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An Insight into Management

(People’s Management )

B D SINGH
Sr. Prof & Associate Dean (MDP & C)
IMT,GHAZIABAD
Understanding Management
• Management a common & every-day phenomenon – Integral
part of life – as old as human race itself - informal (House
wives) & formal (Team ,Organisations, public administration &
policing etc.)
Planning
Human,
Managemen Organizing Financial & Goals
• t Directing Physical
Resources
Controlling

• It is essentially an integrating activity which permeates


every facet of the operations of an organization.
Nature of Management
• Management is a universal process
• Management is a goal oriented
• Management is a group activity
• Management is a dynamic function
• Management as a process
• Management is a profession
Management & Administration

- Dictionary definitions tend to see the two words as


synonymous. Management is sometimes referred to as
‘administration of business concerns’ and administration as
‘management of public affairs’. There is clearly an overlap
between the two terms and they tend to be used, therefore,
in accordance with the convenience of individual writers.
This confirms the feeling that although most people
perceive a difference between the two terms, this difference
is not easy to describe. Managerial (The term
‘management’ is a translation of the French term
‘administration).
The managerial activity is divided into five elements of management

 Planning (translated from the French prevoyer = to foresee, and


taken to include forecasting) – examining the future, deciding what
needs to be achieved and developing a plan of action.
 Organising – providing the material and human resources and
building the structure to carry out the activities of the organistion.
 Command – maintaining activity among personnel, getting the
optimum return from all employees in the interests of the whole
organisation.
 Co-ordination – unifying and harmonising all activities and effort or
the organisation to facilitate its working and success.
 Control – verifying that everything occurs in accordance with plans,
instructions, established principles and expressed command.
Evolving Managerial Principles Practices
• The concept & practice of management, over the
years, have evolved to caters to the needs of the time.
• “The third wave” – Alvin Joffer
• Hunting / Postural age/ Agrarian
• Industrial age
• Information/ Knowledge age
• The age of unreason – Charles Handy
• Thriving on chaos – Tom Peters
• Formal Organization / Traditional organization
• Knowledge / Virtual organization
• The imperatives have outgrown outfits of industrial
organizations .
• The competencies required during industrial age have
become outdated
• The outfits do not suit the requirements of
knowledge organization/ Society
• The mindsets & skill sets required are
different & should change to make
managers effective.
• The most valuable assets of a 20th –
century company were its production
equipment. The most valuable asset of a
21st – century institution, whether business
or non – business, will be its knowledge
workers and their productivity.
• Arnold Toynbee said – Nothing fails like success.
• We live in a knowledge worker age but operate our
organisations in a controlling Industrial Age model that
absolutely suppresses the release of human potential.
The mind set of the Industrial Age that still dominates
today’s workplace will simply not work in the knowledge
worker age and new economy.
• Machines & Capital
• People were necessary but replaceable.
• When all you want is a person’s body and you don’t
really want their mind, heart or sprit (all inhibitors to the
free- flowing processes of the machine age), you have
reduced a person to a thing.
• Carrot – and – stick motivational philosophy
• The problem is, managers today are still applying the
Industrial Age control model to knowledge workers.
Because many in position of authority do not see the true
worth and potential of their people and do not possess a
complete, accurate understanding of human nature, they
manage people as they do things. This lack of
understanding also prevents them from tapping into the
highest motivations, talents and genious of people. What
happen when you treat people like things today? It
insults and alienates them, depersonalizes work, and
creates low- trust, unionized, litigious cultures. What
happens when you treat your teenage children like
things? It, too, insults and alienates, depersonalizes
precious family relationships and creates low trust,
contention and rebellion.
Classical Approach to Management
B. Bureaucratic Management – Max Weber – A
German Social Science Management
- Administrative Management – Henry
Foyal

