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Internationalized Domain

Names (IDN)

APAN Busan

James Seng
jseng@pobox.org.sg
former co-chair, IDN Working Group
Internationalized Domain Names
华人 . 公司 .cn 華人 . 商業 .tw

高島屋 . 会社 .jp

삼성 . 회사 .kr 三星 . 회사 .kr
‫م‬.‫الهرام‬
viagénie.qc.ca
‫קום‬.‫ישראל‬

ทีเอชนิค.พาณิชย์.ไทย

現代 .com ヤフー .com


Punycode
RFC3492

 Designed for use with Internationalized


Domain Names

 It uniquely and reversibly transforms a


Unicode string into an LDH string (Letter,
Digit, Hyphen)

 Some compression to produce shorter


string

 e.g. 新加坡 xn--3bs3aw5wpa2a


Stringprep/Nameprep
RFC3454/RFC3451

 Prepare internationalized domain name labels in


order to increase the likelihood that name input
and name comparison work in ways that make
sense for typical users throughout the world.

 Based on UTR#15 (Normalization) & UTR#22


(Case Mapping)

 Stringprep is the generic processing [RFC3454]

 Nameprep is a profile of stringprep for


Internationalized Domain Names
IDNA
RFC3490

 IDNA only upgrade in applications to


handle IDN

 Consideration of legacy encoding and


interopability

 Enforce Nameprep in applications

 Uses Nameprep-ACE’ed IDN over the wire


IDNA-Nameprep-Punycode
User

End
IDNA System
processing

Punycode

Resolver
Punycode unless
protocol is updated
Punycode
DNS Application
Servers Servers
IDNA-Nameprep-Punycode
User Input: 新加坡

(48 34 28 51 38 34)GBK

IDNA
processing

xn--3bs3aw5wpa2a
(E6 96 B0 E5 8A A0
Resolver E5 9D A1)UTF-8

xn--3bs3aw5wpa2a
DNS Application
Servers Servers
So…
 200 engineers
 30 months
 6,000 engineering man-months
 more then 10 high-tech companies
 over 1M names registered
 >100M USD investment

What next?
The Eco-system
Policy

delegation

RRP/EPP
registration
resolution

Other
Protocols
What we have so far
Policy

delegation

RRP/EPP
registration

IDNA resolution

Other
Protocols
CJK Administration Guideline
draft-jseng-idn-admin-01.txt

Policy
 JET effort (started in Feb 2002).
delegation
 The goal is to reduce potential
dispute conflict by reservation of
variants
RRP/EPP
registration
 Provide an algorithm for the
variants but allow zoneresolution
admin to
define further rules

 An example how to bridge the gap


between
Other the technical restriction
and users expection.
Protocols
Email & Netnews Proposal
draft-faerber-i18n-email-netnews-names-00.txt

 Internationalized Emails and Netnews


names

 Based on IDNA

 Have consideration for Email identifiers

Other
Protocols
Internationalized Resource Identifier
draft-duerst-iri-00.txt

 Policy
Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI)

 Complement URI [RFC2396],delegation


with a
mapping of IRI to URI
RRP/EPP
 Define
registration a new protocol element
resolution
???

Other
Protocols
Policy
Policy
 Understand the technical limitation
 Script vs. Language
 Name vs. Identifier
 Internationalization vs. Localization
 Per label basis

 Understand what users wants


 Script vs. Language
 Name vs. Identifier
 Internationalization vs. Localization
 Per “FQDN” (whole domain name) basis
Other development
 IDN Open Source
 Develop quality RFC compliant software
to support IDN capability in different
applications running on all major
operating system

 Would consist of IDN libraries, IDN


plugins, IDN tools & software patches

 Supportedby Internet Software


Consortium (ISC)
IDN OSS

Advisory
Council

Project
Convener

Legal Project
Counsel Manager

Chief Technical Quality


Translators
Software Architect Writers Assurance

Programmers
OR