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Embedded Systems Training & Skills Development Program

Embex Technologies Private Limited

Agenda
1.

Introduction
About Embex Mission Objective Operating Model

1.

Embedded System
What is Embedded System Embedded Domains Current Industry Trends

1.

Embex in Academic Training


Training Plan Example Projects

1.

Embex in Industry: Products & Solutions


Embedded Projects Instumentation Projects

Embedded System
1.

Embedded System

What is Embedded System Embedded Domains Current Industry Trends (Technology & Job Market)

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

What is Embedded System?

Embedded systems (ES) = information processing systems embedded into a larger product

General features

This is a system which has closely coupled hardware and software to perform specific function. This is a part of larger system that may not be computer This can be a stand alone system with minimal reprogrammability while in application. Works in a reactive and time constrained environment.

Characteristics of Embedded Systems

Must be dependable, Must be dependable, Reliability R(t) = probability of system working correctly Reliability R(t) = probability of system working correctly provided that is was working at t=0 provided that is was working at t=0 Maintainability M(d) = probability of system working Maintainability M(d) = probability of system working correctly d time units after error occurred. correctly d time units after error occurred. Availability A(t): probability of system working at time tt Availability A(t): probability of system working at time Safety: no harm to be caused Safety: no harm to be caused Security: confidential and authentic communication Security: confidential and authentic communication Even perfectly designed systems can fail if the assumptions Even perfectly designed systems can fail if the assumptions about the workload and possible errors turn out to be wrong. about the workload and possible errors turn out to be wrong. Making the system dependable must not be an after-thought, it Making the system dependable must not be an after-thought, it must be considered from the very beginning must be considered from the very beginning

Application areas
1.

Automotive electronics Aircraft electronics Trains Telecommunication

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Application Areas
5. Medical systems 5. Medical systems e.g. artificial eye e.g. artificial eye

6. Military applications 6. Military applications

7. Authentication 7. Authentication

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Application areas
8. 8.

Consumer Consumer electronics electronics

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Application areas
9. Fabrication equipment 9. Fabrication equipment

10. Smart buildings 10. Smart buildings

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Application areas
11. Robotics 11. Robotics

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Embedded systems from real life


Typical embedded solution Typical embedded solution Integrates several technologies: Integrates several technologies:

Radio transmissions Radio transmissions Sensor technology Sensor technology Magnetic inductance for power Magnetic inductance for power Computer used for calibration Computer used for calibration

Impossible without the computer Impossible without the computer

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Meaningless without the electronics Meaningless without the electronics

Embedded systems from real life


1. Smart Beer Glass
Capacitive sensor for fluid level 8-bit, 8-pin PIC processor Contact less transmission of power and readings Inductive coil for RF ID activation & power

CPU and reading coil in the table. Reports the level of fluid in the glass, alerts servers when close to empty

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Embedded systems from real life


2. Mobile Phones and Base Stations

Massive signal processing Massive signal processing

Several processing tasks per Multiprocessor connected call connected for UI; DSP for signals 8-bit/32-bit call Based on IR port; 32-bit in Bluetooth 32-bit in DSPs Based on DSPs 8-100 MB of memory Standard or custom Standard or custom All custom chips

Several processing tasks per

100s of processors 100s of processors

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Embedded systems from real life


3. Sewing Machine

User interface

Embroidery patterns Touch-screen control Sets pressure of foot depending on task Raise foot when stopped

Smart

New functions added by upgrading the software

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Embedded systems from real life


4. Cars

Multiple processors

Up to 100 Networked together

Functions by embedded Functions by embedded processing: processing:


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ABS: Anti-lock braking ABS: Anti-lock braking systems systems ESP: Electronic stability ESP: Electronic stability control control Airbags Airbags Efficient automatic gearboxes Efficient automatic gearboxes Theft prevention with smart Theft prevention with smart keys keys Blind-angle alert systems Blind-angle alert systems ... etc ... ... etc ...

Embedded systems from real life


5. Extremely Large

Functions requiring computers:


Radar Weapons Damage control Navigation basically everything Large servers 1000s of processors

Computers:

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Embedded systems from real life


6. Inside Your PC

Custom processors

Graphics, sound IR, Bluetooth Network, WLAN Harddisk RAID controllers USB Keyboard, mouse

32-bit processors

8-bit processors

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Detailed Examples
Microwave

Oven Washing Machine Air Conditioner Blood Pressure Monitor Block Diagram

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Example 1: Microwave Oven

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Role of embedded
Let

the user choose recipe from keys, e.g. Power, time to cook, predefined recipe. Switch on the Magnetron (source of microwave: > 300Mhz radio frequency) Rotate tray by motor driver Buzzer indication of process complete Interlock: Steam temperature sensor: trip if temperature rises higher than tolerable limit.
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Example 2: Washing Machine

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Role of embedded
Motor

control: Direction, speed with switching of thyristors Display control Water level control Volume control Interlock for door: Dont run motor if door open Temperature control
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Example 3: Air Conditioner

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Role of embedded
Compressor

control & external fan control Temperature control Power mode management Remote control management

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Embex Technologies

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Example 4: BP Monitor

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Blood Pressure Monitor Block Diagram

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Courtesy Texas Instruments

The blood pressure monitor

Pressure cuff, pump, and transducer to measure blood pressure and heart rate in three phases Inflation, Measurement, and Deflation (details later in case studies) LCD, selection buttons, memory recall, power management, and USB interface.

