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MET 210W

Chapter 2 Materials in
Mechanical Design
Properties of Materials:
1. Chemical relate to structure of material,
atomic bonds, etc.
2. Physical response of a material due to
interaction with various forms of energy
(i.e. magnetic, thermal, etc).
3. Mechanical response of a material due
to an applied force. Main focus for
Machine Design.
Important Mechanical Properties:
Tension Test
Most important and common material test for generating mechanical properties.
Example: stress-strain curves:
Stress-Strain Curve for Steel
S
y
Yield Point, S
y
Tensile Strength, S
u
Elastic Limit

Proportional Limit

c A
o A
= E
Modulus of Elasticity

Strain, c

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

o

Stress Strain Curve for Aluminum
S
y
Yield Strength, S
y
Tensile Strength, S
u
Elastic Limit

Proportional Limit

Parallel Lines

Strain, c

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

o

Offset strain, usually 0.2%

Ductility
The degree to which a material will deform
before ultimate fracture.
Ductile materials indicate impending failure.
(%E 5%)
Brittle materials dont (%E < 5%)
For machine members subject to repeated
loads or shock or impact, use %E 12%
% 100 x
L
L L
Elongation %
o
o f

=
Ductile materials - extensive plastic deformation and
energy absorption (toughness) before fracture

Brittle materials - little plastic deformation and low energy
absorption before failure
Other properties determined from stress strain curve:
Shear Strength Estimates
y us
y
ys
S 75 . S
2
S
S
=
=
Yield strength in
shear
Ultimate strength
in shear
Poissons Ratio
RANGES
0.25 0.27 for Cast Iron
0.27 0.30 for Steel
0.30 0.33 for Aluminum and Titanium
AL LONGITUDIN
TRANSVERSE
c
c
v =
o
o f
AX
o
o f
LAT
L
L L
h
h h

= c

= c
Modulus of Rigidity in Shear
Measure of resistance to shear
deformation.

Valid within the ELASTIC range of the
material
) (
,
v +
=

t
=
1 2
E
G G
Modulus of Elasticity aka Youngs Modulus (psi) slope of linear region:
c
o
c c
o o
=

=
1 2
1 2
E

2
-
1
= difference in tensile stress between points 1 and 2

2
-
1
= difference in tensile strain between points 1 and 2
offset use or
A
Py
strength yield Sy
y
% 2 . = = = o
Yield Strength (psi) = onset of permanent deformation:
Percent Elongation:
% 100

=
o
o f
L
L L
L
o
= original gauge length
L
f
= final gauge length
Percent Reduction of Area :
% 100

=
o
f o
A
A A
A
o
= original cross-sectional area
A
f
= final cross-sectional area
A
Pu
S T U Su
u
= = = . . o
Tensile Strength (psi) = max stress or peak stress sustainable:
Poison's Ratio (unit less) = ratio of transverse to longitudinal strain:
al longitudin
transverse
c
c
v =
Summary: Key Material Properties:
Modulus of Resilience (psi) = area under stress
strain curve up to elastic limit or yield strength
E
U
el
el el R
2 2
1
2
o
c o = =
Modulus of Toughness (psi) = total area under stress
strain curve up from 0 to fracture. Related to impact
Strength:
curve under Area U
T
c o =
Misc: fracture stress, proportional limit,
elastic limit, elastic strain, impact
strength, fracture toughness, etc
>5% = ductile
<5% = brittle
Modulus Shear G = =

t

t t
1 2
1 2
Ultimate strength in compression:
2
Sy
shear in strength yield Sys
y
= = = t
Yield Strength in shear:

shear in strength ultimate Sus
u
= = t
Ultimate Strength in shear:
Other important material properties specific to Polymers:
n compressio in strength Ultimate Suc
uc
= = o
Strength Flexural
F
= o
Modulus Flexural E
F
=
Also secant strengths, secant modulus,
compression set, stress creep, relaxation, etc..
) 1 ( 2 v + = G E
Note:
Summary: Key Material Properties:
Example: find yield
strength, ultimate strength
and modulus of elasticity:
Example: find yield strength and ultimate
for material that does not exhibit knee
behavior
Example
DATA
generated
on MTS
machine:
Stress-Strain Tensile Curve for Specimen 5
0.0
5000.0
10000.0
15000.0
20000.0
25000.0
30000.0
35000.0
40000.0
45000.0
50000.0
0.0000 0.0200 0.0400 0.0600 0.0800 0.1000 0.1200
Strain (in/in)
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
Temperature = 23 C
RJM 9/5/05
Su = ultimate
Strength =
47,820 psi
Sy = Yield
Strength =
44,200 psi
.002 = .2%
offset
E = Youngs Modulus = (34,640
10,597)/(.0036 - .0011) = 9.6 E6
% Elongation = 11.5%
EX:
Stress-Strain Tensile Curve for Specimen 5
0.0
5000.0
10000.0
15000.0
20000.0
25000.0
30000.0
35000.0
40000.0
45000.0
50000.0
0.0000 0.0200 0.0400 0.0600 0.0800 0.1000 0.1200
Strain (in/in)
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
Temperature = 23 C
RJM 9/5/05
Modulus of Resilience =
area under stress-strain
curve up to elastic limit
psi
E
el
el el
8 . 96
) 000 , 000 , 10 ( 2
) 000 , 44 (
2 2
1
2 2
= = = =
o
c o
EX:
Elastic strain approx: .005 in/in
Stress-Strain Tensile Curve for Specimen 5
0.0
5000.0
10000.0
15000.0
20000.0
25000.0
30000.0
35000.0
40000.0
45000.0
50000.0
0.0000 0.0200 0.0400 0.0600 0.0800 0.1000 0.1200
Strain (in/in)
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
p
s
i
)
Temperature = 23 C
RJM 9/5/05
Approx = 96.8 psi + (46,000)(.115 - .0043) = 5,190 psi
Modulus of Toughness =
U
T
= area under stress-
strain curve from 0 to
fracture strain.
Hardness
Resistance of a material to be indented by
an indenter.
C10 mm ball
C of hole = BHN
ROCKWELL 100 kg load (B Scale)
C1/16 Ball (B Scale)
B-Scale for soft materials
C-Scale for harder metals (Heat treated)
(Use 150 kg load with diamond cone indenter)
Hardness calculated directly by machine (depth of indentation)

