Anda di halaman 1dari 62

Recruitment

 Philosophy of Recruitment-
 Right man on right job at the right time.
 What is Recruitment?-
 Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and
stimulating them to apply for the job so that the organization can select
the most appropriate people to fill in job needs
 It differs from Selection. Recruitment is a positive process - building a
roster of potentially qualified applicants, selection is a “negative” process
of rejecting/ screening / eliminating to search the most suitable one.
 Recruitment policy-
 Corporate goals – short/long term
 Identification of recruitment needs
 Preferred sources of recruitment
 Criteria for recruitment
 Financial implications of recruitment
 Recruitment has two main aims-
 Projection of positive image organization the
organization
 Attracting & retaining them
 Recruitment is the first contract that the
organization makes with potential/ prospective
employees- A critical function
 Recruitment is directly related with a number of
activities- HR Planning, Employment Planning,
Selection, Orientation, Placement, etc.
Human Resource Plans
. Number & type of vacancies

Recruiting goals & Priorities Recruiting Philosophy


•Attract large numbers of applicants •Internal or external sources?
•Attract applicants willing to accept offers •Fill vacancies or hire for
•Fill vacancies quickly careers?

•Fill vacancies at minimal cost •Commitment to diversity?

•Hire people who perform well •Marketing orientation to


candidates?
•Hire people who will stay with the organization
•Ethics in recruiting
•Generate positive public relations “Spillover”

Recruiting choices and behaviors


•Plans
•Timing
•Methods
•Sources
 Factors Influencing Recruitment
 External
 Principles of supply & demand
 Labour- market / unemployment
 Political/ Legal Considerations
 Company’s image
 Internal
 Recruiting Policy (Internal source)
 Local Citizens (MNCs) / Expatriates
 Size of the Company
 Cost
 Growth of the Organization
 Internal Recruitment
 Less costly +
 Better knowledge of candidates
 Enhances employees morale/ commitment
 Stagnation -
 No fresh blood
 No cross – fertilization

 External Recruitment
 (+)
 Benefits of new skills, new talents and new experience to
organizations
 Compliance with reservation policy become easy.
 Scope for resentment, jealousies and heartburn are avoided.
 (-)
 It is costly
 Chances of creeping in false positive and false negative errors.
 Adjustment of new employees to the organizational culture takes
longer time.
 Recruitment Process
 HR Planning
 Job vacancies (Number, Types etc.)
 Recruitment Planning
 Strategy development
 From where?
 How ?
 When?
 Target/ Applicants Population
 Searching Activities-
 Selling, Message, Media
 Application – pool (Application Blank)
 Screening
 Potential Hires
 To selection
 Final Checks
 Induction
 Methods of Recruitment
 Direct – Method – Campus Recruitment
 Indirect Method – Advertisement
 Third Party Method- employment agencies- public + private
 Sources of Recruitment
 Newspaper advertising
 Search firms
 Employment agencies
 Employee referrals
 Networking
 College recruiting
 Internal posting
 Internet
 Unsolicited
 Self application- stray application
 Through references – managers, union leaders, professional
 Employment- exchange
 Job/Head Hunters
 Institute/College- Campus Interviews
 Advertisement
 Wants ads- Identifies the job, benefits, org.
 Blind Ads- No identification of Org.- To apply in Box
 AIDA
 A- Attract attention
 I- Create interest in the job/org.
 D- Create desire to apply
 A- action- to apply
 Walk- Ins, Write- ins & Talk- Ins
 Radio/ T V / Cinema/ Posters/ Cassettes/ Videos, etc.
 Competitions- Poaching/ Raiding
Why Recruit on the Internet? Opinion of HR Managers & Headhunters

