Anda di halaman 1dari 142

Post Graduate Program

Managing Across Borders and Cultures

By : DR. Sudarsono, SH, MPd


(By DR. Walter from San Jose California 2005)
1. 2. 3.




Education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance. Courage is not the absence of fear, but rather the judgment that something else is more important than fear. Almost everyone acknowledges you learn best when you teach another and that you learning is internalized when you live it. The best way to get people to learn is to turn them into teacher, in other world, you learn the material best when you teach it. To know and not to do, is realy not to know, to learn and not to do is not to learn, in other words, to understand something but not apply it is really not to understand, it is only in the doing, the applying, that knowledge and understanding are internalized. Self knowledge is best learned, but not by contemplation, but by action, strive to do your duty and you will soon discoverof what stuff you are made

Lahir di Vienna Austria 19 Nov 1909 Meninggal di Amerika 11 Nov 2005 Murid dari Maynard Keyness Cambridge University

Peter F. Drucker

Apakah Management itu : Mengenai orang dan Kinerjanya Semua institusi / Organisasi hanya memiliki satu sumber daya, yaitu : Manusia Fungsi Management : Membuat, mendorong agar manusia lebih produktif Institusi / Organisasi : Wahana manusia dalam mencari makna hidup Management membangun kerja untuk membentuk manusia yang terlibat didalamnya berkembang kwalitas hidupnya Tidak ada institusi yang bekerja untuk diri sendiri tanpa kecuali bisnis Bisnis menjadi benar karena ia prima melayani publik dan komunitas Jika institusi melalaikan fungsi management yaitu untuk meningkatkan kwalitas hidup manusia maka terjadi Mismanagement

Management adalah Humanisasi : Manusia butuh management guna berprestasi dan pengembangan pribadi. Institusi dan management tidak bisa dipisahkan dari tubuh sosial yang hendak dilayani. Aktivitas analisis keuangan, matematika, kwantifikasi hanya kerangka dan fondasi gedung (management) bukan arsitektur. 90% dari proses management adalah Humanisasi. 10% Kegiatan spesifik dan praktis. Management adalah masalah manusia bila bergerak organisasi akan berjalan. Karya intelektual Drucker dibidang Management ada 30 buku terbaik. Bila Drucker ditanya mana karya yang terbaik, jawab : The Next Tujuan Drucker : agar management semakin manusiawi, semakin berorientasi kepada manusia, semakin membela manusia.



Knowledge Worker memerlukan Paradigma

Manajemen baru Strategi baru Pemimpin perubahan Menjawab tantangan informasi Produktivitas pekerja berbasis pengentahuan

Kemampuan mengelola diri sendiri


Prediksi Masa Depan Ekonomi Global

Fanatisme kebangsaan akan mencair akan tumbuh pesat regionalisasi ekonomi : Uni Europe, NAFTA, APEC, AFTA.

ASEAN di Vientiane, Laos 28 Nopember 2004 ASEAN - China

ASEAN Jepang Korea Selatan

Globalism The World is Flat

Global competition characterized by networks of international linkages that bind countries institutions and people in an interpedently global economy.

One person described globalization in the context of the situation surrounding the death of princess Diana of England

Princess Diana was an English princess With an Egyptian boyfriend Who crashed in french tunnel Driving a German car With a Duch engine Driven by a Belgian who was drunk On Scottish whisky Followed closely by Italian Paparazzi On Japanese motorcycles She was treated by an American Doctor Using Brazilian is sent to you by an American Indian Using Bill Gatess technology And your are probably reading this on your computer That uses Taiwanese chip An Korean monitor Assembled by Bangladeshi works In a Singapore plant Transported by Indian lorry-drivers, Unloaded by Sicilian Longshoremen, And trucked to you by Mexican immigrants

Tutntutan Global Matshushita SMILE Sepeciality Management Internasional Language Endeavor


Way of living company/organization that wants to make a better position in world Market by studying their organization to more advanced position. Emphasizing creative thinking process which aims not only to conduct continuous Improvements in product/service quality, but also make changes in the management, organization ; as well as carrying out industrial transformation so that it can remain forward and expand. The basic consideration is aspect of integrity and systematic of all fundamental element of International Management : Team of Business thinker. Leadership conference
Total Quality Management Strategy and Bench marking audit

Business process and empowerment management reenginerring



I Invite you to consider seven seismic Shifts that characterize the new Knowledge Worker Age. In them you find the context of todays workplace and your personal challenges 1. The Globalization of Market and technologies. New technologies are transforming most local, regional and national market into global market without borders.


2. The Emergence of universal Connectivity; in the book Blown to bits, The narrow, hard-wired, and proprietary communication channels that bound people or companies together have become obsolete almost overnight.

3. The Democratization of Information/Expectation : No one manages the internet. It is a sea change of global proportion. Real-time information drives expectation and social will, which ultimately drive the political will that impacts every person

4 An Exponential increase in Competition: The internet and satelite technologies make any body who is hooked up a potential competitor. Organizations must constantly develop better ways of competing against lower labor price, lower material costs, faster innovation, greater efficiency and higher quality. 5. The Movement of Wealth Creation from Financial Capital to intellectual and Social Capital: The wealth creation movement has gone from money to people from financial capital to the summary notion of human capital (both intellectual and social ) which includes all

6. Free Agency : People are becoming more and more informed, aware and conscious of option and alternatives than ever before. The employment market is turning into a free agent market and people have more and more awareness of choices 7. Permanent White Water: We live in a constant, churning, changing environment. In turbulent white water, every single person must have something inside them that guides their decision.





A proses where by national economics becom subsumed and rearticulated into the system by essentially international processes and transaction. An evolutionary proses towards a one-world economy, global marketing, product distribution and strategy. Expansion of, invesment in, and increasing dependence on world operations for profit. Establishment of global network (informtion, labour finance) to be used for maximizing profitability privatization of industry.


complete independence of states no longer exist. In one state affect other state and supranational rules are needed for at least three reasons : 1. Technical development 2. A number of national measures have affet in other states, such as disposal of radioactive waste and pollution in general. 3. Public opinion no longer accepts that governments are completely sovereign in their own state ; some national acts, such as genocide, racial discrimination and apartheid reguire international measure.

right 2.Human Environment 3.Democracy 4.International rule of law Examples The 13 th United Nations Frame Work Conference on Climate Change (UNFFCCC) 12 Dec 2007 ( Bali) Delegates from 185 Countries They key element of The Kyoto Protocol are : Emission Reduction targets of green House gases (GHG)



PSI (Proliferation Security Initiative)

The first idea by George W Bush, after black September 2001. to be launching on May 2003 The have 70 state seemingly idea with PSI, call Rumsfeld most modern qualicy style . PSI is the act and manage informal all state with goal to obtain the vice the territorial and faith activity disposal radio active and the mass weapon and International terrorism depend United Nation also have Treated UNCLOS (United Nation Convention the Law of the Sea). Statement of interdiction principle obey sovereignty of state unlit super power all strong country can infancy easily with mass weapon, terrorism forward background What the impact for Indonesian sovereignty,? in order Security and prosperity. Problematic Singapore Treaties. Singapore with a population of 4.4 Million people and area of only 66 square kilometers, need a training ground for its defense forces Indonesia has abundant empty spaces for war games, and needs to recover the money stolen by the corruptor. (Extradition).

(The 80/20 success formula achieving more with less)


An Italian Economist sociologies philosopher Observed that 80 percent of income in Italy went to 20 percent of population . The Pareto Rule applies in almost any situation. Essentially a small portion of inputs-the vital few determines majority out puts. The Biggest Chunk of profit in any business in fact came from a small number of clients, products and sales people Adopting the 80/20 principle means focusing on doing a few right things instead of many (wrong things right) Leaders did proven do the Pareto Theory : - Having a clear vision goal and strategy is the top ranked vital few


by Jim Collin and Team Think of the transformation as process of buildup followed by breakthrough, broken into three board stages : discipline people, discipline thought, and discipline action. Wrapping around this entire framework is concept we came to call the flywheel, which captures the gestalt of the entire process of going from good to great



Level 5 Firs who . Confront the Hedgehog culture of technology Leadership then what brutal fact concept discipline acceleration DISCIPLINED POEPLE DISCIPLINE THOUGH DISCIPLIE ACTION


Level 5 leadership . The good to great leaders seem to have

come from Mars. Self effecting, Quiet, reserved, even shythese leaders are a paradoxical blend of personal humanity and professional will. The type of leadership require for turning a good company into great one.

the , bus, the wrong people off the bus, and the right people in the right seat- and then they figured out where to drive it. People are your most important asset turns out to be wrong people are not your most important asset. The right people are.

First Who. Then What. The first got the right people on

Confront the brutal Fact (Yet Never Lose Faith). Every

good to great company embraced what came to call the Stockdale Paradox : You must maintain unwavering faith that you can and will prevail in the end, regardless of difficulties, AND at the same time have the discipline to confront the most brutal facts of your current reality, whatever they might be.