- Scientific Management– FW Taylor -


B. Competency centric Approach
(behavioural Approach) – Mc- Gregor
etc. – Theory X & Theory Y.
• Division of work
• Rules & regulations
• Hierarchy of authority
• Technical Competence
• Record Keeping
• Interpretational Relation
• Fayol
– General & Industrial Management (1841)
– Division of work
– Authority & responsibility
– Discipline
– Unit of command
– Unit of direction
– Remuneration
– Scalar Chain (Chain of Authority)
– Order
– Loyalty & description
– Stability of tenure
– Initiative
– Spirit de-corps (Team work & Communication)
• Time & Motion
• Repetitive Work
• Work Measurement
• Payment
• Time Keeping
• Input – Output
• System
• Structure
• Rigidity
• Mechanism way to work
• Paper Work
• Empire Building
• Red tape
Summary
All these ensure
• Fixed mind set
• No alternative / No Lateral Thinking
• No creativity / No innovation
– Only stagnation
– Status quo
– Obsolesces
• Requires Complete change in the mind
sets & skill sets
• Understanding the human behavior &
Thinking
• Mind set is a condition where an individual is over
sensitized to some part of information available at the
expense of other parts
• it has sensitized us to the patterns which have enables
to to solve problem in the past
• It produces fixation & stereotyping in problem solving
behavior
• Drucker – investigated how past experience may block
productive problem solving – functional fixation
• This mind set can create difficulties for manager when
they are faced with new problems.
• Other Barriers in creative problem solving
• Perceptual blocks – prevents individual
receiving a true relevant picture of outside
work
• Cultural blocks, which result from
influence of the society
• Emotional blocks – such as fear anxiety
• Intellectual blocks – I know all-
• Jones – Four blocks
• Strategic blocks - vertical, thinking one right
answer thinking either/or thinking
• Value blocks , Strongly held belief may block
one’s lateral thinking
• Perceptual blocks managers may be overlooking
or anticipating opportunities or threats
• Self image Blocks individual not capable to resist
social pressure
Competency approach – From
Manager to Leader

Boss Leader

• Carries out planning and budgeting Charts a course


providing
direction
• Oversees organising and Provides
guidance and
staffing counsel
• Follows orders Encourages people to
follow their example
• Contrls and solves problems Motivates and inspires
• Maintains control and order Creates an
environment
• Writes memorandums Trains and teaches
• Follows rules and Questions rules
regulations and regulations

• The above distinctions demonstrate that what we need in


the changed and complex organisational scenario today
is not a manager but a leader
leader and Boss

The boss drives his people.


The leader inspires them.
The boss depends on authority.
The leader depends on goodwill.
The boss evokes fear.
The leader radiates love.
The boss says ‘I’.
The leader says ‘We’.
The boss shows who is wrong.
The leader knows how to do it.
The boss demands respect.
The leader commands respect.
So be a leader
Not a boss.
• A Competency is a combination of knowledge, skills, behaviors
and attitudes that contribute to personal effectiveness.
• Competencies essential for entrepreneurial or leader manager
for managing fast changes and global competition.

- Developing awareness competency


- Self
- Situation
• Strategic Action Competency
• Understanding the overall mission and values of the
organization and ensuring that employee’s actions match with
them defines strategic action competency. Strategic action
competency includes

• Understanding the industry, Business, Profession


• Understanding the organization,
• Understanding business environment – internal and external
• Taking strategic actions.
Planning & administration Competency

Planning and Administration competency involves deciding


what tasks need to be done, determining how they can be
done, allocating resources to enable them to be done, and
then monitoring progress to ensure that they are done. For
many people, planning and administration competency comes
to mind first when they think about managers and managing.
Included in this competency are

• Information gathering, analysis and problem solving;


• Planning and organizing projects;
• Time management; and
• Budgeting and financial management.
•Committing & allocating the organisation’s limited resources
•Anticipating & Preparing for the future opportunities
•Most efficient use of resources & problems
• Communication Competency
• Communication Competency is your ability to effectively
transfer and exchange information that leads to
understanding between yourself and others. Because
managing involves getting work done though other
people, communication competency is essential to
effective managerial performance. It includes
– Informal communication
– Formal communication, and
– Encouraging two way communication.
Teamwork Competency

Teamwork Competency Accomplishing tasks through small


groups of people who are collectively responsible and whose
job requires coordination is teamwork competency. Managers
in companies that utilize teams can become more effective by

• Designing teams properly


• Creating a supportive team environment and
• Managing team dynamic appropriately.
• Inter personal effectiveness & conflict
resolution while executive
• Understanding self & others
• Developing Interpersonal skills
• Acknowledging conflicts
• Trying to resolving them & for organize
benefits.
Leadership Competency
Having established plans, controls, and an appropriate
structure to achieve the organizational objectives, the
manager now has to get his people to work. Motivation is that
desire or feeling within an individual which prompts him to
action. Every individual has needs, desires and drives, which
we collectively call motives and which channelise all his or her
behaviour and action towards achievement of some objective.
The manager’s role is to influence each individual’s behaviour
and action towards achievement of common organizational
objectives.

