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# Power Screws, Fasteners, and Connections

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Today we will start off discussing the mechanics of screw threads. Next, power screws & threaded fasteners will be examined. Since threaded fasteners are often used to make connections, we will end with that topic.

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## The Inclined Plane

Truly one of the worlds great inventions! By inspection, a steeper angle gains you elevation more quickly, but the applied force must increase.
W fN Q

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Helically-Inclined Planes

Differential element of one thread transferring force to the mating thread. The helix or lead angle = the slope of the ramp, and is a critical design parameter. is the thread angle, and is another important parameter.
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, , and f
On a screw thread, the helix angle controls the distance traveled per revolution and the force exerted. , the thread angle, effects the friction force resisting motion. Sometimes friction is desirable (e.g., so that threads wont loosen), and sometimes it is not. f is the coefficient of friction, and plays an important role in all threads.
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and
, the helix angle, is given by tan = L/(dm) (eq. 15.2) where, L = the lead or pitch (threads per unit length) dm = the mean dia. of the thread contact surface. , the thread angle, is determined by the design of the threads.
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Power Screws
Force F acts on moment arm a to produce a torque T.

Table 15.3 in the text shows standard sizes of power screw threads.
In this drawing, only the nut rotates.
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## Modified Square: compromise.

Power Screws
Equations 15.6 through 15.13 in the text are the governing equations for torque and efficiency, given the geometry of the threads. However, as in the case of many previous problems, often you are presented with that information and must solve for other variables.
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## Power Screw Efficiency

Plot of equation 15.13; note the wide range as a function of both f and .

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Problem 15.6
2 square thread power screw lifts W of 50 kips at 2 fpm.

Find rpm n, and the HP required if the efficiency is 85%, and f = 0.15.
Neglect the collar friction.
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Note that the crests & roots may be either flat or rounded
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## Threaded Fasteners: UNS & ISO

UNS = Unified National Standard. Threads are specified by the bolt or screw diameter (also called the major diameter)in inches, and the number of threads per inch. ISO = International Standards Organization. Threads are specified by the major diameter in mm, and the pitch, or, number of mm per thread. Generally UNS and ISO threads are NOT interchangeable. (3mm is close to 1/8.)
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The specification is written in the format Dia threads/in UNC or UNF class and internal or external RH or LH. UNC = Unified National Coarse UNF = Unified National Fine Class ranges from 1 (cheap & inaccurate) to 3 (expensive & precise). Class 2 is common. A = external, B = internal
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RH = right hand threads, LH = left hand Example thus would be: 13 UNC 2A RH Notes: 1. UNF and UNC are redundant information. 2. For diameters less than , a numeric size is specified instead of the diameter. (000 12?) 3. Summarized on page 602 in text, Table 15.1
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Metric designations are a little simpler. Preceded by an M, then the diameter in mm, then the pitch (mm per thread, not threads per mm). There are also coarse and fine threads in the ISO system. Examples: M10 x 1.5 M10 x 1.25
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Coarse threads are fine for normal applications. They are easier to assemble, a little more forgiving of dings, possibly cheaper to make, and for a given size of bolt, they exert less force than do fine threads; good for softer materials bolted together. Fine threads develop greater force per applied torque, and are more effective at resisting vibration-induced loosening.
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## Bolts, Screws, and Studs

The same fastener could be a bolt or a screw, depending on if a nut is used. Studs are threaded at both ends.
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Bolts (and nuts) are made from a variety of materials. The SAE Grade is an indication of the strength of the material, based on the proof stress, Sp (slightly less than the yield stress). Sp ranges from 33 ksi for a grade1 bolt, up to 120 ksi for a grade 8 bolt. The proof load of a bolt is the load at which permanent deformation commences.
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SAE 2

SAE 5

SAE 7

SAE 8

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Threads are generally produced by either rolling (forming with a specialized die) or by cutting, as on a lathe. Rolled threads are stronger and have better fatigue properties due to the cold work put into the material. Power screw threads may be ground to achieve a very smooth surface to reduce f. Threads may also be cast into a part.
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Due to imperfect thread spacing, most of the load between a bolt and a nut is taken by the first pair of threads. This is partially relieved by bending and localized yielding, however most thread failures occur in that region. The stress concentration ranges from 2 to 4.
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Major-Diameter Stresses
Axial stress is given by the familiar = P/A For A, use either the root diameter for power screws, or tabulated values for fasteners. Torsional stress is given by the familiar = T/J = 16T/ d3 See p. 615 for interpretation of T and d. T is the applied torque for power screws, or the wrench torque, for fasteners.
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Bearing Stress
Bearing stress, the compressive stress between the surfaces of the threads, is given by b = P/(dmhne) (eq. 15.17) P = load, dm = pitch or mean screw thread diameter, h = depth of thread, and ne = number of threads in engagement. b is usually not a limiting design factor.
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## Direct Shear Stress on Threads