The Hedgehog Concept (Simplicity within the three Circles). To go from good to great requires transcending

the curse of competence. Just because something is your core business- Just because youve been doing it for year or perhaps even decades. It must be with a simple concept that reflects deep understanding of three intersecting circle. companies have discipline, but few companies have culture of discipline. When you have disciplined people, you dont need hierarchy. When you have discipline action, you dont need excessive controls. When you combine a culture of discipline with an ethic of entrepreneurship , you get the magical alchemy of great performance. differently about the role of technology. They never use technology as the primary means of igniting a transformation. Yet, Paradoxically, they are pioneers in the application carefully selected technology. We learned that technology by itself is never a primary, root cause of either greatness or decline

A Culture Of Discipline. All Companies have a culture, some

Technology Acceleration. Good to-Great company think

The Flywheel and the Doom Loop

Those who launch revolutions, dramatic change programs, and wrenching restructurings will almost certainly fail to make the leap from good to great.

No mother how dramatic the and result, the goodto-great transportations never happened in one fell swoop. There was no single defining action, no grand program, no one killer innovation, no solitary lucky break, no miracle moment.
Rather, the process resembled relentlessly pushing a giant heavy flywheel in on direction, turn upon turn, building momentum until a point of breakthrough, and beyond.

From Good to Great to Built to last

In an ironic twist, I now see good to great not as a sequel to built to last, but as more of a prequel. This book is about how to turn a good organization into one that produces sustained great result. Built to last in about how you take a company whit great result and turn it into and enduring great company of iconic stature. To make that final shift requires core values and a purpose beyond just making money com-binned whit the key dynamic of preserve the core / stimulate progress. Good to Sustained Built to Enduring Great Great + Last Great Concepts Results Concepts Company If you are already a student of built to last, please set aside your questions about the preciese links between the two studies as you embark upon the findings in Good to Great. In the last chapter, I return to this question and ling the two studies together.

Team of Business thinker.


(Pronounced bee-hag short for big hairy Audacious Goal)









The essential strategic difference between the good-to-great and Comparison companies lay in two fundamental distinction . First the Good-to great companies founded their strategies on deep under Standing along three key dimension-what we came to call the three Circles. Second, the good-to great companies translated that under Standing into a simple , crystalline concept that guided all their 23 effort -hence the term hedgehog concept

More precise a Hedgehog Concept is simple, crystalline concept that flows from deep understanding about the intersection of the following three circles
What you can be the best in the world at ( and, equally important, what you cannot be the best in the world at). What drives your economic engine. What you are deeply passionate about.

1 2. 3. 4.

First, you are doing work for which you have a genetic or God

given talent , and perhaps you could become one of the best in the world in applying the talent (I feel that I was just born to be doing this). Second you are well paid for what you do ( I get paid to do this? Am I dreaming?). Third, You are doing work you are passionate about and absolutely love to do, enjoying the actual process for its own sake (I look forward to getting up and throwing myself into my daily work, and really 24 believe in what Im doing)


Technology nduced change is nothing new. The real question is not what is the role of technology? Rather the real question is how do goodto great organization think differently about technology.

In every good to great case we found technological sophistication.

How ever its was never technology parse but the pioneering application of carefully selected technology. Every good-to-great company became a pioneer application of technology but the technologies themselves valued greatly the Walgreen's case reflects a general pattern (Best in the world 2006) Our study Cleary shows that a company does not need to be in a great industry to become a great company . Each good-to-great company built a fabulous economic engine, regardless of the industry. They were able to do this because they attained profound insights into their economic.

Organizational Culture In International Management


tool to make a change or transformation.

Creating a universal value including honesty, transparency, integrity, relevant humility specially with the stockholders, customers, operation process, technology, human resource. Depicting long-term interdeoendency between value and generallyaccepted behavior in community. Weak culture causes destructive behavior. Strong culture can adapt the changing environment.


John F Kennedy famous quote ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country- In this time of global warming concerns. We should really paraphrase the second part of Kennedys statement ask what you can do for the planet


Entrepreneurial success is fueled by creativity, imagination, bold moves into uncharted water, and visionary zeal Avoid bureaucracy and hierarchy and you put these two complementary forces together- a culture of discipline with an ethic of entrepreneur you get a magical alchemy of superior performance and sustained results. The Good-to-Great Matrix of Creative Discipline
Hierarchical organization Great Organization


Culture of discipline Bureaucratic Organization Start-up Organization Low



Ethic of Entrepreneurship



By its nature Culture is a somewhat unwieldy topic to discuss less prone to clean frameworks like the three circles. The main point of this chapter, however, boil, down to one central idea : Build a culture full of people who take discipline action within the three circles, fanatically consistent with the hedgehog concept. More precisely, this means the following : 1. Build a culture around the idea of freedom and responsibility within a framework. 2. Fill the culture with self disciplined people who willing to go to extreme length to fulfill their responsibilities. They will rinse their cottage cheese 3. Dont confuse a culture of discipline with a tyrannical disciplinarian . 4. Adhere with great consistency to the hedgehog concept, exercising an almost religious focus on the intersection of the three circles. Equally important create a stop doing list and systematically unplug 28 anything extraneous

The 4 Role of Leadership are simply four qualities of personal leadership-vision, discipline, passion and conscience- writ large in an organization (see figure 6.7) Modeling (conscience) : Set a good example

Vision (pathfinding)

Conscience v (modeling)

Pathfinding (vision) Jointly determine the course Aligning (discipline) Set up and manage system to stay on course Empowering (Passion) Focus talent on result, not methods then get out of peoples way and give help as requested

Summary of Leadership attribute Framework) SET DIRECTION

(Vision, customers, future)


(Engage others, share power)


(build teams, manage change)

Their compelling conclusion is that without exception, companies that outer Formed their industry peers excelled at four primary management practices 1. Strategy Devise and maintain a clearly stated, focused strategy 2. Execution - Develop and maintain flawless operation execution 3. Culture Develop and maintain a performance oriented culture. 4. Structure Build and maintain a fast, flexible, flat organization



You Have not done enough, you have never done enough so long as it is still possible that you have something of value to contribute. Dag Hammarsk Jold ( New York 2005). Wisdom is the beneficial use of knowledge, wisdom is purposes and principles. Wisdom teaches us to respect all people, to celebrate their differences to be guided guided by a single ethic service above self. Moral authority is primary greatness (character strengths ) ; formal authority is secondary greatness ( position, wealth, talent, reputation, popularity)

Level 5 leadership

The most powerfully transformative executives possess a paradoxical mixture of personal humanity and professional will. They are timid and ferocious. Shy and fearless. Thy are rare and unstoppable good to great transforming dont happen without level leader at the helm, they just dont .
In the book leading Beyond the wall , Jim Collins puts this principle in the context of the broader organizational environment : The organization by reference to core value and purpose , not by traditional boundaries. Second, executives must build mechanisms of connection systems of coercions and control .third , executives must accept the fact that the exercise of the true leadership is inversely proportional to the exercise of power . Fourth , executives must embrace the reality that traditional walls are dissolving and that this trend will accelerate.


The Level 5 Hierarchy

Good to Great- Jim Collins 2005

Level 5

Level 5 Executive
Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical combination of personal humility plus professional will.

Effective Leader Level 4

Catalyzes commitment to and vigorous pursuit of a clear and compelling vision; stimulates the group to high performance standards.

Competent Manager

Level 3
Level 2 Level 1

Organizes people and resources toward effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined objectives.

Contributing Team Member

Contributes to the achievement of group objectives; works effectively with others in a group setting.

Highly Capable Individual

Makes productive contributions through talent, knowledge, skills, 33 and good work habits.

Leadership Conference

A medium of Business Leader to implement and communicate the companys policy. The conference agenda : Formulating mission, vision, corporate culture, and the continuity of the business. Forum has its strategic meaning as led by the highest leader follwed by all senior executives and management.


Ideal reality/condition that expected to be fulfilled in the future. Reflecting broad and deep understanding of reality, making somebody able to detect the pattern trend for directing leaders acts. Creating a long-term challenging and achievable goals, so that it energizes the members of organization to act in a synergic manner. Vision formulation is done collectively (shared vision).


A series of steps aimed to achieve short-range objectives. Commonly within the period of one five years. The statement is written to motivate the employees to have commitment to their organization. Mission statement clarifies the vision. Mission statement formulated with the Language which can generate work enthusiasm, motivation, increase commitment to work, stimulate creativity.

STRATEGY : Managements tool to reach the vision through mission generating.

PERFORMANCE PARAMETER : Top managements tool in assessing the company performance through strategy development. Every target is related with Vision, Mission, and Strategy

Transformation Management

Ken Blanchard, Michael OConnor, Jim Ballard with the idea Managing By Values. - Transformation Management conducted by values formed by the leader of business organization becosmes the foundation of strategic decision making. - The way of thinking of world-class companies (Fortune 500). - Strategy Decisions Making are built based on organization emphsis on cooperative valute, team empowerment, and the main business constituents concerns. The worlds best practices of management concept at the companies in Japan, Europa, America, and Australian show the improvement of performance by conducting : Bench marking TQM, Business prosess Reegineering (BPR).






The consumers demands So What ? In Daejanggeum. Can not be answered with 4 Ps : Product, place, promotion, price. Products should be : Cutting Edge technology ( new breakthrough ) New product using the most advanced technology show its originality. New paradigm in politic, economy, social, culture and arts will come up through the IT development. Review the source of knowledge and technology to converge system of IT and Display digital , toward Global Top 3 ( the 2010 world three - largest electronic companies)
Motto L.G., Korea : Great people , Great Company, Fast Execution, Global Top 3.


by David, held in 2005

State is not the only institution for people to show their identity and loyalty due to the networks that can be in local, national, regional and international. The alternative that state acts as a political institution is still not feasible. The degree of uncertainty is getting higher manufactured by people themselves. Broad transformation finds its difficulties in managing people. State border is easy to be penetrated by outsider cause the grey area of economic , political, security issues is broadened. ( the chaos in Indonesia in 1997 as an example).

