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AUFB5101 MALAYSIAN STUDIES Dr.

Suffian bin Mansor

MEJ MOHD AZMI BIN ARIFIN MEJ AZHAN BIN MOHAMED @ ZAWI

TG 3

SCOPE
Definition
Nationalism Malay Nationalism

Malay Nationalism
Factors Armed Struggle

Malay Nationalism Groups


Religious-educated Intellectuals Malay-educated Intellectuals English-educated Intellectuals

Conclusion

DEFINITION - NATIONALISM

The determination of a group of people to establish or preserve themselves as a nation and to achieve or maintain statehood - Hans Kohn. A popular sentiment that places the existence and well being of the nation highest in the scale of political loyalty - Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge.

Individual or collective awareness of self belonging toward the nation which motivate the person to fight against colonial rulers and to pursue for the nations independence Dewan Bahasa Pustaka
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MALAY NATIONALISM

Nationalism in Malaya - 19th century Malay feel cheated of their rights and yearned to free from foreign colonization Pangkor Engagement in 1874 - changes in the administration system of Malaya. First British Resident - Perak
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MALAY NATIONALISM

The powers of Sultans and pembesar were decreased and given to the British Residents. Malay groups shape and formed the basis for nationalism in Malaya.

MALAY NATIONALISM - FACTORS


Internal Factors Education - Arabic or English most significant factors to foster Malay nationalism spirit Reaction to British Administration Traditional Malay institution - reduced functions and power to British administration Discrimination in education and economy - education purposely not overeducated* - economy exploitation and monopoly by European and Chinese enterprise Development of Communication and Mass Media Paved road (1910-2,400km) Newspaper and vernacular media

MALAY NATIONALISM - FACTORS

External Factors
Indonesian nationalism struggle against Dutch Sarekat Islam Party 1912 Japanese victory over Russia in Russia-Japanese War (1904-1905)

Showing that Europeans can be beaten by Asians


Islamic reform movement in Egypt

Muhammad Abduh, Syed Jamaluddin al-Afghani

ARMED STRUGGLE
EARLY STAGES ARMED STRUGGLE Naning (1831-32) - Penghulu Dol Said

Selangor (1874) Raja Mahadi


Perak (1875) Dato Maharaja Lela, Tok Sagor & Sultan Abdullah Pahang (1891-1895) Mat Kilau & Tok Bahaman Sarawak (1863-1870) Rentap & Sharif Masahor Sabah (1894-1900) Mat Salleh Kelantan (1915) Tok Janggut

Terengganu (1922-1928)
Hj. Abdul Rahman Limbung

MALAY NATIONALISM GROUPS

Religious-educated Intellectuals

Malay-educated Intellectuals

English-educated Intellectuals

* William R. Roff
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RELIGIOUS-EDUCATED INTELLECTUALS
Influenced with the religious and political developments in the Middle East (Egypt and Turkey) 20th century - Islamic reformist movement led by Syed Sheikh Muhammad Abduh Promoted the idea of Pan-Islamism Encouraged Muslims to participate in economy, politics and social issues In Malaya- the idea was brought by Syed Sheikh AlHadi Formed the pro-Islamic movement - Kaum Muda (Youth Group)

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RELIGIOUS-EDUCATED INTELLECTUALS

Misunderstandings Islam caused the Malays to become backwards


Sheikh Tahir

Wanted to change the orthodox ideas of the conservative group - Kaum Tua (Old Group) Cause many Malays to evaluate their position in relation to other races in Malaya. Sheikh Tahir Jalaluddin, Abdul Rahim Kajai, Dr. Burhanuddin al-Hilmi, Haji Abbas Mohammad Taha, Sheikh Mohd Salim al-Kalali

Rahim Kajai

Dr. Burhanuddin

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MALAY-EDUCATED INTELLECTUALS
Pioneered by Malay-educated from Sultan Idris Teaching College (SITC), Serdang School of Agriculture and Kuala Lumpur Technical School Formation Malay associations and clubs throughout the country. Most radical groups - Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM) (Young Malay Union)-1938 the first political organisation Led by its president, Ibrahim Yaacob, KMM spread the idea of gaining independence by revolution Graduate Malay school teachers of SITC continued to spread KMM's wings throughout Malaya
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MALAY-EDUCATED INTELLECTUALS
Influenced by Indonesian revolution - President Sukarno Non-cooperation with British colonial rule

Malay backwardness was not due to their intrinsic laziness but due to British colonialism
Criticized the traditional Malay aristocrats for leading self-indulgent lives British detained Ibrahim and his followers in 1941, but released by the Japanese in 1942 Japanese sponsored Pembela Tanah Ayer (PETA), Kesatuan Rakyat Indonesia Semenanjung (KRIS) Ishak Haji Muhamad (Pak Sako) and Ahmad Boestamam

Pak Sako

Ahmad Boestamam

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ENGLISH-EDUCATED INTELLECTUALS

English-educated administrators and government servants Kesatuan Melayu Singapura (KMS) (Singapore Malay Union) by Muhammad Eunos Bin Abdullah - 1926

Aim - to increase the role of Malays in public life, uphold Malay interests with the colonial authorities, and promote higher and technical education for Malays
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ENGLISH-EDUCATED INTELLECTUALS

Kuala Kangsar Malay College (MCKK) helped to spread the seeds of Malay nationalism To educate the Malay elite, comprising of royal children and the sons of Malay nobility Zainal Abidin bin Ahmad (Zaba), Onn Jaafar

Zaba

Onn Jaafar

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CONCLUSIONS Malay nationalism groups gradually emerged between 1900-1940 can be divided into 3 groups:- Religiouseducated, Malay-educated and English-educated Intellectuals. The religious and Malay educated intellectuals possessed shallow organizational roots in Malay community The struggle of the Malay-educated and Englisheducated was based upon Malay spirit against non-Malay threats to Malay special rights and privileges English-educated group contributed to the spread of the Malay spirit - Malays independence in 1957
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REFERENCES
Andaya Barbara Watson and Leonard , Sejarah Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 1983. Hans Kohn, The Idea of Nationalism: A Study of Its Origins and Background, Macmillan, New York, 1961.

R. S. Milne and Diane K. Mauzy, Politics and Government in Malaysia, Federal Publication (S) Pte Ltd, Singapore, 1978. R. Suntharalingam and Abdul Rahman Haji Ismail, Nasinalisme Satu Tinjauan Sejarah, Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur, 1985. Radin Soernano, Malay Nationalism: 1900-1945, J S E A H , V. 1 March, 1960 . Syed Farid Alatas, Ideology and Utopia In The Thought of Syed Shaykh Al-Hady, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 2005. William R. Roff, The Origins of Malay Nationalism, University of Malaya Press, Singapore, 1967. http://www.asianscholarship.org/ejourn/article/soh_byungkuk.doc

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