In addition to the torsional shear stress we just discussed, the threads also experience direct shear stress. The threads are considered to be loaded as a cantilever beam (wrapped around a cylinder), with the load evenly distributed over the mean screw diameter. Because the nut threads are wrapped inside of a larger cylinder than the bolt threads, they experience less stress.
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## Direct Shear Stress on Threads

Then we have, = 3P/(2 dbne), where, d = root dia. for the screw or major dia. for the nut, b = the thread thickness at the root, and ne = the number of threads in engagement. Note that can be a limiting factor.
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Bolted joints commonly hold parts together in opposition to both normal and shear forces. In certain applications it is desirable to tighten a bolted joint to a specified preload Fi, which is some fraction of the bolts proof load, Fp.
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An engineer would specify a preload in the case of fatigue applications, in order to minimize the relative magnitude of the alternating load Pa compared to the average load Pmean. (Recall definitions from ch. 8.) Preloading is also important in sealing applications, as in a gasketed joint. Both reasons are important for auto cylinder heads.
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The optimum preload is often given by eq. 15.20: Fi = 0.75 Fp for connections to be reused, or Fi = 0.90 Fp for permanent connections. The proof load Fp is found from eq. 15.14 as, Fp = SpAt, where the proof stress Sp is an SAE specification (see Table 15.4 or 15.5), and tension area At is found in Table 15.1 or 15.2.
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Tightening Torque
To develop the specified preload, the tightening torque is given by eq. 15.21: T = KdFi, where T = the tightening torque, d = the nominal bolt diameter (e.g., ), Fi = the desired preload, and K = a torque coefficient
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Tightening Torque
Equation 15.21 is approximate, and applies for standard threads. For dry, unlubricated, or average threads, K = 0.2. For lubricated threads, K = 0.15. Rewrite eq. 15.21 as, Fi = T/(Kd) to see that, for a given torque, Fi increases with lubricated threads.
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## Relaxation and Exactness

Most joints lose on the order of 5% of the original preload over time, due to relaxation effects (usually over the course of 100s or 1000s of hours). By now it should be clear that threaded fasteners are extremely complex. Often extensive testing is done for critical applications.
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Tension Joints
Bolted joints are frequently used to clamp together parts that themselves carry additional loads: these additional loads increase the bolt tension. The engineer often must determine acceptable loads for such joints. We consider both the joints and the parts as springs, with spring constants kb and kp.
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Tension Joints

After assembly with preload Fi, applied load P will change the force in the bolt and the parts.
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Tension Joints
P = Fb + Fp, where Fb = the increased tension in the bolt, and Fp = the decreased compression force in the parts. The deformations are given by b = Fb/kb, and p = Fp/kp Then compatibility requires that Fb/kb = Fp/kp
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Joint Constant C
The joint stiffness factor, or joint constant, is defined in eq. 15.22 as C = kb/(kb + kp). Then the preceding equations yield Fb = CP and Fp = (1 C)P kb is usually small compared to kp, and so C is a small fraction.

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## Forces in Bolted Joints

When a load P is applied to a bolted joint, the tensile force Fb in the bolt increases, and the compressive force Fp in the parts decreases. As long as Fp > 0, the forces are: Fb = CP + Fi (eq. 15.23) and, Fp = (1 C)P Fi (eq. 15.24)
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Determination of C
Review from Chapter 4 about 100 years ago: Deflection is given by = PL/AE, and the spring rate k is given by k = P/ . Combining these we obtain kb = AbEb/L (eq. 15.31), and, kp = ApEp/L (eq. 15.32)
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Determination of kb
In determining kb, the threaded and the unthreaded parts of the bolt are considered as separate springs in series. Equation 15.33 gives:

## 1/kb = Lt/AtEb + Ls/AbEb

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Determination of kp
kp is more complex: the stress distribution in the parts is clearly non-uniform, and depends on factors like washers, etc.
It is approximated by the double-cone illustrated.
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Determination of kp
Estimate of kp for standard hex-head bolts and washers is given by eq. 15.34:
kp = (.5 Epd)/{2 ln [5(.58L+.5d)/(.58L+2.5d)]}

d = bolt diameter and L = grip (thickness of bolted assembly). Alternatively, just use kp = 3kb !