Threat can not be defined well and State still play important role in coping the crimes , law improvement in international management ( There is term economic war, intelligent war for fighting poverty). The Poors perspective should get appropriate attention to avoid the gaps in society leads to the source of problem, no trust in the state. Joseph J. Romn, US security expert, defines threat as anything that able to narrow the available choice of policy to take by the government.



Reality being faced by Indonesia : Poverty , Health issues, Unemployment, Low education. Peter Sange ( 2000) : Vision and reality is like rubber bracelet that round two fingertips pulling the rubber in each side. Personal characters ( The person who has commitment) : Individuals who always continuously higher their ability to gain the expected results. Have strong willing, always make a conscious learning realizing the shortness of his knowledge, feel incompetent and have self confidence. Vision : All nations components implant the culture of excellent by transforming their attitude , increase their mean years schooling . Data 2002 , Women for 42 6,5 years, men for 7,6 years. There has to be real


After cold war was no longer exist, the western countries led by USA put their war strategy into one and half war strategy. Total war for East Asia ; half for Middle East; Zero for West Europe. The population of East Asia ( North East Asia , South East ) represents half of the worlds population. China : Country that has the most population in the world. Its economic growth is the fastest in the world. It becomes the determining power for China to USA on its conflict with Taiwan. Japan :The most advanced in technology and the highest economic growth in Asia. The relation with China is love and hate relationship. The country in Asia that mostly supports USA policy ( Its statement not to pro USA, or China is for their own interests) Koizumi visited Yasukumi temple in October 2005. Russia : Wealth of its nature resources, energy resources. 43

South Korea : The sword is pointing toward Japan. Feel being more threatened by USA hegemony to North Koreas Nuclear weapon. India : Make strategic agreement with China . Make strategic agreement with USA. Have Nuclear weapons ( China, India, Pakistan ) North Korea : Communists are courageous to challenge USA, have no willing to stop their nuclear program for energy. Indonesia : The population is the fourth in the world. Situated between two oceans and continents.


EAST ASIA SUMMIT, 14 December 2005

10 ASEAN Countries , Japan , China, South Korea, Australia, India,, New Zealand. The effectiveness of ASEAN ; Economy : The members of ASEAN have their own ways to make their bilateral trade agreement out of the political arena. Politic : ASEAN can not give pressure to Myanmar to release Aung San Suu Syi, the leader of democracy movement in Myanmar.
: Forum that discusses topics , without having any implementation. The influence of USA is so dominant, agenda for global terrorism. : ASEAN REGIONAL FORUM. Forum for dialogue and consultancy for politic and security involving many countries excluding ASEAN to 45 ensure the stability of Asia Pacific.



ASEAN SUMMIT X Viantane: Pros and contras on East Asia Summit.

Contras : 1. Cultural identity of Australia, and New Zealand are different with East Asia. 2. Hinder thecooperation between APEC and East ASIA 3. Political power dimension: India cornered Pakistan, Australia promotes USA, etc. Pros : 1. The welfare of community in the region is getting higher. 2. Central issue : Terrorism, drug trafficking, viking involves many parties to handle these issues. 3. Strategic effect to neutralize economic power and military from the threes. 4. Australia and New Zealand can avoid negative respond from USA on East Asia. 5. The idea of 2020 ASEAN community is the priority. Direction and goal of East Asia: - International Trade and political in free trade region. - Take the one position in facing global issue. - East Asia is expected to give added value to ASEAN. 46

The cooperation among East Asia Summit can be initiated in :

How the East Asia Countries can suffice their energy needs through oil cooperation, and jointly nuclear usedenergy development. To realize T.A.C (Treaty of Amity and cooperation in South East Asia). To settle the border issues that can bother relations among the members.

Crucial Questions.

Can East Asia Summit become moving power for strategic advantages for the region ? Can East Asia Summit become economy market and security community in the region ? Will East Asian Summit ignore the previously existed and similiar forum like ASEAN + 3 : APEC ?


I dont care whether it is black or white cat, as long as it can catch a mouse, it is a good cat. It doesnt matter whether it is capitalistic or socialistic, the most important thing that it can sharply increase agricultural products to overcome the starvation. Deng didnt follow the Maozedongs economy policy ,criticize the culture revolution, and make a far forward leap. Deng : China brings modernization in their development, by involving the groups that have different views, not put them aside. Poverty is not socialism, socialism means getting rid of poverty.( social capitalist state ) China begins to build a new social capitalist state. Deng : the welfare of some certain people leads the state more developed , their welfare will make examples and encourage other people to learn from the rich, called as productive forces movement. Deng : Stimulating non-public companies to develop brings advantages, not disadvantages. 48

Sain and Education by China

Jeffrey Sachs : The end of Poverty 2005 Since 1978, China has been the world most successful economy . The engines of growth are still running strong . The basic reason for the growth is specifically adopting the technologies of the leading innovating countries. Penduduk miskin di Cina 1981 lebih satu milyar 64 % 2001 tinggal 17%.

Perkembangan China dlm W T O

Sachs : Pembangunan di Cina berbasis sains dan teknologi Ke Yan : Science and technology in China 2004. Bila cina ingin memoderenisasikan pertanian industri dan pertahanan yang harus di moderenisasikan dulu adalah sain dan teknologi dan menjadikannya kekuatan produktif. Pernah diungkapkan oleh Deng Xiaoping 1978. Special economic zone (SEZ) Proyek raksasa sepanjang timur cina dari selatan hingga utara yang melambangkan reformasi dan keterbukaan cina.

Kunci filsafat sosial market Ekonomi China: Sain teknologi dan pendidikan ke grand design pembangunan nasional. Ke Yan : Economic constructions must rely on science and technological world must serve economic construction. Enam modal dasar dalam ekonomi, dalam satu paket : Infra structure, Human capital, knowledge capital, national capital, public institutional capital. Tugas mentri kebudayaan cina Ke Yan : Mempopulerkan sain dan teknologi keseluruh cina. Science and technology populazation low of the people Republic of China (Satu-satunya undang-undang scientific culture di dunia) Revolusi sain, teknologi industri, ekonomi kait-mengait tanpa sambungan. (Seamless)

IT Based by India
Jeffrey Sachs : Dalam 15 th India membangun ekonominya dengan teknologi informasi. Infestasi utama pada pendidikan tinggi, mendirikan institut teknologi yang terkenal di dunia. Dapat mengurangi kemiskinan dari 42% menjadi 35% dalam waktu 1990 s/d 2001. Berhasil membangun home ground teknologi dan memasukan dalam sistem ekonomi. Oktober 2005 India berhasil meluncurkan pesawat ruang angkasa berawak Shenzhou VI. Tuntutan global yang di klaim India : Negara pertama di dunia berhasil menciptakan teknologi batu bara bersih untuk teknologi. Menciptakan culture baru untuk melepas Poverty Trap KARENA TIDAK CERDAS MAKA MISKIN DAN KARENA MISKIN TAK MUNGKIN CERDAS

7th Habit adalah prinsip-prinsip karakter yang membentuk siapa dan apa anda sebenarnya. 4 peran pemimpin apa yang anda lakukan untuk menjalankan kepemimpinan dan mempengaruhi organisasi dan 7th Habit adalah peran sebagai Panutan dan pemasok air ke TQM Peran Pemimpin (By Stephen Covey 2005) : 1. Menjadi panutan atau menjanjikan keteladanan, kewibawaan moral pribadi. 2. Merintis jalan yang akan menghasilkan kewibawaan moral. 3. Menyelaraskan menghasilkan kewibawaan mroal yang di lembagakan. 4. Memberdayakan menghasilkan kewibawaan moral budaya.


Era kebijaksanaan mengikuti era informasi baru bisa melakukan Total Quality Management, dimana esensi kepemimpinan adalah menjadi pemimpin pelayan. 8th Habit bagi pemimpin yang memiliki prinsipprinsip pada inti hati dan jiwa dalam berbagai hubungan dan budaya organisasi untuk membangun kepercayaan yang tinggi agar bisa melakukan pemberdayaan, memupuk inovasi dan kreativitas. Kepercayaan yang tinggi, struktur yang selaras dan sistem yang berdasarkan paradigma berkelimpahan baru bisa melakukan Management Quality.


Inovasi manajemen dan organisasi setelah PD II Management by Objectivities (MBO) Time-Based Management Strategic Management of Core Competence Total Quality Management (TQM)
I. Asal Intelektual II. Sumber Inovasi

III. Asal Negara Kelahiran

IV. Proses Penyebaran (Dessemination)

TQM Teori Statistk Analisis sampling dan varian Insinyur industri dan fisikawan yang bekerja di sektor industri dan lembaga pemerintah Internasional dikembangkan di Amerika Serikat, kemudian ditransfer ke Jepang setelah itu tersebar ke Amerika Utara dan Eropa Populist: Perusahaan-perusahaan kecil dan manajer madya memainkan peranan yang menonjol

Metode Manajemen Lainnya Ilmu Sosial, Ekonomi Mikro Psikologi dan Sosiologi Sekolah bisnis yang terkemuka dan perusahaan konsult. Manaj.
Amerika Serikat kemudian ditransfer secara internasional

Hierarkis: Dari perusahaan-perusahaan industri terkemuka ke yang lebih kecil dan kurang menonjol dan dalam perusahaan 54 dari manajemen puncak ke manajemen di bawahnya


Six Componen of The House of Total Quality: The Roof / Superstructure Four pillars of Management Four Foundation Four Cornerstone The Ethical Work Culture










The strenght of customer satisfaction depends on strategy development. A successful business strategy requires a successfule total-quality-focused OD strategy A vision is the starting point for all total quality initiatives. The OD professional can be the interpreter of the vision when working on organization design or redesign to achieve. (1) Customer satisfaction (2) Organization performance (3) Fair policies for treatment and empowerment of employees (4) Organization character development within the ethical work culture frame work.