 Access to more candidates


 Improved ability to target specific audience
 Cost of placing the job postings
 Speed
 Absence of middleman
 Convenience
 Distribution of postings
 Quality of candidates
 Less paperwork
 Resume management
 Quality of service
 Not presently using the Internet
Recruitment in Multinational Organization
 Ethnocentric, where all key positions are filled by
nationals of the parent company. (A typical strategy
employed in the earlier stages of a venture)
 Polycentric, where host country nationals fill all key
positions in the subsidiary.
 Geocentric, where the ‘best’ people are recruited
regardless of nationality e.g. a national of a country in
which neither the parent nor subsidiary is based could
also be considered.
 Regiocentric, where decisions will be made on a
regional basis (the new subsidiary will be based in one
country within this region), with due regard to the key
factor for success of the product/ service. For
example, if local knowledge is paramount, host
country nationals will be recruited, if knowledge of
established product is the key factor, parent country
nationals are likely to be targeted.
Requirement
 Country
 The culture of the country in which the
subsidiary is based, in particular its perceived
‘ toughness’.
 Host government requirements regarding the
employment of ‘foreigners’ and immigration
requirements.
 Individual
 Language competence
 General international awareness
 Personal ‘fit’ with cultural requirements above
 Requirements for training
 Degree of technical competence to do the job
 Organizational considerations
 Considerable costs of international relocation
of the individual and her/his family.
 High levels of expatriate failure rates
discovered to be between 25-40%
 Opportunities for individuals to develop career
paths without international experience.
Selection Processes
Selection is a weeding out process- arriving at most suitable
candidate by process of rejection- essentially a negative
process.
Selection follows the recruitment of a pool of job applicants.
The selection process involves assessing the applicants to
decide who will be hired.

Selection is the process by which an enterprise chooses


from a list of applicants the person or persons who best
meet/s the selection criteria for the position available,
considering current environmental conditions.
Typical order in which selection devices are used
 Application blank Reject some candidates
 Screening interview Reject some candidates
 Tests Reject some candidates
 More interviews Reject some candidates
 Reference checks Reject some candidates
 Conditional offer Offers rejected by
some candidates
 Physical examination
 Hire
 Comprehensive application blank
 Stage I – Screening of Application forms/ Curriculum
Vitae (C.V) – preliminary application blank –
comprehensive application blank
 Stage II- Tests
 (a) Preliminary Test
 (b) Performance/Simulation tests / written/ screening
 Work Sampling- replica of a job
 Assessment- Centers- Line – Managers, Qualified
Psychologists, Exercises that stimulate real problems-
Interviews, In basket problems solving exercises, G. D.
etc.
 b) Psychological Tests – Supplement not substitute
 Intelligence Tests- quick learning, alert, reasoning etc.
 Aptitude test – a. clerical , mechanical,
 b. Interest test - individual’s activity – preference – career choosing
 Personality Tests
 Emotional Tests etc.
 Situation Tests- performance + personality- for managerial position- problem
solving

 C) Physical Test

 Stage III - Selection & Interviews


 Types :-
 Preliminary Interviews
 Final Interviews
 In depth- interview
 Stress Interview
 Unstructured Interview
 Structured Interview
 Group interview
 Panel interview
 In Trays
 Interview content
 Personal qualities
 Physical health, personality etc.
 Academic achievements
 Experience
 Interpersonal competence (getting along with others)
 Career orientation (Aspiration, goals
 Interview Problem
 Snap judgment
 Decision on negative impression
 Pressure to favour
 Halo effect
 Strategic faults
 Requirements
 Preparation
 Reception
 Soliciting information
 Core interview
 Freezing discussion
 What we look when finally dealing the selection of a
candidate
 A passion for winning
 A clear ability to deal
 Strong analytical skill
 The ability to think innovative
 Positive orientation towards work
 The ability to work collaboration with others
 A drive for continuous self development & a genuine
interact in the development of others
 Decisiveness & assertiveness

