0 Suka0 Tidak suka

47 tayangan67 halamanOct 22, 2011

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PPT, PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

47 tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Dyadic Systems SCN6 40kgf
- Gunsmithing With Simple Hand Tools
- Designacion Basica de Roscas
- Metrology and Quality Control_mqp
- bolts
- Farmstar Equipment
- 350647217-DIN-1587-2000-pdf.pdf
- reference-standards.pdf
- All Purpose Worksheet
- 14 Design of Bolted Joints
- 1_1226529501
- HCH_HCHS_HCHB[1]
- Tension Control Bolts, S10T.pdf
- Nelson Weld Studscpl
- saej490v001
- Motorsports Catalogue 2010
- Anchor Bolt Specification
- computer aided Machine Drawing Manual
- RAPID_TENSIONER_Operating_Manual.pdf
- 3_Fasteners_HandBook.pdf

Anda di halaman 1dari 67

ME 351

Today we will start off discussing the mechanics of screw threads. Next, power screws & threaded fasteners will be examined. Since threaded fasteners are often used to make connections, we will end with that topic.

ME 351

Truly one of the worlds great inventions! By inspection, a steeper angle gains you elevation more quickly, but the applied force must increase.

W fN Q

ME 351

Helically-Inclined Planes

Differential element of one thread transferring force to the mating thread. The helix or lead angle = the slope of the ramp, and is a critical design parameter. is the thread angle, and is another important parameter.

ME 351

, , and f

On a screw thread, the helix angle controls the distance traveled per revolution and the force exerted. , the thread angle, effects the friction force resisting motion. Sometimes friction is desirable (e.g., so that threads wont loosen), and sometimes it is not. f is the coefficient of friction, and plays an important role in all threads.

ME 351

and

, the helix angle, is given by tan = L/(dm) (eq. 15.2) where, L = the lead or pitch (threads per unit length) dm = the mean dia. of the thread contact surface. , the thread angle, is determined by the design of the threads.

ME 351

Acme Threads Bolt Threads Pipe Threads

ME 351

Power Screws

Force F acts on moment arm a to produce a torque T.

Table 15.3 in the text shows standard sizes of power screw threads.

In this drawing, only the nut rotates.

ME 351

ME 351

Power Screws

Equations 15.6 through 15.13 in the text are the governing equations for torque and efficiency, given the geometry of the threads. However, as in the case of many previous problems, often you are presented with that information and must solve for other variables.

ME 351

Plot of equation 15.13; note the wide range as a function of both f and .

ME 351

Problem 15.6

2 square thread power screw lifts W of 50 kips at 2 fpm.

Find rpm n, and the HP required if the efficiency is 85%, and f = 0.15.

Neglect the collar friction.

ME 351

ME 351

Note that the crests & roots may be either flat or rounded

ME 351

UNS = Unified National Standard. Threads are specified by the bolt or screw diameter (also called the major diameter)in inches, and the number of threads per inch. ISO = International Standards Organization. Threads are specified by the major diameter in mm, and the pitch, or, number of mm per thread. Generally UNS and ISO threads are NOT interchangeable. (3mm is close to 1/8.)

ME 351

The specification is written in the format Dia threads/in UNC or UNF class and internal or external RH or LH. UNC = Unified National Coarse UNF = Unified National Fine Class ranges from 1 (cheap & inaccurate) to 3 (expensive & precise). Class 2 is common. A = external, B = internal

ME 351

RH = right hand threads, LH = left hand Example thus would be: 13 UNC 2A RH Notes: 1. UNF and UNC are redundant information. 2. For diameters less than , a numeric size is specified instead of the diameter. (000 12?) 3. Summarized on page 602 in text, Table 15.1

ME 351

Metric designations are a little simpler. Preceded by an M, then the diameter in mm, then the pitch (mm per thread, not threads per mm). There are also coarse and fine threads in the ISO system. Examples: M10 x 1.5 M10 x 1.25

ME 351

Coarse threads are fine for normal applications. They are easier to assemble, a little more forgiving of dings, possibly cheaper to make, and for a given size of bolt, they exert less force than do fine threads; good for softer materials bolted together. Fine threads develop greater force per applied torque, and are more effective at resisting vibration-induced loosening.