• Motivating & Leading


• Movers and drivers of performance
• Leading Change
• Taking calculated risk
• Evolving suitable leadership style
• Decision making
Owning responsibilities Competency
A firm is a social institution. Its very existence is dependent
upon its harmonious relationship with various segments of the
society. This harmonious relationship emanates from the firm’s
positive responsiveness to the various segments and its
closely associated with the task a manager is expected to
perform. The process of evolving this mutual relationship
between firms and various interest groups beings by
acknowledging the existence of the responsibilities of a
manager. These responsibilities are:-
• Towards Customers
• Towards Shareholders
• Towards Employees
• Towards Suppliers
• Towards Distributor
• Towards Government
• Towards Society
Global awareness Competency

Carrying out an organization’s managerial work by drawing on


the human, financial information, and material resources from
multiple countries and serving markets that span multiple
cultures refers to a manager’s global awareness competency.
Not all organizations have global markets for their products
and services. Nor do all organizations need to set up
operations in other countries to take advantage of tax laws and
labor that is cheaper or better trained. Nevertheless, over the
course of your career, you probably will work for an
organization that has an international component. To be
prepared for such opportunities you should begin to develop
your global awareness competency, which is reflected in

• Cultural knowledge and understanding and


• Cultural openness and sensitivity.
Integrity and Ethical conduct

• Has clear personal standards that serve as a foundation for


maintaining a sense of integrity and ethical conduct.
• Is willing to admit mistakes.
• Accepts responsibility for own actions.

Managing future
Mission for the 21st Century

“The future has waited long enough; if we do not grasp


it, other bands, grasping hard, will.”

-- Adlai Stevenson
• The most important characteristic of “future” one can
learn from the above is though “unknown” yet inspired by
a desire of “farsightedness”. This “unknown” enables us
to “prepare”. This preparation is a strong network of
“hope”, “successful experience”, “passion” for science”,
“willingness to embrace new possibilities” and most
important “ability to adapt and expand” and as an
enthusiastic organization to “deliver in time with quality”
Management in twenty-first century – A
new set of paradigms

• Manage information through people.


• Change is a constant and must be managed.
• Technology is the future.
• Relationships matter.
• Investment in training and development is
important.
• Measure only against the best/ global mind set
• The market is global.
• Initiative is important.
• Diversity management.
Managers of the Future?

• Today, management whose minds and deeds are stuck


in the status quo are obsolescent, weak and failing. In the
next years, the will be obsolete- and failed. Renewal and
nimbleness have become paramount necessities for the
large and established. For the younger business, staying
new and agile is equally imperative.
• Heller & Prahalad goes on to identify eleven key
strategies for new breed of managers:-
• Developing leadership – without losing control or direction.
• Driving radical change – in the entire corporate system, not
just in its parts.
• Reshaping culture – to achieve long-term success.
• Keeping the competitive edge – in a world where the old
ways of winning no longer work.
• Achieving constant renewal - stopping success from
sowing the seeds of decay.
6. Managing the motivators - so that people can motivate
themselves.
7. Making team-working work – the new, indispensable skill.
8. Achieving total management quality – by managing
everything much better.
9.The importance of a shared competitive agenda. Creating a
clear charter of values and beaviours. Focusing on influence
without ownership. Competing for talent and building the skill
mix of the organization. Speed of reaction in the organization. ..
10. Speed of reaction in the organization.
11.Leveraging corporate resources to address emerging
opportunities.
• Looking to the future, managers believe the most important
issues facing their organization over the next decade will be:
--- Managing change
- Customer satisfaction
- Use of the Internet
- Motivation of core staff
- Managing diversity
- Development of human resources.
• Organisations that do not recognize the need to share power
and responsibility with all their workers / subordinates will lose
them. The most significant trends in the theory and history of
management are
- The decline of hierarchical
- Debureaucratic, autocratic management
- The expansion of collaborative self-management
- Organizational democracy
- Empowered employees etc