 Stage IV
 Checking the reference
 Checking the antecedents
 Medical – check up
Placement & Orientation
 Placement means posting on the job
 Probation – (a) job fit (b) job mismatch (c ) skill
deficiency
 Orientation is the personnel activity which
introduces new employees to the enterprise and
to their tasks, superiors, and work groups.
 Welcome
 Introduction
 Integration
 Removing fear
 Creating good impression
 Providing information
 Socialization
 Adjustment
(c ) relieves anxiety – makes him feel at home
- Rapport with the environment
- Lasting impression
 Induction programmes
The HR department may initiate the following
steps while organizing the induction programme:
 Welcome to the organization
 Explain about the company / History Philosophy
 Show the location/department where the new recruit
will work/ products/ services
 Give the company’s manual to the new recruit
 Provide details about various work groups and the
extent of unionism within the company
 Give details about pay, benefits, holidays, leave, etc.
Emphasis on the importance of attendance or
punctuality
 Explain about future training opportunities and career
prospect.
 Clarify doubts, by encouraging the employee to come
out with questions
 Take the employee on a guided tour of buildings,
facilities, etc. Hand him over to his supervisor.
 Safely meaning
INTERNAL MOBILITY
 It is internal movement within the organisation. It
contains following internal processes like (i) placement
(ii) promotion, (iii) demotion (iv) transfer (v) separation
 Placement : Placing the new employee to suitable jobs-
trying him on different jobs, job enlargement, job
enrichment, pooled job, independent job, etc.
 Promotion : Promotion is the upward assignment/
movement of an individual in an organisation’s hierarchy-
more responsibility, enhanced status & increased
income. Promotion is different than upgradation of a
post. In upgradation only increase in wages takes place.
 Why promotion?
 Recognition of a job well done.
 Retain/Reward an employee
 Org./ Individual effectiveness
 Job- satisfaction
 Loyalty
 PROMOTION POLICY
 Ratio of Internal promotion to External recruitment
 Finalizing promotional channel / LOP
 Relationship of any disciplinary action to promotion
 Determining the criteria for promotion- Elibility Periodicity, Appraisal,
Interview etc.
 Criteria for Promotion-
 Seniority
 Merit
 Merit vs. Seniority
 Seniority- cum-merit
 Types of Promotions
 Time Scale Promotion (based on seniority)
 Merit Promotion (based on merit)
 Merit-cum-Seniority (Striking a balance between merit & Seniority)
 Adhoc promotions or Expediency promotions
 Need based
 Advantages
 Satisfaction & Prestige
 Recognition & Incentive to better employees
 Reduces turnover
 Motivates people
 Disadvantages
 In breeding/ stagnation
 Peter’s Principle “Level of Incompetence”-
Demotion
 Why Demotion?
 Adverse business conditions
 After accepting promotion an employee request to revert to his
old job due to various reasons
 A mismatch between promotee’s ability/ interest and the demand
of the new job
 Demotion punishment
 Demotion policy
 Clear, reasonable & transparent rules for demotion
 Well communicated
 Fair, firm & Consistent
 Periodical Review
 Transfer: Transfer is lateral movement. It is change in job assignment-
May involve promotion or demotion or administrative requirement or job
requirement – no reduction in salary, no change in status – May be
reward, May be punishment.
 There are two types of transfers (1) Personal transfer or request (2)
Company’s driven transfer
Transfer
 Personal Transfer : Individual driven transfers are those occasioned by
the characteristics and desires of the employee, and are primarily in
his/her interest. The reasons for this could be many.
 To correct erroneous placement
 To relieve the monotony of a job, acquire better working conditions, and join
friends.
 To provide an outlet from blind alley jobs
 To avoid interpersonal conflicts
 To escape an unpleasant work situation
 To reduce commuting distance
 To pursue educational opportunities, self activism
 To accommodate a dual career problem
 In the interest of age/health, education of children, housing
difficulties, and to joint immobile dependents.
 A search to creating opportunities
 To avail of training elsewhere, to facilitate later advancement
or promotion
 Better opportunities for advancement
 Company’s Driven Transfers A company may initiate
transfers for the following reasons:
 Need for temporary adjustment for leave and absence etc.
 Fluctuation in work requirement
 Better utility of employee
 Versatility transfer or job rotation
 Shift transfer
 Remedial transfer to correct faulty placement
 On compassionate ground
 Panel transfer- punishment/reward
 Employees generally resist Co. driven transfer
 Suspect victimization by management
 Unwilling to move to unknown place
 Painful to leave social groups, friends & relatives
 Develops interests in work, place etc. and dislikes leaving them
 Develop “Craft consciousness” and leaving becomes painful
 Transfer policy
 Transfer is a costly affair. There are number of transfer benefits –
advanced pay, disturbance allowance, packing- allowance, transport
allowance, tranist leave etc.
 It is risky, also full of IR potential .
 Policy should answer the following:
 Transparency- circumstances in which transfer is made
 Basis on which transfer is made
 Principle followed in transfer- seniority, juniority, skill attitude required on
the job
 Details about future job to which transfer is made
 Assurance about perks and benefits
 Separation : Separation occurs
because of variety of reasons.
 Legal separation of Redundancy separation
 Lay off
 Retrenchment
 Golden handshake
 Outplacement
 Natural wastage
 Death
 Retirement
 Prolonged sickness
 Voluntary separation
 Resignation, due to domestic problems, job
hopping
Performance Management
CONCEPT OF COMPENSATION & REWARD