Customer satisfaction is the outcome of sound quality

product and process design developed in the corner stone of strategy planning with effective implementation delivered in the foundation of strategy management.

The definition of total quality strategy :

The intended and realized pattern of organization guidance and development of structure and management process that produce total customer satisfaction.

Two major approaches to developing business strategy :

(1) an intuitive/inductive approach. (2) a traditional, rational/analytic approach


4 (four) basic elemants of Rational/analytic model of strategy planning and management :


Environmental scanning : external and

internal environment


Strategy formulation : the enterprise vision,

the gap analysis, the mission, the objectives, the strategies, and the policy deployment.


Strategy implementation : combined cost

and differentiation position.


Evaluation and control



Process design and implementation is a vital link between planning and doing. Organizational effectiveness and efficiency need total quality business process improvement and total quality OD process improvement.



Total quality continuous improvement is the range of

system innovation designed and implemented to produce total, on going customer satisfaction.

(1) Kaizen, this approach requires individuals, process and project teams, and cross-units to incrementally improve procedures in order to reduce costs and increase efficiency.
(2) Competitive parity, involves a strategy for becoming at least the equal of the best in class of existing market leaders. (3) Breakthrough dominance, is oriented forward out distancing competitors by reengineering or restructuring process to achieve quantum breakthrough advantages. (see table 4. 1 type of 60 continuous improvement).

3 types of continuous improvement :


Speaking with fact means that the organization has the resources and methods to determine what is factually true and structure it self to ensure that members give voice to the truth.


Quality project involment is undertaken for many reasons, such as monitoring and maintaining existing processes, new product development, service or process design, assessing and improving standards, process certification, quality audits, and/or breathough via reengineering.

Project Management and Teams


A pseudo team, a group for which there could be




significant, shared performance goal or opportunities ; but it has not focused in group performance and is not trying to achieve it. The potential team, a group for which there are significant, shared performance goals and which really is trying to improve its performance impact. A real team , a small number of people with complementary skills who are equally committed to a common purpose, goals who working approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. High performance team, meet all the conditions of real team and have members who are also deeply 62 committed to one anothers personal growth and success.

4 (four) types of team :


Lead teams, act as a steering committee -committee

to set policy, establish guidelines, and handle overall logistic and communication for team it coordinates.


Functional teams, are composed of members

from a single work or functional area.


Cross functional teams, consist of people from

more than one work area, function, or department.


Task teams, generally include people from one or

more functional areas.


Process and project management will be unable to produce world class result if respects for people is absent.

Respect for people and work cultures :

Respect for people plays out what we expect of our selves, how we treat ourselves and each other each day, how we view ourselves in relation to others, how we view the value each person brings to every interaction.


Work performance is behavior associated with accomplishment of expected, specified or formal role requirements on the part of the individual organizational members.

4 (four) influences on work performance planning :

(1) (2) (3) (4) Systematic system. Random factors that influence the system. Person Person / system interaction.


4 (four) components of Individual empowerment : 1) Choice, involves designing tasks so as to make

individual accountable for their actions.


Meaningfulness, concerns the value task hold in

relation to the individuals value system.


Competence, refers to the belief that one is capable of

successfully performing a particular task or activity.


Impact, represent the degree to which individuals

believe that their behavior makes a difference.


Climate change on living Organization Common solution : Monkey see, Monkey do. Big Companies tend to think the way they are .. Entrepreneurs tend to think the way they could be .. (Laura & Al Ries 2006) We can not solve problems with the some kind of thinking when we create it You cant sell yesterdays products to todays consumers (RE-CODE D.N.E. Deoxiribo Nuclead Acid)


Benchmarking Development
By doing Benchmarking, all managers of world-class / company learn how companies come up best in it industry, improving competitiveness and its position in global market.

Benchmarking for change driving factors.

Corporate Strategy ; Business strategy

Organization structure ; Human Resource Management system

Business process ; Operating system, technology, etc. Benchmarking Organization and Human Resource Development Benchmarking Operation To obtain more added value through business process improvement, an increase of efficiency (cycle time). Obtained certification of standard system of quality, ISO with the recent information of customers demand fulfillment. 68

Benchmarking goals : Continuously Improving the quality, Reducing the cost, Increasing the speed of production process and service.

Research by American Quality Foundation ; Ernst & Young The category of Company by Return On Assets (ROA) higher than 6,9 % referred as by very high achievement. ROA of 2 % - 6,9 % as middle achievement. ROA of under 2 % as low achievement. ROA 6,9 % have positive and high impact for benchmarking the companies of world class. Middle achievement does not give positive impact. Low achievement has negative impact.

The Key Concept of Bench Marking

Bench mark : Reference for measuring Bench Marking : Process to find the strong distinguishing component of product, functions, services at the best company (Inc Coring). Bench Marking : Systematic process to look for the best practice in world-leading organization in order to improve the resource quality, optimize the potency fully. Bench Marking : Process of the comparing and measuring world leading business organization, conducted continuously to get the information of actions taken by management to improve the company / organization performance.


Benchmarking Practices

Practices have to make changes. Find its way to solve problems. Measuring instrument of benchmarking is important to identify the problem, the gap in performance, specify targets, watch of quality improvement. Forming consultation committee between managers and employees according to their area or hiring consultant.

Types of Benchmarking : Internal : Operation / activities among organizations units. To identify the internal standard of performance.

Competitive : competitors in the same market (G. Motor and Ford).



Business Process Reengineering (BPR) : Management concept of radical transformation obtained through study of benchmarking. T.Q.M. and Benchmarking is evolutionary change method of International Management system Expert in B.P.R. Michael Hammer is the most popular in area of management after Peter Drunker. B.P.R. as radical change can be applied on condition that :
There is the readiness of top management team that have strong vision and commitment. Team work culture Performance oriented management system The existence of qualified Human Resources that able to make innovation Information Technology that able to build networks. Unable to create a visionary leadership. Organizational culture not yet Tune to changes

B.P.R will fail when :


B.P.R. Conducted from the top management to lower management (Top Down).
Good understanding from the front line employees which is at the important position about organizational mission, vision. Change is initiated by leaders initiative B.P.R. as threat (of) because

Traditional organizations considered BPR as threat due to :

B.P.R. has to be executed compulsively. Jack Welch C.E.O. of Electrical General U.S

The resistance managers to shift paradigm. The existence of a set decision, regulations protected by the authority in decision making (Status Quo).

B. P. R. Without forcing from the top is not possible Fighting traditional management by using right and radical and right agents of change, namely ; Chief Operating Officer (COO) because they have access with the operational unit or small companies. Change environment by the media of communications and training Radical change claim the importance of management authority even COERCIVE.


Role of C. E. O. is to influence outside parties like market analysis, big investors, government, customers / consumers, industrial association, while process reengineering handled by C. O. O. B. P. R. can also be led by division manager who supervise business units or vice President owning wide responsibility for organization. Division heads have to conduct Business Process Engineering only at his work unit. All responsibility for B. P. R. implementation is on top manager because it is personal struggle of the leader that can not be delegated. BPR leaders have to own the instrument triple S : Signal, Symbol, System. Signal : Communications Symbol : Personal Behavioral System : Appreciation And Reward.


Understand the work of reengineering (Process Reengineering)

Leadership is the key of success P. R. Learn the old process, customers demand, confess the weakness, guide for change process and new required performance. Reinvent the process, review the mission, vision. Set up new process, explain details of operation, develop all organizational aspects, train the employees, build information system. Introducing new work method, applied within organization.

Circumstance Needing Process Reengineering

Situation and condition in which cannot be settled by traditional organizational. Experiment : Interactive experiences sharpened through learning process, applied in actual condition. Pressure : Reengineering teams always operate under intensive, and high urgency.



: : : : :

The impacts of AFTA, GATT, APEC, WTC. Competition ; Free and Tight Protection difficult to realize Liberalization is not in control Competition without strength and strategy is suicide.

The most reliable QUALITY STRATEGY is : Developing conception and quality technology in line with global trend. EXPERTS on QUALITY in international management : W. Edwards Deming Philip B. Crosby Joseph M. Juran


Technical Approach of ISO 9000

Understanding, recognition and interpretation of ISO 9000 Understanding the documentation of quality system Compiling document of quality system, including the program realization. Supporting facilities, the phases of execution

Synergy, Energy grow as a result of cultural change = the success of ISO 9000


Standard difference for the same thing in one country and others is the barrier to make cooperation.
Thickness of 0, 76 mm for credit card, card phone. Paper size, measurement unit ; kg, m, A, mole, S. It need the newest and the most convenient international standard.