ME 351

The same fastener could be a bolt or a screw, depending on if a nut is used. Studs are threaded at both ends.

ME 351

Bolt Grades

Bolts (and nuts) are made from a variety of materials. The SAE Grade is an indication of the strength of the material, based on the proof stress, Sp (slightly less than the yield stress). Sp ranges from 33 ksi for a grade1 bolt, up to 120 ksi for a grade 8 bolt. The proof load of a bolt is the load at which permanent deformation commences.

ME 351

SAE 2

SAE 5

SAE 7

SAE 8

Hexagonal bolt heads are stamped with radial lines to indicate the grade. The grade = the number of lines + 2.

http://raskcycle.com/techtip/webdoc14.html

ME 351

Thread Manufacture

Threads are generally produced by either rolling (forming with a specialized die) or by cutting, as on a lathe. Rolled threads are stronger and have better fatigue properties due to the cold work put into the material. Power screw threads may be ground to achieve a very smooth surface to reduce f. Threads may also be cast into a part.

ME 351

Due to imperfect thread spacing, most of the load between a bolt and a nut is taken by the first pair of threads. This is partially relieved by bending and localized yielding, however most thread failures occur in that region. The stress concentration ranges from 2 to 4.

ME 351

Major-Diameter Stresses

Axial stress is given by the familiar = P/A For A, use either the root diameter for power screws, or tabulated values for fasteners. Torsional stress is given by the familiar = T/J = 16T/ d3 See p. 615 for interpretation of T and d. T is the applied torque for power screws, or the wrench torque, for fasteners.

ME 351

Bearing Stress

Bearing stress, the compressive stress between the surfaces of the threads, is given by b = P/(dmhne) (eq. 15.17) P = load, dm = pitch or mean screw thread diameter, h = depth of thread, and ne = number of threads in engagement. b is usually not a limiting design factor.

ME 351

ME 351

In addition to the torsional shear stress we just discussed, the threads also experience direct shear stress. The threads are considered to be loaded as a cantilever beam (wrapped around a cylinder), with the load evenly distributed over the mean screw diameter. Because the nut threads are wrapped inside of a larger cylinder than the bolt threads, they experience less stress.

ME 351

Then we have, = 3P/(2 dbne), where, d = root dia. for the screw or major dia. for the nut, b = the thread thickness at the root, and ne = the number of threads in engagement. Note that can be a limiting factor.

ME 351

Bolted joints commonly hold parts together in opposition to both normal and shear forces. In certain applications it is desirable to tighten a bolted joint to a specified preload Fi, which is some fraction of the bolts proof load, Fp.

ME 351

An engineer would specify a preload in the case of fatigue applications, in order to minimize the relative magnitude of the alternating load Pa compared to the average load Pmean. (Recall definitions from ch. 8.) Preloading is also important in sealing applications, as in a gasketed joint. Both reasons are important for auto cylinder heads.

ME 351

Preload Values

The optimum preload is often given by eq. 15.20: Fi = 0.75 Fp for connections to be reused, or Fi = 0.90 Fp for permanent connections. The proof load Fp is found from eq. 15.14 as, Fp = SpAt, where the proof stress Sp is an SAE specification (see Table 15.4 or 15.5), and tension area At is found in Table 15.1 or 15.2.

ME 351

Tightening Torque

To develop the specified preload, the tightening torque is given by eq. 15.21: T = KdFi, where T = the tightening torque, d = the nominal bolt diameter (e.g., ), Fi = the desired preload, and K = a torque coefficient

ME 351

Tightening Torque

Equation 15.21 is approximate, and applies for standard threads. For dry, unlubricated, or average threads, K = 0.2. For lubricated threads, K = 0.15. Rewrite eq. 15.21 as, Fi = T/(Kd) to see that, for a given torque, Fi increases with lubricated threads.