 C/R possibly the most critical & strategic area of HRM


 Employers perspective , Employees perspective,
Concept of compensation,
 An organization exists to accomplish specific goals &
objectives hence, hires employees. The individuals
hired by the organization have their own needs. One is
for money, which enables them to purchase a wide
variety of goods & services available in the
marketplace. Hence there is a basis for an
exchange: the employee offers specific behaviors
desired by the organization to meet its goals and
objectives in return for money, goods, & / or services.
 Sale of hands – brains – soul??
 Compensation emphasizes on fair- day’s pay for
fair day’s work.
 Purely extrinsic – A quid pro quo contract All
forms of financial returns and tangible services
and benefits employees receive as part of
employment relationship-
 Cash- compensation –Base Pay, D. A. Short Term
Incentives, Long Term Incentives (Equity Incentives)
 Benefits – Income Protection, Allowance, work/Life-
Protecting ones
 Bonuses (attendance, performance based etc)
 Shifts, Supplements.
 Danger money/ Dirt money
 Immediate focus
 Trade – off between pay & efforts
 Monetary contract
CONCEPT OF REWARD

 Composite of all organizational mechanisms,


and strategies used to finally acknowledge
Employees’ behavior & performance. It
includes all forms of compensation, specially
non- monetary, awards & recognition, training
opportunities, promotions, assignments,
working conditions etc.
 Located more in behavioral science
 It part of broader strategies of enhancing loyalty,
motivation & satisfaction
 Encompasses career opportunities, job- securities,
learning opportunities, achievement, recognition
 Economic incentives are becoming rights rather than rewards”.
So we must acknowledge that insufficient monetary rewards for
performance can not be rewards for performance can not be
compensated by good human relations.
 If talent is an organization’s most important asset, maximizing
that talent is its most critical challenge. The challenge lies in
issues relating to developing the skills to motivate people to
perform at their best, making work meaningful and rewarding,
fostering commitment & innovation, retaining top performers &
improving their job performance today & giving them the edge
they need to become the leader of tomorrow.
 More prospective in focus
 To unleash latent potentials
 To create sustained commitment
 Psychological contract
 “Personal recognition can be more motivational than money”
asserts Bob Nelson, author of 1001 Ways to Reward Employees
(Workman Publishing, 1994). “You can obtain from your
employees any type of performance or behaviour you desire
simply by making use of positive reinforcement.
ADVANTAGES OF C & R SYSTEM – A MANAGEMENT

PERSPECTIVE

 Attracting & retaining good performer


 Improving Individual & Corporate Performance
 Improving Motivation
 Clarifying job- role & duties
 Improving communication
 Reinforcing management control
 Identifying developmental opportunities
 Importance that job deserves (Status, Skill, Responsibility)
 Encouraging loyalty to the Organization
 Controlling cost
 Complying Govt.’s Policies/ Laws
 Maintaining Co.’s Image
ORGANISATION’S COMPENSATION POLICY