Hardness Comparison
Hardness
values in the
ranges HRB
>100 and HRC
< 20 are not
recommended
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Highest level of stress a material can
develop.
FOR CARBON STEEL ONLY:
Su 500 * BHN
(in PSI, BHN = Brinell Hardness Number)
Toughness
Toughness is the ability of a material to
absorb energy without failure.
Parts subjected to impact or shock loads
need to be tough.
Testing: Charpy and Izod tests
Impact energy determined from the testing
is used to compare materials
Fatigue
Failure mode of parts experiencing
thousands or millions of repeated loads.
Endurance Strength - a materials
resistance to fatigue. Determined by
testing.
Creep
Progressive elongation of a part over time.
Metals usually requires a large load
usually requires high temperature
(> .3T
m
)
Plastic creep occurs at low temperatures

Polymers: Creep vs Stress Relaxation vs. Compression Set related but
measured differently!!
Mechanical Property Summary
Property Interpretation
Common or
Related Measure
Strength
Ability to resist breaking Yield stress
Stiffness
Ability to resist deformation Modulus of elasticity
Ductility
Permanent deformation
before breaking
%Elongation
Toughness
Ability to withstand impact or
resist breaking
Energy or work
necessary to fracture
material
Hardness
Ability to resist
abrasion/scratching
Scores on hardness
tests
Creep
deformation under an
applied constant stress
Creep strength
Material Selection
The materials selected for a design often will
determine the fabrication processes that can be
used to manufacture the product, its
performance characteristics, and its recyclability
and environmental impact. As a result,
engineers should acquire a robust
understanding of material characteristics and the
criteria that one should use in making material
selections.
- Voland, Engineering by Design, Addison-Wesley, 1999, pg. 400
Material Categories
Metals iron, steel, aluminum, copper, magnesium,
nickel, titanium, zinc
Polymers thermoplastics & thermosets
Ceramics
Composites Carbon fiber, Kevlar & fiberglass,
wood and reinforced concrete
Steel
Widely used for machine elements
High strength
High stiffness
Durable
Relative ease of fabrication
Alloy of Iron, Carbon, Manganese & 1 or
more other significant elements.
(Sulfur, Phosphorus, Silicon, Nickel, Chromium,

Carbon
Carbon has huge effect on strength,
hardness and ductility of steel.

Carbon Content |
Strength & Hardness |
Ductility

All these curves are
steels.
What do they have in
common?
What is different?
Steel Designation Systems
AISI American Iron & Steel Institute
SAE Society of Automobile Engineers
ASTM American Society for Testing
Materials

General Designation
General Form AISI:
AISI XXXX

Carbon Content in
Hundredths of a percent
Specific alloy in the
group
Alloy group; indicates
major alloying elements
AISI 1020 AISI 4340
Examples:

2350
2550
4140
1060
1. Low Carbon (less than 0.3% carbon)
Low strength, good formability
If wear is a potential problem, can be carburized
(diffusion hardening)
Most stampings made from these steels
AISI 1008, 1010, 1015, 1018, 1020, 1022, 1025

2. Med Carbon (0.3% to 0.6%)
Have moderate to high strength with fairly good ductility
Can be used in most machine elements
AISI 1030, 1040, 1050, 1060*