ME 351

Most joints lose on the order of 5% of the original preload over time, due to relaxation effects (usually over the course of 100s or 1000s of hours). By now it should be clear that threaded fasteners are extremely complex. Often extensive testing is done for critical applications.

ME 351

Tension Joints

Bolted joints are frequently used to clamp together parts that themselves carry additional loads: these additional loads increase the bolt tension. The engineer often must determine acceptable loads for such joints. We consider both the joints and the parts as springs, with spring constants kb and kp.

ME 351

Tension Joints

After assembly with preload Fi, applied load P will change the force in the bolt and the parts.

ME 351

Tension Joints

P = Fb + Fp, where Fb = the increased tension in the bolt, and Fp = the decreased compression force in the parts. The deformations are given by b = Fb/kb, and p = Fp/kp Then compatibility requires that Fb/kb = Fp/kp

ME 351

Joint Constant C

The joint stiffness factor, or joint constant, is defined in eq. 15.22 as C = kb/(kb + kp). Then the preceding equations yield Fb = CP and Fp = (1 C)P kb is usually small compared to kp, and so C is a small fraction.

ME 351

When a load P is applied to a bolted joint, the tensile force Fb in the bolt increases, and the compressive force Fp in the parts decreases. As long as Fp > 0, the forces are: Fb = CP + Fi (eq. 15.23) and, Fp = (1 C)P Fi (eq. 15.24)

ME 351

Determination of C

Review from Chapter 4 about 100 years ago: Deflection is given by = PL/AE, and the spring rate k is given by k = P/ . Combining these we obtain kb = AbEb/L (eq. 15.31), and, kp = ApEp/L (eq. 15.32)

ME 351

Determination of kb

In determining kb, the threaded and the unthreaded parts of the bolt are considered as separate springs in series. Equation 15.33 gives:

ME 351

Determination of kp

kp is more complex: the stress distribution in the parts is clearly non-uniform, and depends on factors like washers, etc.

It is approximated by the double-cone illustrated.

ME 351

Determination of kp

Estimate of kp for standard hex-head bolts and washers is given by eq. 15.34:

kp = (.5 Epd)/{2 ln [5(.58L+.5d)/(.58L+2.5d)]}

d = bolt diameter and L = grip (thickness of bolted assembly). Alternatively, just use kp = 3kb !

ME 351

Bolt diameter is 15 mm.

Grip length L = 50 mm. Tightening torque for average threads is T = 72 N-m by eq. 15.21 Find maximum P that will not loosen the initial compression in the part

ME 351

Bolt is M20 x 2.5 coarse thread.

Sy is 630 MPa. Ep = Eb

L = 60 mm, and P = 40 kN

Determine: Total force on bolt if joint is reusable, and, the tightening torque if the threads are lubricated.

ME 351

Typo!

On page 625, the equation for Pa is incorrect. It should read, Pa = (Pmax Pmin)

(This is in section 15.12, Tension Joints Under Dynamic Loading.)

ME 351

Threaded depth: for a bolt diameter d, the length of full thread engagement should be 1.0d in steel, 1.5d in cast iron, and 2.0d in aluminum. In gasketed joints, bolts are arrayed in a bolt circle or other pattern. The bolt-to-bolt spacing should not exceed about 6d to maintain uniform pressure.

ME 351

Rivets

Rivets often find application in larger structures such as bridges and towers. They are also used extensively in aircraft construction. A rivet starts off as a cylinder with one head (usually rounded). The protruding cylinder is deformed to create a second head, which locks the joint in compression.

ME 351

Both bolts and rivets are used in connections that primarily experience shear loading (separate from the case of axial or normal loading which we just examined). Such connections may experience any of several failure modes, and the engineer must analyze for each mode.

ME 351

ME 351

de = effective hole dia., w = width, and t = thickness of thinnest plate (from Table 15.7).