 Business Strategy –
 To attract, retain, motivate the Right man
 What org. can afford
 What talent will be required to meet org. strategic
goals
 The economy- macro level factors like global
trends, national wage policies- minimum, fair &
living wages, legal provisions
 Employer employee are having different perspective
of compensation.
 Compensation & reward different concepts
 Macro National level compensation policy
 Industry ( micro level compensation policy)
PAY POLICY

1. Motivational strategies Internal Consistency –


Adams equity theory of motivation
 Job evaluation – to find the worth of the job
2. External Parity
 Labour Market/Ongoing rates
 Capacity to pay –
3. Organization strategy
 Wage structure
 Wage/job family
 Managerial
 Technical/supervisory
 Administrative/clerical (staff)
 Manual- Highly skilled, skilled, semi skilled, unskilled
 Components of wage structures
 Basic pay
 Base pay (fixed pay+ variable pay)
 Dearness allowance
 Other allowances & Incentives like bonus etc.
Incentive Scheme
 Schemes where the workers’ earnings vary in the same
proportion as output
 Schemes where earnings vary less proportionately than
output
 Schemes where earnings vary proportionately more than
output
 Schemes where earnings differ at different levels of output.
 This points to designing appropriate reward programmes
linked to performance.
Total reward system-
 Total Reward System has both monitory and non-
monitory components, comprising incentives such as
base- pay, variable pay, benefits, an exciting and
challenging work environment the opportunity to work
with excellent colleagues and leaders and industrial
growth opportunity- the concept has been derived from
Herzberg’s theory of motivation- Hygiene factors +
motivators
 Direct financial- Base-pay, variable –pay, incentives, stock
options, Bonus, Merit increases, Spot-rewards, deferred-
payment etc.
 Indirect-financial- Benefits, Perquisites, non-cash-recognition,
sabbaticals, Q.W.L-/Clubs, Co’s paid holidays, children
schooling, home-office, career-counseling etc.
Profit is the most important criteria
 Scheme may use cash, or share
 Gain sharing
 Share office scheme
 Employees share ownership plan
 Higher software system offers a platinum stock
option – no real share transfer, employers
receives a cash payment equivalent to the rise
in value of national stock
 Incentive ………Non cash awards
 Skill based pay allows employees to program
through a range of grade
 Broadband pay
Compensation system

Indirect compensation Direct compensation

rotection programs Pay for time not worked Services & Perquisites
Medical insurance •Vacations •Recreational facilities
Life insurance •Holidays •Care Base pay Merit pay
Disability income •Sick leave •Financial planning
•Low –cost or free meals
Pension social security •Jury duty

Incentive pay
•Bonus
•Commission

Salary •Piece rate


•Profit sharing
•Stock option
•Shift differential

Deferred Pay
•Savings plan
Wage •Stock purchase
•Annuity
Legal aspect of Compensation
 Minimum wages act
 Payment of wages act
 Equal remuneration act
 Payment of bonus act
 Income tax act
 Principle of compensation
Equitable compensation systems
 Internal equity – through job evaluation methods
 External parity – market survey methods
 Job pricing
 Pay ranges
 Broad banding
Wage structure
Wage Differential
 Fair Wages Committee
 The degree of skill
 The strain of work
 The experience involved
 The training required
 The responsibilities undertaken
 The mental & physical requirements
 The disagreeableness of the task
 The hazard attendant on the work, and
 The fatigue involved.
Wage component
 Basic/ DA + variable pay + fringe benefits
Standard Pay Package
 Government Department
 Basic
 DA : 100% to 50% neutralization of dearness
 HRA : different for different category of cities Delhi 30% of basic
 CCA : According to city (A class, B Class, C class
 Conveyance : Different for different slabs of pay