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## Example: Problem 15.11

Bolt diameter is 15 mm.
Grip length L = 50 mm. Tightening torque for average threads is T = 72 N-m by eq. 15.21 Find maximum P that will not loosen the initial compression in the part
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## Example: Problem 15.16

Bolt is M20 x 2.5 coarse thread.
Sy is 630 MPa. Ep = Eb

L = 60 mm, and P = 40 kN
Determine: Total force on bolt if joint is reusable, and, the tightening torque if the threads are lubricated.
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Typo!
On page 625, the equation for Pa is incorrect. It should read, Pa = (Pmax Pmin)

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## Some Rules of Thumb for Threaded Fasteners

Threaded depth: for a bolt diameter d, the length of full thread engagement should be 1.0d in steel, 1.5d in cast iron, and 2.0d in aluminum. In gasketed joints, bolts are arrayed in a bolt circle or other pattern. The bolt-to-bolt spacing should not exceed about 6d to maintain uniform pressure.
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Rivets

Rivets often find application in larger structures such as bridges and towers. They are also used extensively in aircraft construction. A rivet starts off as a cylinder with one head (usually rounded). The protruding cylinder is deformed to create a second head, which locks the joint in compression.
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## Joints Primarily in Shear

Both bolts and rivets are used in connections that primarily experience shear loading (separate from the case of axial or normal loading which we just examined). Such connections may experience any of several failure modes, and the engineer must analyze for each mode.
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## Tensile Failure of Plate: t = P/(w de)t, where

de = effective hole dia., w = width, and t = thickness of thinnest plate (from Table 15.7).
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## Effective Hole Diameter

In analyzing potential tensile failure of the plate, the effective hole diameter is used rather than the diameter of the fastener. de = the fastener diameter + 1/16 for drilled holes, or, de = the fastener diameter + 1/8 for punched holes (this is usually used).
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## Shear Joint Failure Modes

Bearing Failure of Plate or Fastener: b = P/dt, where d = diameter of fastener and t = thickness of the thinnest plate. (from Table 15.7)
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## Shear Joint Failure Modes

a >= 1.5d

Shearing Failure of Plate: t = P/2at, where t = thickness of thinnest plate and a = closest distance from fastener to edge. (from Table 15.7)
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Joint Efficiency
The efficiency of a joint is defined as: e = Pall/Pt, (eq. 15.41) where Pall is the smallest of the allowable loads in the preceding failure mode examples, and Pt is the static tensile strength of the plate with no holes. e is always less than 100%.
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## Shear Example, Problem 15.22

Plate thickness is 3/8. Rivets are diameter, holes drilled 2 apart. Sall,tension = 22ksi; Sall,bearing = 48 ksi, and all = 15 ksi.
Find the joint efficiency.
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Welded Joints
Welded joints are produced by localized melting of the parts to be joined, in the region of the joint. Often a filler metal (or plastic, in the case of plastics) is added, creating a chemical bond in the parts that may be stronger than the base material. There are many, many welding processes an entire engineering major.
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## Strength of Butt Welds

The height h does not include the crowned region; generally it is just the plate thickness.
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## Strength of Fillet Welds

Specified size is based on h, but stress is calculated with t, the region of minimum cross sectional area.
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## Factor of Safety for Welds in Shear

Just as many riveted or bolted joints are in shear, so too are many welded joints. The factor of safety for a welded joint is given by: n = Sys/ = 0.5Sy/ (eq. 15.44)

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Determination of the exact stress distribution is very complicated. With some simplifying assumptions, the following procedure gives reasonably accurate results.
Direct shear stress is given by d = P/A, where A = the throat area of all the welds.
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d is taken to be uniformly distributed over the length of all the welds. Due to the eccentricity e, a torque T is developed about the centroid C of the weld group: T = Pe. The torque causes an additional shear stress in the welds: t = Tr/J (eq. 15.46) J = polar moment of inertia of the weld group about C, based on the throat area. (Continued:)
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t = Tr/J (eq. 15.46) In this equation, r is the distance from C to the point in the weld of interest. t is not uniform across the weld group, and one point will experience the greatest stress resultant: = (t2 + d2) (eq. 15.47)
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## Location of the Centroid (Review)

C is located at coordinates x-bar and y-bar, where
x-bar = (Aixi)/ Ai, and

y-bar = (Aiyi)/ Ai, where i denotes a given weld segment, and the coordinate origin is conveniently chosen. A key is that the weld throat t is assumed to be very small, sometimes 0.
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## Moment of Inertia of a Weld and the Parallel Axis Theorem.

Use the familiar bh3/12, substituting t and L for b and h as appropriate. However, assume t3 = 0 to simplify.
Remember the parallel axis theorem, Ix = Ix + Ay12, to find the moment of inertia about the centroid of the weld group. (So even if Ix = 0, you still have A.)
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## Polar Moment of Inertia

The polar moment of inertia is the sum of Ix and Iy for each weld about the centroid of the weld group. Knowing J, apply t = Tr/J (eq. 15.46) to find t at a given point, and then use = (t2 + d2) (eq. 15.47) to find the max , which is used to find the required weld size.
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