012 k
0.85 3 1.27 in 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
216 k
2 1.27 in 37.3 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
86 k
C f b c
C A f f
C
| = =
=
= =
=
=
=
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )
( )
2
s s s
n
3 1.27 in 0 ksi
0 k
1012 k 216 k 86 k
1314 k
T A f
P
= =
=
= + +
=
Interaction Diagram
Compute the moment about the center

( )
c s1 1
2 2 2
0.85 17.5 in.
20 in.
1012 k
2 2
20 in.
216 k 2.5 in.
2
4213 k-in 351.1 k-ft
h a h
M C C d
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
+
|
\ .
=
Interaction Diagram
A single point from interaction diagram,
(1314 k, 351.1 k-ft). The eccentricity of the point is
defined as

4213 k-in
3.2 in.
1314 k
M
e
P
= = =
[ Point 3 ]
Interaction Diagram
Select c = 6 in.

Determine the strain of the steel, c =6 in.
( )
( )
s1 cu
s1
s2 cu
s2
s3 cu
2.5 in. 6 in. 2.5 in.
0.003
6 in.
0.00175 50.75 ksi (compression)
10 in. 6 in. 10 in.
0.003
6 in.
0.002 58 ksi (tension)
17.5 in. 6 in.
c
c
f
c
c
f
c
c
c c
c c
c c

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
= =

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
= =

| |
= =
|
\ .
( )
s3
17.5 in.
0.003
6 in.
0.00575 60 ksi (tension) f
| |
|
\ .
= =
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )( )( )( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
c c 1
s1 s1 s1 c
2
2
s2
0.85
0.85 4 ksi 20 in. 0.85 6 in.
346.8 k
0.85
3 1.27 in 50.75 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
180.4 k C
2 1.27 in 58 ksi
147.3 k T
C f b c
C A f f
C
| =
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

( )
( )
2
s s s
n
3 1.27 in 60 ksi
228.6 k
346.8 k 180.4 k 147.3 k 228.6 k
151.3 k
T A f
P
= =
=
= +
=
Interaction Diagram
Compute the moment about the center

( )
( )
( )
c s1 1 s 3
2 2 2 2
0.85 6 in.
346.8 k 10 in.
2
180.4 k 10 in. 2.5 in.
228.6 k 17.5 in. 10 in.
5651 k-in 470.9 k-ft
h a h h
M C C d T d
| | | | | |
= + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
| |
=
|
\ .
+
+
=
Interaction Diagram
A single point from interaction diagram,
(151 k, 471 k-ft). The eccentricity of the point is
defined as

5651.2 k-in
37.35 in.
151.3 k
M
e
P
= = =
[ Point 4 ]
Interaction Diagram
Select point of straight tension.

The maximum tension
in the column is

( )
( )
2
n s y
8 1.27 in 60 ksi
610 k
P A f = =
=
[ Point 5 ]
Interaction Diagram
Point c (in) P
n
M
n
e
1 - 1548 k 0 0
2 20 1515 k 253 k-ft 2 in
3 17.5 1314 k 351 k-ft 3.2 in
4 12.5 841 k 500 k-ft 7.13 in
5 10.36 585 k 556 k-ft 11.42 in
6 8.0 393 k 531 k-ft 16.20 in
7 6.0 151 k 471 k-ft 37.35 in
8 ~4.5 0 k 395 k-ft infinity
9 0 -610 k 0 k-ft
Interaction Diagram
Column Analysis
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
M (k-ft)
P

(
k
)
Use a series of c
values to obtain the
P
n
verses M
n
.
Interaction Diagram
Column Analysis
-800
-600
-400
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 100 200 300 400 500
|Mn (k-ft)
f
P
n

(
k
)
Max. compression
Max. tension
C
b

Location of the
linearly varying |.
Behavior under Combined
Interaction Diagram Between Axial Load and Moment
( Failure Envelope )
Concrete crushes
before steel yields
Steel yields before
concrete crushes
Note: Any combination of P and M outside the envelope will cause failure.
Design for Combined Bending
Column Types
Tied Column - Bars in 2 faces (furthest from axis
of bending.
- Most efficient when e/h > 0.2
- rectangular shape increases efficiency
3)
Design for Combined Bending
Spices
Typically longitudinal bars spliced just above
each floor. (non-seismic)
Type of lap splice depends on state of stress (ACI
12.17)
Design for Combined Bending
Spices
All bars in compression Use compression lap splice
(ACI 12.16)
15 . 12 ACI
splice lap tension B Class
spliced) bars 1/2 (
B Class
) splice bars 2 / 1 (
lap A tension Class
5 . 0
face on tension 5 . 0 0
y s
y s

>
<

>
s s
f f
f f
Design for Combined Bending
Column Shear
( ) 4 - 11 ACI
2000
1 2
w c
g
u
c
d b f
A
N
V
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Recall
( Axial
Compression )
5 . 0 If
c u
> V V | Ties must satisfy ACI 11 and
ACI Sec. 7.10.5
Design for Combined Bending
( ) 10.9.1 ACI 0.08 0.01 Recall s s
For cross-section larger than required for
Min. reinforcement may be computed for
reduced effective area, A
g
, ( 1/2 A
g
(total) )
Provided strength from reduced area and
resulting A
st
>
(ACI 10.8.4 )
-
Non-dimensional Interaction
Diagrams
See Figures B-12 to B-26
or ACI Common 340 Design Handbook Vol 2
Columns (ACI 340.2R-91)
n n
c g c g
versus
P M
f A f A h
n n
n n
c g c g
e
versus R
P P
K
f A f A h
= =
or
Non-dimensional Interaction
Diagrams
Design using Non-dimensional
Interaction diagrams
u
, M
u
) and e for
Select potentially governing case(s)
Use estimate h to calculate h, e/h for governing
case(s)
1.)
2.)
3.)
Design using Non-dimensional
Interaction diagrams
Use appropriate chart (App. A) target
g