 Public sector undertakings


 Basic : Rs 4/- per point of price indices
 DA : According to city (A class, B Class, C class
 Conveyance : Different for different slabs of pay
 HRA: 30%, 20 % & 15% of A, B, C category of citied
 Tiffin Allowance : Rs 30 /- per day
 Education Allowance : Rs. 125/- per child, subject to maximum of two
 Electricity Water Allowance; Rs. 150/-
 General
 Annual Bonus or ex-gratia
 LTC/ LLTC
 Medical – self, wife, children, parents, unmarried sister, widow sister
 Leave Encashment
 Private sector
 Basic (fixed + variable )
 HRA 35 % of basic 45%
 Education & Hotel Allowance
 CCA
 Servant Wages
 Cost of living Allowance
 Special pay
 Annual
 Bonus
 Executive commission
 Medical
 LTC
 Note
 Statutory Elements:
 PF (12%- 12%)
 Pension- as per scheme (legal scheme or developed by company)
 Statutory Bonus
VARIABLE PAY SCHEME/ PAYMENT BY RESULT

 Wages for Fair Day’s work, for More


Work-wage incentive
 Linking pay to performance
 Variable pay
 What is performance related pay?
 “Financially measurable reward to an individual which
is linked directly to individual team, or co’s
performance.”
 PRP links pay progression to performance and/or
comp rating
 Merit Pay individual incentive bonuses individual
discretionary bonuses, team / to prefer bonuses,
skilled based payment etc.
 Merit pay – basic salary increase by ….. Performance
alone (i) incremental system (ii) percentage increase
 Individual bonuses – Senior executives, sales
managers production managers - reward for
performance subject to assessment after the event.
 Team /group bonus- designed for group performance
 CO wide scheme – separate, identifiable reward to all
or some, depending on co’s performance
Types of Variable
Pay Plans

Individual
•Piece rate
•Sales commissions Group/ Team Organization- wide
•Profit sharing
•Bonuses • Gain sharing
•Employee stock options
•Special recognitions •Quality improvement •Executive stock options
•(trips, merchandise) •Cost reduction •Deferred compensation
•Safety awards
•Attendance bonuses
Factors for successful Variable Pay Plans
Sufficient
Financial
Resources Consistent
Linked to
Available With
Organizational
organization
objectives
Culture

Clearly
Results in
Separated
Desired
From base
behaviors
pay
Variable
Pay
Clear
Clearly
Understandable
communicated
Plan details

Performance
Results
Measurable
Linked
performance Current To
Updated payouts
plans
Executive Compensation

Perquisites

Supplemental Benefits

Long- Term Incentives

Annual Bonuses

Executive Salaries
Common Executive
Perks

Transportation
Financial/Legal Memberships
•Financial planning
• Company car or car allowance • Country club
•Tax planning/ tax preparation
•First class air travel •Health club
•No or low interest loans
•Company airplane usage
•Legal counseling •Luncheon club
Arguments in the Executive Pay debate
Criticisms Counter- Arguments
 Boards of Directors give sizable  The market for executives is tight.
rewards to both high & low Bidding wars & concern over
performing executives retention drive compensation
 Executives should not get rewards packages.
& bonuses for laying off much of  Executives are paid for making
the workforce difficult decisions to benefit
 Total compensation packages, companies
especially with the “golden  Sports & entertainment stars earn
parachutes” for failure, are out of as much or more for playing
line. games or acting.
 Many people contribute to a  CEOs earn their money with
company’s success, not just the endless hours, great pressures,
CEO. Others are paid only a and skill sets that few others
fraction of CEO’s salaries possess.
 Executive compensation frequently  Measuring executive
is not linked to company performance is difficult, and stock
performance. prices alone are insufficient.
Emerging Trends
 Charles Handy- “The new org equation for
success is that profit & productivity are best
created by half of the workforce, paid twice as
well and producing three times as such.” This
can be achieved through performance linked
incentive and reward system.
 Such a system works on a very simple
promise- “If you measure it, people will do it. If
you measure it & pay for it, people will do it in
spades. If what you measure matches
corporate goals and strategies, the co. will be
successful.”
TRAINING &DEVELOPMENT FOR PERFORMANCE
IMPROVEMENT