ISO (The International Organization for Standardization) It is derived from its Greek language meaning EQUAL like in isotherm, isobar. ISO : International work standard coordinating, international standard harmonization publicizing, international standard usage promotion.

ISO Domicile in Geneva, Swiss. Founded in 19947, 130 countries have become its members. Members = European Economic Society and European Free Trade Association = USA, Japan, China
Preparing international standard Specifying subject selected through voting Cooperate with international organizations : Government and Non Governmental. Publicizing international standard after at least 75 % of members agree.

ISO Technical Committee

The superiority of ISO 9000 ; easy to measure

Managers decision to be overspread Efficiency as result of abolition of the irrelevant works. The regulation of works that lessen the corrective act The cost of production decreases Decrease the number of customers complaints

ISO 9000 Family series. (four standards of International commerce) (Standard, Guidance, Technical report)
1. 2. 3. 4. ISO 9000 : 2000 Elaborating the base of system management of quality. Itemizing terms. ISO 9004 : 2000 Guidance to consider the effectiveness and efficiency of Quality Management System Performance improvement, Customer satisfaction. ISO 19011 Guidance to conduct an audit of the Quality Management System and Environment. ISO 9001 : 2000 As Requirement in Quality Management System to show the quality of product.


One of the way to develop TQM based on the need standard summarized in ISO 9004 2000. An Approach developed by all founders of Quality management.

A unique approach based on basic quality principle.

ISO 9004 preparing guidance for the implementation of TQM.
Quality with the optimum cost. Ascertaining profit gain. Expanding in stocks market. Retaining the long-range competitiveness.

ISO 9004 2000 series, applied for the interaction with all activities related to the quality of products, services at all of phases to meet the customers satisfaction.


Factor to understand for the change of ISO 9000 system : Cultural change Employees character Maturity Anticipation of the causes of employees opposition and refusal Anticipation of conflicts System implementation to reach the goal Some Causes of ISO 9000 implementation refusal The attitude of management. Structure being used as standard one. Agreeing the difference as best approach. Do not immediately perform corrective actions. Do not want to take the risk in decision making.


INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT HOSHIN KANRI HOSHIN in Chinese SHIN KANRI : Ho, method : thin metal for pointing direction : Planning

(Method to determine the strategic direction) Compass M. B. P (Management by planning), Management of Policy, Management of Strategic Priority : Methodology to Manage the Changes, Parallel and Coordinate the key business system to reach the Strategy Breakthrough.

Simple Concept :
TQM Resulting an increase of wages proportionally related to product and service. Strategic Implementation in fact represents the process of management (Management by Process)

The steps of Management Hoshin : Analyze changes in external environment Choose the most vital of some priorities Prepare integrated actions plan Evaluate the successive modification Principle of order is focus and parallel
Vision : priority is always reviewed in harmony with environmental changes.


Planning is system of communicating strategic plan overall Organization. Depends on clear objectives from CEO. How to focus on Customers, communicate strategic priority, Support vision. HOSHIN KANRI Translating strategic goal become expected everyday behavior. Generally a long-range objectives become the short-range strategy, realistic and ambitious, enabling organization to take actions. Both Management of HOSHIN and M. B. O. have the same purpose is to propagate the Organizational objectives and force the employees to reach it.

Specification of management Hoshin :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Emphasize Customers interest, not simply Profit target. Behaviors to support the policy that interpret strategic vision. Controlling the tools and Method, not result (M. B. O). To ensure that the effort of employees are realistic, synergetic, and make improvement. Continuous Management Process, not a system which is run by calendar. Emphasizing upward and downward evaluation. Make use of feedback, build communications among levels and communicate it to the Organization leader. Not bound with achievement assessment. Not focused on personnel, but quality of strategic assumptions and planning systems.

HOSHIN Use the : Industrial Psychology ; Organizational, system dynamics, scientific research



The meaning of gap in HOSHIN is the difference between existing performance and expected performance. Gap can be expressed with the percentage of market share, assessment of satisfaction customer, cycle of time etc. Principle of HOSHIN KANRI : 1. Study the situation The fast environmental changes. Every level of hierarchy at planning process, and routine decision making always evaluate what to be done by workers and organization. Start with synthesis ; integrated challenges ; critical challenges.

2.Focus on problems, vital priority.

3. Involve employees to develop the plan to overcome the gap (Participation). 4. Specification of means ; measures ; overcome the gap (Means And measures). Use the check point and becomes control points for every hierarchy.


Linkage / Causality Management HOSHIN is Parallelism.



Applying System of Management HOSHIN need managers and employees who own philosophy and certain basic ability, they are : Focus on long-range objectives. Market orientation Cooperative Management culture. Process control Commitment to improve all product and service. T. Q. M. one aspect : Emphasis continuous quality improvement for customers satisfaction. Texas Instrument, by applying Comprehensive Management Model with integrated Components : Customer first Team Work Management By fact. Superiority Policy dissemination (Management HOSHIN)


International Management have created and modified TQM as principles of business management HOSHIN is the only system among planning systems that enables employees act with a great concern on organization.

T. Q. M. is method of managing HOSHIN KANRI is a methodology to transform theory to become practices.


M.N.E (Multinational Enterprises)

Dalam dunia bisnis tdk mengenal jorgan small is beautiful tetapi big is fowerful, serta suatu jorgan konglomerasi if you can not beat them, join them MNE as a combination of companies of different national concerned by mean share holding, managerial control and contract constituting economic unit. When a multinational has one parent company of a particular nationality then its called a national multinational, when it has two or more controlling power companies of different nationalities its called an international multinational or by some a transnational Multinational enterprise (MNE), multinational corporation (MNCs), Multinational firm, international company, dan transnational company. Dikatakan global apabila sudah tidak mengadopsi budaya-budaya lokal. Multinational corporation are enterprise which own or control production or service facilities outside the country in which they are based. Such enterprise are not always incorporated or private ; they can also be cooperative or state owned entities

By Hodget Harvard University 2008

1. 2.

Globalization is the production and distribution of product and services of homogeneous type and quality on worldwide basis. International management is the process of applying management and techniques in multinational environment. Multi Cooperation (MNCs ) is firm having operations in more than one country, foreign sales and nationality mix of managers and owner. Multi Cooperation (MNCs)
State America Serikat Swiss Inggris Jerman Jepang Multi Cooperations Exxon , Dupont, Ford, General Motor, IBM, ITT, Texaco Nestle, Sandoz Smith. Kline Beecham, Mercedes Daichi, Kangyo Bank, Sumitomo Bank, Fuji, Bank, Mistsubisi, Honda, Toyota

4. 5.



Exporting is the chioce when manufacturers decide to expand abroad, since its relatively simple and easy. Exporting means selling abroad, ether directly to target customers or indirectly by retaining foreign sales agents and distributor. More than half of all such trade is actually handley by agents and distributors and other intermediariets faniliar with the local markets customs and cutomers. LICENSING licensing is an another way to start-up an international operation. International licensing is an arrangement whereby a frim (the licensor) grants a foreign firm the rigth to use intangible (intellectual) property such as patents, copyrights, manufacturing processes, or trade names for a specified period of time. The firm usually gets a percentage of the earnings, or royalties in return.


FRANCHISING franchising is the granting of a rigth by a parent company to another firm to do greater commitment of time and money. A franchisee must generally follow strict guidelines in running the business and make substantial investments in a physical plant (such as a fast-food restaurant). Foreign direct investmnet refers to operations in one country that are controlled by entities in a foreign firm might build new facilities in another country. Or a firm might acquire property or operations in a foreign country, as when wal-mart bougth control of the wertkaulf stores in Germany. Strategis alliances are cooperative agreements between firms that are of strategic importance to one or both firms competitive viability. Jiont venture is :the paticipation of two or more companies jintly in an enterprise in which each party contributes assets, owens the entity to some degree, and shares risk.

The Language of International Business

Wholly owned subsidiary; a firm that is owned 100% a foreign firm. International business; any frim that engges in international trade or investment; also refers to business activities that involve the movement of resource, goods, service and skills across national boundareis. Internatinal trade; the export or import of goods or services to consumers in another country. International management; the performance of the management process across national bounderies. Multinational corporation (MMC); an international integrated company over which equity-based control is exercised by a parent corporation that is owned and managed essentially by the natinals of the country in which it is domiciled. Global corporation, sells essentially standardized product throughout the world, components of which may made or designed in diferent countries.


Rantai makanan siap saji dengan simbol lengkung Emas paling terkenal diseluruh dunia

Mc. Donalds cooperation dari multi nasional mencapai global. Asal AS menyebar ke 91 negara, delapan belas ribu restoran diseluruh dunia melayani 33 juta orang setiap hari. 50 % hasil penjualan diluar AS, memperkerjakan lebih dari 2 juta tenaga kerja . Setiap membuka restoran baru di negara-negara lain selalu disambut sebagai peluang masuknya tenaga kerja. Disetiap negara berbeda, menyesuaikan : 1.Prodak, 2. layanan. 3.Hukum, 4. Politik 5. Ekonomi. 6 .Budaya setempat.