(for each governing case)
Select
4.)
5.)
n
c g

P
f A

u c
g
n
c g

P f
A
P
f A
|
=
| |
|
|
\ .
Calculate
required
h b A b * h &
g
=
Design using Non-dimensional
Interaction diagrams
If dimensions are significantly different from
estimated (step 3), recalculate ( e / h ) and redo
steps 4 & 5.
Revise A
g
if necessary.
Select steel
6.)
7.)
g st
A A =
Design using non-dimensional
interaction diagrams
Using actual dimensions & bar sizes to check all
load combinations ( use charts or exact:
interaction diagram).

Design lateral reinforcement.
8.)
9.)
Example: Column design using
Interaction Diagrams
Determine the tension and compression
reinforcement for a 16 in x 24 in. rectangular tied
column to support P
u
= 840 k and M
u
= 420 k-ft. Use
f
c
= 4 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi. Using the interaction
diagram.
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the initial components
u
n
840 kips
1292 k
0.65
P
P
|
= = =
u
n
u
12 in.
420 k-ft
ft
e 6.0 in.
840 k
M
P
| |
|
\ .
= = =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the initial components
24 in. 5.0 in. 19.0 in. h = =
19.0 in.
0.79
24 in.
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the coefficients of the column
( )( )( )
n
n
g c
1292 k
16 in. 24 in. 4 ksi
0.84
P
K
A f
= =
=
( )( )
( )( )( )( )
n
n
g c
1292 k 6 in.
e
16 in. 24 in. 4 ksi 24 in.
0.21
P
R
A f h
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using an interaction
diagram, B-13
( ) ( )
n n
c y
, 0.21, 0.84
0.7
4 ksi 60 ksi
0.042
R K
f f

=
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using an interaction
diagram, B-14
( ) ( )
n n
c y
, 0.21, 0.84
0.9
4 ksi 60 ksi
0.034
R K
f f

=
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using linear interpolation to find the of the column
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0.9 0.7
0.7
0.7
0.9 0.7
0.034 0.042
0.042 0.79 0.7
0.9 0.7
0.0384

= +

=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Determine the amount of steel required

Select the steel for the column, using #11 bars
( )( )( )
st g
2
0.0384 16 in. 24 in.
14.75 in
A A = =
=
2
st
2
b
14.75 in
9.45 bars 10 bars
1.56 in
A
A
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The areas of the steel:

2
st
2 2
s1 t
15.6 in
7.8 in , 7.8 in
A
A A
=
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The compression components are

( )
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
2
s1 s1 y c
c c
0.85 7.8 in 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
441.5 k
0.85 0.85 4 ksi 16 in. 0.85
46.24
C A f f
C f ba c
c
= =
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The tension component is

( )
2
s1 s s
s s cu
7.8 in
21.5 in.
29000 ksi 0.003
21.5 in.
87 ksi
T A f f
d c c
f E
c c
c
c
c
= =

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .

| |
=
|
\ .
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Take the moment about the tension steel

( ) ( )
n s1 c
e
2
a
P C d d C d
| |
' '
= +
|
\ .
e 6 in. 9.5 in.
15.5 in.
'
= +
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The first equation related to P
n

( ) ( )
n
2
2
n
15.5 in. 441.5 k 21.5 in. 2.5 in.
0.85
46.24 21.5 in.
2
8388.5 k-in. 994.2 19.65
541.2 k 64.14 1.27
P
c
c
c c
P c c
=
| |
+
|
\ .
= +
= +
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The second equation comes from the equilibrium
equation and substitute in for P
n

n s1 c
2
s
2
s
2
s
541.2 k 64.14 1.27 441.5 k 46.24 7.8
7.8 1.27 17.9 99.7
0.1628 2.282 12.782
P C C T
c c c f
f c c
f c c
= +
+ = +
=
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Substitute the relationship of c for the stress in the
steel.

The problem is now a cubic solution
c f
s
RHS
15 in. 37.7 -10.38
19 in. 11.45 2.64
19.5 in. 8.92 4.63
20.0 in. 6.52 6.70
19.98 in. 6.62 6.62
2
21.5 in.
87 0.1628 2.282 12.782
c
c c
c

| |
=
|
\ .
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute P
n

Compute M
n
( ) ( )
2
n
541.2 k 64.14 19.98 in. 1.27 19.98 in.
1313.7 k 1292 k
P = +
= >
n s1 c
2 2 2 2
h h a h
M C d C T d
| | | | | |
'
= + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute M
n
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
n
2
441.5 k 12 in. 2.5 in.
0.85 19.98 in.
46.24 19.98 in. 12 in.
2
7.8 in 6.62 ksi 21.5 in. 12 in.
4194.25 k-in. 3241.4 k-in. 490.54 k-in.
7926.2 k-in. 660.5 k-ft.
M =
| |
+
|
\ .
+
= + +
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Check that M
n
is greater than the required M
u

Check the P
n
is greater than the required P
u
( )
n
0.65 660.5 k-ft.
429.33 k-ft. 420 k-ft.
M | =
= >
( )
n
0.65 1313.7 k
853.9 k 840 k
P | =
= >
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Determine the tie spacing using #4 bars

( )
( )
b
stirrup
16
spacing smallest 48
smallest dimension
16 1.41 in. 22.56 in.
48 0.5 in. 24 in.
16 in.
d
d

= =

Use 16 in.