ME 351

In analyzing potential tensile failure of the plate, the effective hole diameter is used rather than the diameter of the fastener. de = the fastener diameter + 1/16 for drilled holes, or, de = the fastener diameter + 1/8 for punched holes (this is usually used).

ME 351

Bearing Failure of Plate or Fastener: b = P/dt, where d = diameter of fastener and t = thickness of the thinnest plate. (from Table 15.7)

ME 351

a >= 1.5d

Shearing Failure of Plate: t = P/2at, where t = thickness of thinnest plate and a = closest distance from fastener to edge. (from Table 15.7)

ME 351

Joint Efficiency

The efficiency of a joint is defined as: e = Pall/Pt, (eq. 15.41) where Pall is the smallest of the allowable loads in the preceding failure mode examples, and Pt is the static tensile strength of the plate with no holes. e is always less than 100%.

ME 351

Plate thickness is 3/8. Rivets are diameter, holes drilled 2 apart. Sall,tension = 22ksi; Sall,bearing = 48 ksi, and all = 15 ksi.

Find the joint efficiency.

ME 351

Welded Joints

Welded joints are produced by localized melting of the parts to be joined, in the region of the joint. Often a filler metal (or plastic, in the case of plastics) is added, creating a chemical bond in the parts that may be stronger than the base material. There are many, many welding processes an entire engineering major.

ME 351

The height h does not include the crowned region; generally it is just the plate thickness.

ME 351

Specified size is based on h, but stress is calculated with t, the region of minimum cross sectional area.

ME 351

Just as many riveted or bolted joints are in shear, so too are many welded joints. The factor of safety for a welded joint is given by: n = Sys/ = 0.5Sy/ (eq. 15.44)

ME 351

Determination of the exact stress distribution is very complicated. With some simplifying assumptions, the following procedure gives reasonably accurate results.

Direct shear stress is given by d = P/A, where A = the throat area of all the welds.

ME 351

d is taken to be uniformly distributed over the length of all the welds. Due to the eccentricity e, a torque T is developed about the centroid C of the weld group: T = Pe. The torque causes an additional shear stress in the welds: t = Tr/J (eq. 15.46) J = polar moment of inertia of the weld group about C, based on the throat area. (Continued:)

ME 351

t = Tr/J (eq. 15.46) In this equation, r is the distance from C to the point in the weld of interest. t is not uniform across the weld group, and one point will experience the greatest stress resultant: = (t2 + d2) (eq. 15.47)

ME 351

C is located at coordinates x-bar and y-bar, where

x-bar = (Aixi)/ Ai, and

y-bar = (Aiyi)/ Ai, where i denotes a given weld segment, and the coordinate origin is conveniently chosen. A key is that the weld throat t is assumed to be very small, sometimes 0.

ME 351

Use the familiar bh3/12, substituting t and L for b and h as appropriate. However, assume t3 = 0 to simplify.

Remember the parallel axis theorem, Ix = Ix + Ay12, to find the moment of inertia about the centroid of the weld group. (So even if Ix = 0, you still have A.)

ME 351

The polar moment of inertia is the sum of Ix and Iy for each weld about the centroid of the weld group. Knowing J, apply t = Tr/J (eq. 15.46) to find t at a given point, and then use = (t2 + d2) (eq. 15.47) to find the max , which is used to find the required weld size.