Contoh di India pelanggan tidak memakan daging sapi diganti dengan daging domba. Di Jepang mengembangkan Burger Teriyaki. Di Timur Tengah ruang makan terpisah antara laki dan perempuan. Sebelum membuka praktek dinegara baru profesionalprofesional Mc Donalds meneliti aktifitas SDM . harus menyesuaikan dengan cara menggunakan perusahan AS lain yang lebih dulu membuka praktek kerja dinegara yang bersangkutan. Selanjutnya dianalisa untuk memastikan : 1. Apa larangan dalam pekerjaan yang harus dipatuhi. 2. Berapa usia karyawan 3. Berapa lama jam kerja 4. Kompensasi tunjangan purna waktu paruh waktu.


Bekas Negara Komunis di Eropa Timur disiapkan kamar mandi, ruang ganti pakaian, dan dipersiapkan rencana transportasi berangkat dan kembali kerja Recruitment di Rusia dari 27 ribu orang pelamar difokuskan kepada ketrampilan,,kepuasan pelanggan dan untuk kasir, meja representatif fokus pada karyawan yang mengenali individu dengan ramah dan berorientasi kepada kepuasan pelanggan.

Proses uji coba dipilih karyawan yang bisa mewakili MC Donald,s Cooporation.



MNC : Yaitu perusahaan swasta dng deversifikasi prod dan the

Trans Nasional Corporation (TNC). Pers raksasa bergerak di bidang industri manufaktur dan perdagangan lintas negara yg menguasai 75 % dr total investasi global. Terdapat 100 TNC menguasai ekonomi Internasional mengontrol 75% Total Perdagangan Dunia. Disinilah akumulasi modal (Kapital) yg diperlukan umat manusia dlm menggerakan roda perekonomian Internasional .

Pemikiran Adam Smith : menganjurkan mekanisme psr bebas dng berbagi modifikasi dihampir seluruh dunia . Ekonomi hrs diatur oleh The invisible Hands (tangan tdk tampak) berdsr keseimbangan demand dan splay sifat Laissez Faire)bergrk bebas sesuai hukum pasar.
Era Global : Teori kebebasan kuno atau Liberal Klasik menjd Neo

Liberal pecundang smk tergantung kpd para pemenang melalui bantuan dlm aspek militer, budaya, ekonomi, dan keuangan yg sangat dibutuhkan akibat kekalahan dlm kompetisi.



Cooperation (MNCs) have been and to a lesser extent continue to be at the center of debate regarding corporate social responsibility (CSR) particularly the benefits versus harm wrought by their operations around the world especially in less developed countries . The criticism of MNCs have been lessened in recent years by the decreasing economic differences among countries by the emergence of Less Developed Countries (LDCs) multinational and by the greater emphasis on social responsibility by MNCs Many argue that since MNSc operate in a global context they should use their capital , skill and power to play proactive roles in handling worldwide social and economic problems and that at the least they should be concerted with host country welfare . Other argue that MNCs already have a positive impact on LDCs by providing managerial training investment capital and new technology as` well as by creating jobs and improving infrastructure .

Certainly multinational cooperation constitute a powerful presence in the world economy and often have a greater capacity than local governments to induce change . The sales , debts and resources of the largest multinationals exceed the gross national product , the public and private debt and the resources respectively of some nations. The US and` Europe adopt strikingly different positions that can be traced largely to history and culture. In the US . CSR is weighted more toward doing business right by following basic business obligation In Europe CSR is weighted more toward serving or at least not conflicting with broaders social aims such as environmental sustainability


The Relations between International Management and Economic International

Relations between International Management and Economic International International Economic

International Trade

International Investment

International Business

International management Name Country Owner Customers Employer Unions Suppliers Distributor Strategic allies Community Economy Government Host Country Economy Employee Community Host Government Consumer Strategic allies Supplier Distributor 102


Social in General (global Independent Standard of Living Global environment Sustainable resource Population Standard of Living

Karacteristik MNC
1. Jumlah sedikit, Pers Multinasional Sangat Sdt & ada tdk

dimiliki sama sekali oleh suatu Ogr 2. Mendominasi ngr, aset yg dimlk multinasonal sangat bsr shg sangat mempengaruhi kondisi eko neg tsb 3. Penjualan tahunan melebihi pend nas kotor negara dan kawasan beberapa negara menjadikan org per multina jg besar 4, Org besar dengan adanya berbagai nerg tempat prod dan penj 5. Berpebgaruh banyaknya penj menjd per multi nas sangat berpengarug baik scr eko maupun menegerial. 6. Memahami management Internasional. Dpt dipastikan per multi nas telah mampu mempraktekan menegemwent inter

Karakteristik khusus
1.Mlk ling Ganda yaitu ling dinegr asal (home country) dan ling suatu neg dimana per beroperasi (host Country) 2. Mmlk beberapa ttg kristis antara lain npesaing berasal dr bnyak negara pelangan ada pd berbagai tempat ops bisnisnya. Lemg keuangan terintregrasi, menghadapi berbagai pem dng kond pol, eko, bud yg berbeda. 3. Mmlk ops yg terpisah ant ops d ngr asal dan negara tempat mengembangkan bisnis , 4. Mmlk kewenangan kpemilikan keuangan yg tersentral 5. Memiliki smb daya yg menyatu dan terintrgrasi ant lain keuangan, kredit, patent, trade mark, informasi SDM, 6. Stra yg dimiki umumnya sdh merupakan stra mengglobal dan terintregasi

Alasan Go Internasional
1. 2.

3. 4.



Melindungi dirinya (MNCs) dr resiko & ktk pastian siklus domestik. Mengetuk pert psr dunia baik psr brg maupun jasa, apabila ps dlm neg sdh terpenuhi mk sasaran ps berikutnya adalah neg yg mmlk populasi pend bsr. Amerika ,Eropa ,Asia Utk menanggapi persaingan asing dengan meng strategi mengiukuti pesaing, tentu usaha dwil psr pr pesaing. Mengurangi biaya prod dng menetapkan usaha yg dkt dng konsumen akan mengurangi biaya trans, mengurangiu pengeluaran berkaitan dng br-brng setengah jadi. MEngatasi batsan tarif adanya aliansi kerja sm eko scr bilteral atau Multilatral akan tingk bisnis berbg multimnas krn adanya pengurangan tarif masuk Ingin memperoleh keunggulan teknologi biasanya msk ke berbagai neg yg blm mmlk tehnologi atau sudah memiliki namun msh rendah tingkatannya.

Managing Terrorism Risk

Osama Bin Laden Alqaeda. This struggle is an ideological and religions struggle an clash of civilizations. George W Bush. This is the world fight. This is civilization fight No longer is the risk of terrorism for global business focused only on certain areas such as south America or the middle east. That risk now has to be considerate in country such as US which had previously been regarded as safe. Eight countries lost citizen in the WTC attack on September 11 2001 Many companies from Asia and Europe had office branches in the tower of the WTC most of those office along with the employee from those country where destroyer on the attack. Thousand and billion of dollar were lost not only by those immediately affected by the attack but also by countless small and large business impacted by the ripple effect global airline and financial market .where devastated

As incident of terrorism accurate around the world many companies are increasingly aware of the need to manage the risk of terrorism In high risk country both IBM and Exxon try to develop a benevolent image trough charitable contribution to the local community. The also try to maintain low profiles and minimize public city and host country by using discreet corp sigh at comp sites. Some comp have put together teams to monitor the patters of terrorism around the world. In westerns Europe terrorism typically aim booms at US owned bank and computer companies Almost all MNCs hve stepped up there sec measure hearing consultant in counter terrorism and advising their employee to avoid 107 US Airline when flaying overseas

Iraq has terrorist , RI Outside top 10 dangerous states

Iraq is the country most at risk from terrorist attacks for the second straight year according to a ranking by global analysts maplecroft. While Thailand has joined the nine countries most in danger for the first time. Terrorism has shot back up the global agenda since alqaeda claimed a Dec 25 bad to down a US airliner and insurgent violence remains a pressing concert as both Iraq and afganistan face milestones in 2010 in their search for stability Although Indonesia is outside the top nine countries with extreme risk from terrorism. The worlds most populous muslim country is still considered a high country.

Terrorism threat the risk consultancy terrorism risk index (TRI) shows that although security in Iraq improved the scale human impact and frequency of attack still makes if the riskiest country for political violence with nearly 4500 civilians killed in 2009.
The index based on 2009 data ranks Afghanistan second with Pakistan and Somalia third and fourth respectively they are rated at extreme risk along with Lebanon India, 6 Algeria , 7 Colombia, 8 and Thailand a Maplecroft statement said.



Sesuai dng kemajuan tehnologi mengakibatkan semakin bsr risiko kehancuran alam & kehidupan umat manusia, sinyalemen dr lemb intelegen Inggris menghawatirkan ttg renc teroris untk menggunakan senj nuklir patut menjd perhatian semua pihak. Perkemb nuklir utk sistem tekn persenjtaan dilakukan oleh Korea Utara, dng uji coba nuklir Korea Utara dan Uni Eropa. Hal utama bagi sinergisitas teror dan adalah doktrin klasik pundamentalisme islam yg memisah sc`tajam antara almukminan (umat isalam ) dng Alkapirin (non muslim) Dlm pekemb terorisme modern yg terjd pasca perang dunia ke 2 dilkukan oleh org yg berasal dr Irlandia Utara, Jerman, Italia, Austria, Yunani, Spanyol,Belanda (RMS) Amerika Latin , Israel, India, Jepang, China, Korea Utara, Libia, Iran, Suria h, Iark, Yaman selatan, Bangsa Timteng dan berbg bngsa Asia Afrika Lain.