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Core subsystems of an embedded system

Processor/Memory - The digital pressure measurement and heart rate are performed by the microprocessor. Measurements results are stored in EEPROM or FLASH memory as a data log that can be uploaded to a PC via USB. User Interface - allows user to control the pressure measurement process and read the results on LCD display. Sensor Interface - allows the processor to control the cuff inflation/deflation and sense blood pressure which is amplified by instrumentation amplifiers and digitized by the A/D. Power Conversion - converts input power from the alkaline battery to run various functional blocks.

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Embex Technologies

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Overview of Embedded System Domains


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EMBEDDED DOMAINS

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Automotive Applications

Air bags control Anti lock Braking System (ABS) Engine control Tyre pressure monitoring Climate control Automatic Parking Collision Avoidance System Driver Information & Navigation System Light, Door and Seat control Keyless Entry

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Properties of Automotive Electronics


Distributed Control Points Multi-controller Multi-bus hardware platform High safety! Real-time requirements e.g. Airbags Sensor conditioning: Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Distance, Speed, Night Vision,

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Embedded in your car!

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Companies in Automotive

OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers)

Vehicle Manufacturers & Component Manufacturers

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Companies in Automotive
Embedded Solution Providers

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Companies in Automotive
Software Tools & Semiconductor

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Example 1: Automatic Parking

Sensor

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Example 2: Range & Speed Measurement

Sensor

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Example 3: Night/Fog Vision

Sensor

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Industrial Automation Applications

Process control: Control of chemical plant, oil refinery etc. SCADA (Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition- PC controls & monitors smaller controllers mounted in field) Plant automation: Computer Numeric Control Machines, robots for manufacturing Safety Interlocks: safety systems to avoid life and material hazard, like plant shutdown if gas leaks.

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Properties of Industrial Automation Solutions

Distributed RTUs (Remote Terminal Units: small controllers) Master-Slave / Multimaster architecture Longer distance communication links (RS-485, Optical Fiber, RF wireless) Data integrity crucial (One data bit = One open/close valve, One wrong bit can cause hazard) Timing constraints somewhere: Action on an input taken quickly, like plant shutdown if gas leaks.

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Companies in Industrial Automation


Emerson Honeywell ABB Rockwell

Automation Yokogawa L&T Mitsubishi


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Example-1: Warehouse

Managing storage and Protecting material Security and safety Devices Access control Authorization

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Example-2: Manufacturing
Everywhere

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Consumer Electronics Applications


Automatic Washing Machine Microwave Oven Air-conditioning System Home-security & burglar alarm Audio / Music system DVD (Digital Versatile Disk), Video players Mobile, Modem,

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Properties of Consumer Electronics


Data intensive applications Fast processing required Portability is important Power sensitive design Cost effectiveness required User friendly operation essential

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Companies in Consumer Electronics


Samsung LG Sony HP Apple Videocon Philips And many more..

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Medical Applications

Patient Monitoring: Blood Pressure monitor (BPM) Clinical Treatment: Dialysis machine Diagnostic Imaging: MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), CT (Computer Tomography) scan Hospital Networking and Information Systems.

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Properties of Medical Electronics


Accuracy: no error tolerable Reliability: results should be genuine Conformance with standards: Low Electromagnetic radiation, no hazardous components etc. Fail safe: should work 24x7 Efficient data management: information about patient is crucial Redundancy: there should be a backup system if main system fails

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Trends in Diagnostic and monitoring

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Companies in Medical Electronics


Johnson Siemens Stryker Citizen Transasia

& Johnson

Biomedicals

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Office Automation
Avaya Cisco IBM HP Tenovis Dell

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Mobile & Wireless


Nokia Samsung Motorola HTC Blackberry iBall D-link

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Storage
Sandisk Seagate Transcend Kingston LG HP

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Other Embedded System Companies


Texas Instruments National Instruments AMD AMCC Renesas ST Microelectronics BEL Atmel

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Jobs in Embedded Systems


Hardware

Design

Chip design (VLSI) Board design Board testing and debugging Circuit design EDA tools development (software)

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Jobs in Embedded Systems


Firmware

development

Device Driver development Board Support Package (BSP) development BIOS development Protocol development Embedded Operating System design & development RTOS design and development RTOS porting on different processors

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Jobs in Embedded Systems


Software

Development

Embedded System Simulation (e.g. Simulink) PC driver development (e.g. Hard Disk Driver) Networking protocol stack development Mobile applications development (e.g. Windows Mobile, Symbian based applications) EDA tools development (e.g. Cross compiler design)

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