The training function, now popularly called human resource development
(HRD), coordinates the provision of training and development experience in
organisations
 Training & Development refers to imparting of specific skills, attitude and
knowledge to an employee for improved performance
 It is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by
increasing an employee’s ability to perform though learning, usually by
changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and
knowledge. The need for training and development is determined by the
employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows:-
 Training & development need= standard performance –Actual performance
 Education, training, development
 Why training?
 Newly recruited employees require training
 Existing employees require training for higher level job
 Existing employees requires training
 Training is required for attitudinal & behavioral changes.
An instructional Systems Design Model

DESIGN & DEVELOP


ASSESS NEEDS DELIVER EVALUATE
Design & develop
Assess training training, applying Deliver Evaluate training:
needs knowledge of learning Training Were objectives
•Organizational principles met?
analysis •Select training •Reaction
•Job & task methods
•Learning
analysis •Develop detailed
content •Behavior
•Person analysis
•Develop training •Results
Develop training .
objectives materials
•Pilot test training
program
•Train trainer
Methods & Sources of Information for Needs
Assessment

Methods of Gathering Data Sources of Information


for Needs Assessment  Existing records (e.g., output, quality,
waste, downtime, complaints,
 Search of existing records accidents reports, requests for
 training, exit interviews, performance
Individual interviews
appraisals, equipment operation
 Group interviews manuals, procedures manuals, job
 Questionnaires descriptions, hiring criteria, personnel
 Performance tests files, competency models & profiles)
 Written tests  Incumbents
 Assessment centers  Superiors
 Observation  Subordinates
 Collection of critical  Subject matter experts
incidents  Clients
 Job analysis
 Task analysis
 Training need analysis
 Org. analysis
 Job/Task analysis
 Man analysis
 Analysis of equipment
 Manpower analysis
 Brain storming
Method of training
 On the job training
 Orientation training
 Job instruction training
 Apprentices’ training
 Internship
 Job rotation / job enlargement / job enrichment
 Coaching
 Off the job training
 Lectures
 Films / computerized / packaged / programmed instruction
 TVs
 Discussion / conferencing
 Case & studies
 Role Playing
 Simulations /games
 Sensitivity training
 In basket / in tray, method

 Different techniques of Training


 Ice Breakers – games to know each other
 Leadership Games – different styles of leadership
 Skill Games – analytical skill
 Communication games – bias free listening & talking
 Team- building games – collaborative effort
 Mirroring – external
 Monodrama – insight
 Outward- bound Training- stress, courage
 Cross cultural training – varied culture
Different Instructional Methods for Employee Training
INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS
 Classroom programs – live
 Workbooks/ manual
 Videotapes
 Public seminars
 CD- ROM computer- based
 Intranet/organization's internal network
 Self- study programs (Non computerized)
 Internet/ WWW
 Self assessment instruments
 Role plays
 Case studies
 Games/ simulations (not computer based)
 Audio cassettes
 Games/ simulations (computer- based)
 Video conferencing (to group)
 Satellite/ broadcast TV
 Teleconferencing (audio only)
 Outdoor experiential programs
 Videoconferencing (individual desktops)
 Virtual reality programs
Contribution of Training
 Incrreased productivity
 Impoved morale
 Reduced supervision
 Reduced accidents
 Increased organizational stability
Evaluation of training Programme:
Questionnaires (feedback forms)
Test / Exams
Interview
Observations
Supervisions
Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Training Evaluation
Evaluate Reactions Distribute & analyze
 Did the trainees like the program, questionnaires
the trainers, the facilities?
 Did they think the course was Administer
useful?  Written tests
 What improvements can they  Performance tests
suggest?  Graded simulations
Evaluate Learning Collect performance data from
 To what extent do trainees have  Superior
greater knowledge or skill after the
training program than they did  Peer
before?  Client
Evaluate Behavior  Subordinate
 Are trainees behaving differently Measure
on the job after training?  Accidents
 Are they using skills & knowledge  Quality Costs
they learned in training?  Productivity profits
Evaluate Results  Turnover
 Is the organization or unit better
because of training?
 How to make training effective?
 Management commitment
 Comprehensive, continuous & systematic
approval
 Need based training
 Link T& D with performance
 Review of training policies/ practices
 System of evaluation of training effectiveness.