Terrorisme dlm lingkup Universal

Mega teror spt yg terjd saat ini diseponsori oleh Alqaeda suatu jaringan org trans nas yg kekuatannya melebihi neg berdaulat setingkat Afganistan. Terorisme mulai terjadi nge-neg muslim melalui alumni Afg kemudian bersingungangan dng dok perang jihad dr aliran keras asing yg mengaku sbg pengikut WAHABI, bahkan dng teologi mati sahid yg dijanjikan sorga. Kenyaakinan mistis pelaku mati sahid yg akan disambut oleh puluhan bidadari mrpkan daya tarik yg bias dan membius bnyak anak-anak muda bersedia mjd pelaku bom bunuh diri (suicide bomber). Bahkan kini secara gender tak terbatas hanya pd laki-laki, Samilah Alyasin seorang wanita berusia 51 th talah mengkui tuduhan pol Irak sbg perekrut lebih dr 80 orang wanita mewnjadi pengebom bunuh diri. Topik pembahasan dunia sjk serangan sangat dahsyat thd menara kembar Worl Trade Center di NY dan Pentagon pd tgl 11 sep 01, sbg tertuduh pelaku (subyek mega erorisme adalah Alqaeda pimp Osama Bin Laden. Scr ekplisit ideologi pr teroris adalh penolakan atsa modernitas dan sekulerisasi yg didlm tradisi filsafat diasosiasikan dng konsep 111 pencerahan.

Organisasi Alqaeda

Adalah suatu wadah dr kaum fundamentalis Islam yg bkn dlm pengertian Fundamentalisme agama. Fundamentalisme yg melahirkan teror adalah suatu ideologi pol bkn agama islam.Fundamentalisme adalah ketaakan thd kenyadng cr pandang politis Membedakan antara isalam sbg keimanan dng ideologi polislam sbg fund agama merpkan hal penting utk menolak klaim pr teroris sbg representasi Islam. Arus kuat aliran keras teologis kontemporer dunia dewasa ini tlh dihubungkan dng pemikiran keras Wahabi. Masy masa kini yg mengaku penganut WAHABI ttpi beraliran keras merpk habitat dr terorisme mk Alqaeda dpt trs tumbuh berkembang dan melakukan kaderisasi sc lebih efektif dan efsiien

Alqaeda`sbg jaringan Terrorisme Global.

Peristiwa jatuhnya dua pesawat komersial Rusia aksi teroror oleh Isalambouli Brigades (IB) mempunyai kaitan dng jar terr Int Alqaeda Jatuhnya 2 pswt Rusia yg nyaris bersamaan th 2004 dng korban 90 sipil tewas 23 Julli 2005 sekelompok angg Brigade Al Azzam Alq menyerang pasal da hotel Resot Sharma Al Sheik di Mesir . Serangan sepektakuler Brigade Aldullah Al Azzam Alqaeda di Yaman 2000 diarahkan kapal perang USA USS Cole. 17 Combatan tewas Serangan Alqaeda thd Kapal perang USS Ashland diteluk Yordania mengakibatkan semua kapal amphibi USS Kearsarge meningalkan pelbuhan Aqaba. Sewrang pengebobam 2003 di Arab Saudi termasuk serangan Masjidil Haram MEkah melibatkan 172 orang Alqeda yg ditamnggap oleh satuan anti teror Arab Saudi

Tahun 2004 di kota Beslen Ossetia Utara Rep Federasi Rusia telah menduduki sekolah mjenengah dan menytandera sejumlah besar murid orang tua dan guru. Kaliu Krn itu walaupun seranganb teroris diseluruh dunia terus meningkat lebih kurang 25 % dng jumlah korban meningkat hampir 40 krn kerja sam antara neg bangsa jg menigkat Terjadi total 14.388 kali serangan teroris utamanya Irak dan Afg atau 3185 kali lebih banyak dari th sebelumnya. Total jiwa 20.498 atau 5800 jiwa manusia lbh bnyak dr th 2006. Tero ygberupa ser membabi buta dan penyanderaan orang sipil di hotel Taj Mahan Mumbai India pd 26 Nov 2008 dilakukan oleh para troris yg berasal dr kel Fund laskar El Taiba. Alqaeda memperingatkan pem India akan adanya tror yg serupa di mumbai jk India menyerang pakistan bhkan kaum amujahid akan mengalahkan India spt yg merak alk yhd Uni Sopiet pd era 1980 Sebagaimanhakekat teror hakekat ter yng menolak atau meniadakan orang yg berfaham berbeda hakekat ter geocide yaitu mengenyahan kel, kaum suku atau suatu bangsa.


N.G.O (Non Government Organization)

International Management

Local National NGO, Grass-root, community based or civil society organization, local NGO Provincial (USAState), National NGO, civil society organization, Local NGO National, national NGO, UN NGO, Out side the UN NGO, civil society organization , Regional, international NGO , atau Global International NGO

N.G.O Collaboration Criteria

There are three other generally accepted characteristics that exclude particular types of bodies from consideration, An NGO will not be constituted as a political party; it will be non-profitmaking and it will be not be a criminal group, in particular it will be non- violent
ICRC (International Commite of The Red Cross) UNHCR (United National High Commissioner refuges)

Amnesti International
Amnesti Internasional melawan semua penyalahgunaan groupoposisi, termasuk penculikan, penyanderaan dan pembunuhan tawanan, membantu pencari suaka agar tidak dikembalikan ke negaranya yang akan menghadapi perlakuan berupa kekerasan dan pelanggaran terhadap hak-hak dasar . Amnesti Internasional yg berbasis di London bekerja sama dng Non Governmental Organization, PBB dan Organisasi antar pemerintah regional, dengan kontrol militer internasional, keamanan hubungan dgn polisi, merancang edukasi di bid. Ham dan menumbuhkan kesadaran atas pentingnya HAM
Thank you For your kind attention


Druckers Prophetic Statement

We must look first at the context of history namely, the five of civilizations voice: First, the hunter and Gatherer Age; Second, the Agricultural Age; Third, the Industrial Age; Fourth, the Information/Knowledge Worker Age; And finally, and emerging Age of Wisdom
Information/ Knowledge Worker



Lahir di Vienna Austria 19 Nov 1909 Meninggal di Amerika 11 Nov 2005 Murid dari Maynard Keyness Cambridge University

Peter F. Drucker

Apakah Management itu : Mengenai orang dan Kinerjanya Semua institusi / Organisasi hanya memiliki satu sumber daya, yaitu : Manusia Fungsi Management : Membuat, mendorong agar manusia lebih produktif Institusi / Organisasi : Wahana manusia dalam mencari makna hidup Management membangun kerja untuk membentuk manusia yang terlibat didalamnya berkembang kwalitas hidupnya Tidak ada institusi yang bekerja untuk diri sendiri tanpa kecuali bisnis Bisnis menjadi benar karena ia prima melayani publik dan komunitas Jika institusi melalaikan fungsi management yaitu untuk meningkatkan kwalitas hidup manusia maka terjadi Mismanagement

Management adalah Humanisasi : Manusia butuh management guna berprestasi dan pengembangan pribadi. Institusi dan management tidak bisa dipisahkan dari tubuh sosial yang hendak dilayani. Aktivitas analisis keuangan, matematika, kwantifikasi hanya kerangka dan fondasi gedung (management) bukan arsitektur. 90% dari proses management adalah Humanisasi. 10% Kegiatan spesifik dan praktis. Management adalah masalah manusia bila bergerak organisasi akan berjalan. Karya intelektual Drucker dibidang Management ada 30 buku terbaik. Bila Drucker ditanya mana karya yang terbaik, jawab : The Next Tujuan Drucker : agar management semakin manusiawi, semakin berorientasi kepada manusia, semakin membela 120 manusia.


In a few hundred year, when the history of our time is written from along- term perspective, its likely that the most important event those, Historians will see isnt technology, not the internet, not e- commerce. Its an unprecedented change in the human condition for the first time literally- substantial and rapidly growing numbers of people have choices for the first time . They will have to manage them selves And society is totally unprepared for it

The Most important contribution management need to make in the 21st Century is similarly to increase the productivity of knowledge work and the knowledge worker

The most valuable assets of a 20th century company its production equipment. The most valuable assets of 21st century institution whether business or non business, will be its knowledge workers and their productivity. The great historian Arnold Toynbee : Spring 2005 Nothing Fails like success. When you have a challenge and the response is equal to the challenge, thats called success. But once you have a new challenge, the old once successful response no longer work. Thats why its called a failure. The mind set of the industrial age that still dominates to days workplace. Will simply not work in the knowledge worker age and new economy.


(Mostly unopened)

Freedom and Power to Choose

Principles (Natural Laws)

- Universal - Timeless - Self-Evident The 4 Intelligences/Capacities - IQ = Mental - PQ = Physical/Economic - EQ = Emotional/Social - SQ = Spiritual


Freedom to Choose


Self Awareness
Imagination Conscience

Idependent Will

Their behavior is a product of their own conscious choice, based on values, rather than a product of their conditions, based on feeling. Reactive people are also affected by their social environment, by the social weather. Reactive people are driven by feelings, by circumstances, by conditions, by their 124 environment. Proactive people are driven by value-carefully thought about, selected and internalized values.