ME 351

- Dyadic Systems SCN6 40kgfDiunggah olehServo2Go
- Gunsmithing With Simple Hand ToolsDiunggah olehthegoodpatriot
- Designacion Basica de RoscasDiunggah olehGabriel Rodríguez
- Metrology and Quality Control_mqpDiunggah olehkumar km
- boltsDiunggah oleherjaichauhan
- Farmstar EquipmentDiunggah olehsunilbhol
- 350647217-DIN-1587-2000-pdf.pdfDiunggah olehShreyas Iyengar
- reference-standards.pdfDiunggah olehAsghar Ali
- All Purpose WorksheetDiunggah olehSabeen
- 14 Design of Bolted JointsDiunggah olehPRASAD326
- 1_1226529501Diunggah olehCharles Guzman
- HCH_HCHS_HCHB[1]Diunggah olehCollon Lee
- Tension Control Bolts, S10T.pdfDiunggah olehYG LI
- Nelson Weld StudscplDiunggah olehARTHURS316
- saej490v001Diunggah olehTatiana Riquelme Perez
- Motorsports Catalogue 2010Diunggah olehArun Gupta
- Anchor Bolt SpecificationDiunggah olehpbp2956
- computer aided Machine Drawing ManualDiunggah olehSengottaiyan Malaisamy
- RAPID_TENSIONER_Operating_Manual.pdfDiunggah olehTirtheshwar Singh
- 3_Fasteners_HandBook.pdfDiunggah olehFelipe Fernandez
- ThreadedDiunggah olehdzung
- Previews 1523606 PreDiunggah olehfernando
- GMW-3359-Non-Electrolytically-Applied-Zinc-Rich-Coating-2-1-14.pdfDiunggah olehJoao Pedro Sousa
- WCB Light Type Table Rotary BearingDiunggah olehWCB BEARING
- BritishStdDiunggah olehAic Calidad
- 3-d Fem Stress Analysis and Mechanical Characteristics in BoltedDiunggah olehBastian Cabrera
- Is.1795.1982 Pillar TapDiunggah olehkishor150688
- Torque value guideDiunggah olehUppala Krishna Chaitanya
- gghghhhs.pdfDiunggah olehAnonymous 7YilBuIuQm
- Gagemaker ProductsDiunggah olehMelquiades Hernández González

- torsion test(experiment 2).docxDiunggah olehNirmal Chandra
- ReportDiunggah olehAsheka Tenzin
- Grade 7 - Book.pdfDiunggah olehAnonymous BQkF4nmF
- The Use of BeagleBone Black Board in Engineering Design and DevelDiunggah olehLaxman Kumar
- Piping Stress Analysis - Pit Fall PreventionsDiunggah olehPaldex
- JSBSimCUJDiunggah olehendoparasite
- 368861778-ASTM-B557Diunggah olehwulfgang66
- Lab Sheet Pat 205 - Bs 1 (Pump)Diunggah olehnadz_fynaz
- ADA307702 (2)Diunggah olehandresrodriguez7245
- Implementation of Close Loop Speed Control with VVVF Control and Slip Regulation on LIMDiunggah olehJonathan Li
- SBL-1Diunggah olehMuhammad Naveed
- Cresswell PlaceDiunggah olehemasousaabreu
- ThermE.pdfDiunggah olehEric Cook
- 333868218-Have-Yourself-a-Merry-Little-Christmas.pdfDiunggah olehlkphilip
- wilden PumpT15-ORG-MTL-EOM-01.pdfDiunggah olehvalerian1988
- Principais Tópicos Estudados Na Arquitetura NavalDiunggah olehPaulo Carvalho
- 1 Drilling RigDiunggah olehdaburto2
- Jim and Lynn Neckopulous 01-11-17Diunggah olehL. A. Paterson
- Bosch GIM60LDiunggah olehEdiOvalle
- Super Commuter ReportDiunggah olehThe Dallas Morning News
- Driving Book in EnglishDiunggah olehMuhammad Asad Qasim
- Doosan overspeed valueDiunggah oleharieznaval
- HRMT 4125 Course Outline Fall 2011Diunggah olehKaran Kochhar
- quiz 5Diunggah olehnorvel_19
- CV_Munggon Piyamart (มังกร).Diunggah olehp_munggon
- Penn Search NotesDiunggah olehJoseba Martinez
- Data Dictionary MP2 SQL 6.0Diunggah olehJuan Solis
- Hvac Fs Chiller EfficiencyDiunggah olehరాజా రావు చామర్తి
- The CircleDiunggah olehavislg
- Gravity and Circular Motion PracticeDiunggah olehnanio_7

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.