3. High Carbon (0.6% to 0.95%)
Have high strength, lower elongation
Can be quench hardened
Used in applications where surface subject to abrasion
tools, knives, chisels, ag implements.
AISI 1080, 1095
Plain Carbon Steel
Steel Conditions
Steel properties vary depending on the
manufacturing process
Steel is often rolled or drawn through a die
Hot-rolled rolled at elevated temperature
Cold-rolled improved strength & surface
finish
Cold-drawn highest strength with good
surface finish
Heat Treating
Process for modifying the properties of
steel by heating
Processes used most for machine steels:
Annealing
Normalizing
Through-hardening (quench & temper)
Case hardening
All these curves are
steels.
What do they have in
common?
What is different?
RT = Room Temperature
LC = Lower Critical Temperature
UC = Upper Critical Temperature
Annealing
Full-Annealing: creates
uniform composition of the
material.
Soft, low-strength material
No significant internal stress
Stress Relief Annealing
Stress Relief Annealing
Done after welding,
machining or cold forming to
relieve residual stresses
minimizing distortions
RT = Room Temperature
LC = Lower Critical Temperature
UC = Upper Critical Temperature
Normalizing
Similar to annealing but
at a higher temperature
Higher strength
Machinability and
toughness are improved
over as-rolled state.
RT = Room Temperature
LC = Lower Critical Temperature
UC = Upper Critical Temperature
Austenite: A nonmagnetic solid solution
of ferric carbide or carbon in iron, used in
making corrosion-resistant steel
Through-hardening
Heated quickly forming
austenite then quickly
cooling in a quenching
medium.
Martensite hard form of
steel is formed
Quenching mediums:
water, brine and special
mineral oils.
Quenched steel that isnt
tempered is brittle
RT = Room Temperature
LC = Lower Critical Temperature
UC = Upper Critical Temperature
Tempering
Reheat steel to 400F 1300F
immediately after quenching and allowing
it to cool slowly.
As tempering temperature increases,
ultimate and yield strengths decrease and
ductility increases
Machine parts should be tempered at 700
F minimum after quenching. Quenching
leaves the material brittle.
AISI
1040 WQT
Higher Tempering
temps. decreases
strength but
increases ductility

WQT = water
quenched &
tempered
Fig. A4-1, Appendix 4, pg. A-8
Case Hardening
Surface of a part is hardened but core
remains soft & ductile think m&ms.
Usually .010 to .040 thick
Methods:
Flame hardening and induction hardening
Carburizing, nitriding, cyaniding, and carbo-
nitriding

Stainless Steel
Corrosion resistant steel 12 to 18%
chromium content
Types
Austenitic moderate strength, nonmagnetic,
tempering: 1/4 hard, 1/2 hard, 3/4 hard and full
hard. (200 and 300 series)
Ferritic magnetic, good for use at high
temps. Cant be heat-treated. (400 series)
Martensitic magnetic, can be heat-treated.
Good toughness and stronger than 200 and
300 series. Wide range of uses: scissors, pump
arts, airplanes, marine hardware, medical
equipment.
Structural Steels
High strength, low carbon alloy steel
Structural Plates and Bars
Gray Iron
Brittle material, S
u
from 20 to 60 ksi
Compressive stress ~ 5X S
u
Excellent wear resistance
Easy to machine
Good vibration dampening ability
Classes: 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60
Minimum S
u
Ductile Iron
Higher strength than gray iron
More ductile

Tensile
strength
in ksi
Yield strength in ksi
% elongation in
a 2 gage length
Malleable Iron
Heat treatable cast iron
Moderate to high strength
High modulus of elasticity
Good machineability
Good wear resistance

Yield strength % elongation
Powdered Metals
Metal powders are placed into a die and
compacted under high pressure.
Sintering at high temperatures fuses the
powder into a uniform mass.
Usually brittle not good for impact
Sintered bearings porous and can be
saturated with lubricant
Lightweight material, good corrosion
resistance, relative ease of forming &
machining.
Good appearance.
Generally tempered
O = annealed
H = strain-hardened
T = heat treated
6061-T6
Aluminum
Strain-hardening:
controlled cold working
of the alloy increases
hardness and strength,
reduces ductility.
Titanium
Good corrosion resistance
High strength to weight ratio
Modulus of Elasticity ~ 16 x 10
6
psi
Specific weight = .160 #/in
3
Strength 25 to 75 ksi
High cost
Difficult to machine
Designation:
Ti-50A
Yield strength expected in ksi
Plastics
Thermoplastic can be repeatedly formed by
heating or molding properties not changed.
CAN BE RECYLCED!
Nylon
ABS
Polycarbonate
Acrylic
Commodity plastics: Polypropylene (P), Polyethylene (PE), Polyvinyl
Chloride (PVC), Polystyrene (PS)
Thermoset undergoes a chemical change
during forming. It cant be reshaped. CAN NOT
BE RECYCLED!
Phenolic
Polyester
Epoxy
Ceramics
Formed by applying high temperatures to
inorganic, nonmetallic, and generally
inexpensive material, especially clay.
Strong, nonconductive and weather
resistant.
Brittle

Composites
Two or more materials acting together to
provide material properties that can be
tailored to specific conditions.
Often glass or carbon fibers bonded
together with a matrix material epoxy,
polyester, others.
Material Selection
A good material is one that works in the
given application cheaply.

If wt & size not important use cheap matl
Size no problem, wt is use hollow matl
Wt & size important use \$\$\$ material