The 7th HabitS Of Highly Effective People

The 8th HabitS From Effectiveness To Greatness

Stephen R. Covey 2005

Effective Habits Internalized Principle and Patterns of Behavior

(what to, why to)


(how to)

(want to)

We will define a habits as the intersection of knowledge, skill and desire. Knowledge is the theoretical paradigm, the what to do and the why Skill is the how to do Desire is the motivation, the want to do In order to make something a habit in our lives we to have all three



They move us progressively on Maturity Continuum from dependence to independence. We each begin life as an infant, totally dependent on others. We are directed, natured, and sustained by other. The gradually, over the ensuing months and years, we become more and more independent-physically, mentally, emotionally, and financially-until eventually we can essentially take care of ourselves, becoming inner-directed and self-reliant

en th
Seek First to Understand .... Then to be Understood Public

eS aw


Think Win/Win

Put First Things First

Be Proactive

2 Private Victory Begin with

To be Proactive is a paradigm of self- determination or self and not only genetic determination, social, physical or environment, but also I am able and will make a commitment This is the strength of choice.

7. Sharp

the End in Mind



It mean that as human being, we are responsible for our own live. Our behavior is function of our decisions. We can subordinate feeling values. We have initiative and the responsibility to make things happen. The word responsibility response ability The ability to choose your response. Highly proactive people recognize that responsibility Habit 1 say : youre the creator, you are in charge. Its based on the your unique human endowments particularly self awareness


HABIT 2 Begin with the End in Mind

Begin with the end is a paradigm the states that the all the first done mentally, and then physically. This is the content of the commitment. I can think the content of the commitment that I will make and what I expect , I will achieve from the paradigm. This is the power of the focus.

en th
Seek First to Understand .... Then to be Understood Public

eS aw


Think Win/Win

7. Sharp

Put First Things First

Be Proactive

2 Private Victory Begin with

the End in Mind



Habit 2 is based on principle, it has broad application. In addition to individuals, families, service groups, and organizations of all kinds, become significantly more effective as they begin with the end in mind. Habit 2 is the first or mental creation its based on imagination, the ability to envision, to see the potential, to create with our minds what we cannot at present see with our eyes, and conscience The ability to defect our own uniqueness and the personal moral and ethical guidelines within which we can most happily fulfilled. Its the deep contact with our basic paradigms and values and the vision of what wi can become


HABIT 3 Put First Things First

Paradigm of priority, the acts and implementation, I have the ability and responsibility to fulfill the commitment Habit 3, then, is the second creation, the physical creation. It the fulfillment, the actualization, the natural emergence of habit 1 and 2. It the exercise of independent will toward becoming principle centered It the day in, day-out, moment by moment doingit, Habit 1 and 2 are absolutely and prerequisite to habit 3. You cant become principlecentered without first being aware of and developing your own proactive nature.

en th
Seek First to Understand .... Then to be Understood Public

eS aw


Think Win/Win

7. Sharp

Put First Things First

Be Proactive

2 Private Victory Begin with

the End in Mind



HABIT 4 Think Win / Win

Think win/win is To understand, then to be understood Seek First to understand than to be understood A frame of mind and heart that constantly seeks mutual benefit in all human interaction Means that agreements or solutions are mutually beneficial, mutually satisfying with a win/win solution, all parties feel good about the decision and feel committed to the action plan Win-win sees life as a cooperative, not a competitive arena Most people tend to think in terms of dichotomies strong or weak, hardball or softball, win or lose That kind of thinking is fundamentally flawed Win-win is based on the paradigm that the is plenty for everybody Win-win is a belief in the third alternative, its not your way or my way, its a better way, higher way

en th
Seek First to Understand .... Then to be Understood Public

eS aw


Think Win/Win

7. Sharp

Put First Things First

Be Proactive

2 Private Victory Begin with

the End in Mind



HABIT 5 Seek First to Understand, Then to be understood.

Knowing how to be understood is the other half of habit 5, and is equally critical in reaching win-win solutions. We defined maturity as the balance between courage and consideration Seeking to understand requires consideration seeking to be understood takes courage Win-win requires a high degree of both so it becomes important in interdependent situation for us to be understood The early Greeks had a magnificent philosophy which is embodied in three words contain the essence of seeking first to understood and making effective presentations Ethos : is your personal credibility, the faith people have in your integrity and competency Pathos is the empathic side its the feeling its mean that you are in alignment with the emotional thrust of another persons communication Logos is the logic, the reasoning part of

en th
Seek First to Understand .... Then to be Understood Public

eS aw


Think Win/Win

7. Sharp

Put First Things First

Be Proactive

2 Private Victory Begin with

the End in Mind



HABIT 6 Synergize

Paradigms of thought are superfluous when relate the other party, give respect, understand each other, balance between considerations and courage, and respect for the difference. This is main things that become complementary. its in the relationship that creative powers are maximized, just as the real power in these 8 habit or seven habit is in their relationship to each-other, not just in the individual habits them selves. The relationship of the parts is also the power in creating a synergistic culture inside a family or and organization. The more genuine sustained the participation in analyzing and solving problems the greater the release of everyones creativity and their commitment to what they creative

en th
Seek First to Understand .... Then to be Understood Public

eS aw


Think Win/Win

7. Sharp

Put First Things First

Be Proactive

2 Private Victory Begin with

the End in Mind



HABIT 7 Sharpen The Saw Principle of Balanced Self - Renewal

en th

eS aw

The Paradigm of continuous improvement of integrated personality. The habits for education, studying, self renewal, in Japanese term KAIZENG. The round diagram has the edge of arrow that not close the cycle, but make an upward spiral that symbolize the continuous improvement of each area of four chosen area.

Seek First to Understand .... Then to be Understood Public


Think Win/Win

7. Sharp

Put First Things First

Be Proactive

2 Private Victory Begin with

the End in Mind



HABIT 8 Find Your Voice and inspire Others to Find Theirs

The eight habit not only add the existing seven habits but also see and make use of the strength of the third of seven habits that can face the central of the knowledge worker age. The eight habit is a path goal to the new reality that is promising. The spirit and the needs of the new era is self- fulfillment, passionate execution, significant contribution

n the
Seek First to Understand .... Then to be Understood Public

Sa w


7. Sharp e

Think Win/Win

d d F in an to o n le ati eop 6 lf- Voch er P e Ot y r S e er t o u e t h L ib d Y la t n d Fin t imu r Mi S hei 8 T

Put First Things First

Be Proactive

2 Private Victory Begin with

the End in Mind


Kebiasaan kedelapan adalah tentang melihat dan memanfaatkan kekuatan dimensi ketiga dari tujuh kebiasaan yang bisa menjawab tantangan sentral dari abad pekerja pengetahuan (Knowledge worker age) yang baru Kebiasaan kedelapan adalah Menemukan suara panggilan jiwa anda dan 137 mengilhami orang lain untuk menemukan suara kemerdekaan jiwa mereka.


Habit 7 is personal PC. Its preserving and enhancing the greatest asset you have. Its renewing the the four dimensions of your nature physical, spiritual, mental, and social/emotional.

Exercise, Nutrition, Stress Management

Reading, Visualizing, Planning, Writing

Service, Empathy Synergy, Intrinsic Securithy

Value Clarification & Commitment, Study & Herb Shepherd describes the healthy balanced life around four values: Perspective Mediation

(spiritual), autonomy (mental), connectedness (sosial), and Tone (physical). George Sheehan, describes four roles: being a good animal (physical) a good craftsman (mental), a good friend (social), and a saint (spiritual). Sound motivation and organization theory embrace these four dimension or motivations-the economic (physical) how people are treated (social); how people are development are use (mental); and the service, the job, the contribution the organization gives (spiritual).



The physical dimension involves caring effectively for our physical body-eating the right kinds of food, getting sufficient rest and relaxation, and exercising on a regular basis. Exercise is one of those Quadran II, high-leverage activities that most of us dont do consistently because it isnt urgent. And because we dont do it, sooner or later we find ourselves in Quadran I, dealing with the health problems and crises that come as a natural result of our neglect. A good exercise program is one that you can do in your own home and one that will build your body in three areas: endurance, flexibility, and strength.


Renewing the spiritual dimension provides leadership to your life. Its highly related to Habit 2. The spiritual dimension is your core, your center, your commitment to your value system. Its a very private area of life and a supremely important one. It draws upon the sources the inspire and uplift your and tie you to the timeless truths of all humanity. And people do it very, very differently.


Most of our mental development and study discipline comes through formal education. But as soon as we leave the external discipline of school, many of us let our minds atrophy. We dont do any more serous reading, we dont explore new subjects in any real depth outside our action fields, we dont think analytically, we dont write at least not critically or in a way that test our ability to express ourselves in distilled, clear, and concise language. Education continuing education, continually honing and expanding the mind is vital renewal. Sometimes the involves the external discipline of the classroom or systematized study programs; more often it does not. Proactive people can figure out many, many ways to educate themselves.


While the physical, spiritual, and mental dimensions are closely related to Habit 1, 2, and 3 centered on the principles of personal vision, leadership, and management the social/emotional dimension focuses on Habit 4, 5, and 6 centered on the principles of interpersonal leadership, empathic communication, and creative cooperation. The social and emotional dimensions of our lives are tied together because our emotional life is primarily, but not exclusively, developed out of and manifested in our relationship with other. Renewing our social/emotional dimension does with other dimensions does not take time in the same sense that renewing the other dimensions does.