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Business Research Methods

Survey Research:

Survey Research
Survey research methods are used for primary data collection Surveys ask a respondent for information using verbal or written questioning Surveys provide valuable information on peoples opinions , perceptions ,attitudes,& other personal characteristics on issues related to research problems Surveys cannot measure behaviour

Survey Research
Surveys can be classified on the basis of ---- Methods of communications ---- Timeframe for data collections

Survey Research: Basic Communication Methods

Communicating with Respondents


Personal interviews
Door-to-door Shopping mall intercepts

Telephone interviews Self-administered questionnaires

Door-to-Door Personal Interview


It is a traditional survey method which involves consumers being interviewed at their homes It has direct face to face contact with the interviewee

Mall Intercept Personal Interview


It involves stopping or intercepting shoppers in a mall at random Asking their willingness to participate Conducting the interviews right on the spot or in the research agencys interviewing facility located at the mall

Telephone Surveys
It has come of age as one of the best cost effective alternatives on account of various developments in telephonic interviews Random digit dialing as a sampling procedure ----Central location telephone interviews (CLTI) ----Computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) ----Completely automated telephone surveys (CATS)

Central location telephone interviewing (CLTI)

Interviewers make calls from a centrally located marketing research facility Wide Area Telecommunication Service (WATS) lines are used Facilitates unlimited long distance calls at fixed rates Supervisors can monitor &control the whole process

Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) Telephonic interview responses can be directly entered into the computer The telephonic interviewer is seated at a computer terminal Closed ended questions appear on the computer screen one at a time Interviewer reads out the question & enters the response of the interview into the computer CATI technology has useful features like random selection of tel.nos, dialing them, data entry & its speedy tabulation

Completely automated telephone surveys( CATS)

Computer uses recorded voice of a professional interviewer to ask questions Respondents answer by pressing number button on their telephone sets to mark their choice Options selected are recorded by the computer If respondent does not answer first couple of questions computer dials next respondent Produces quality data at good speed &less cost

Self Administered questionnaires


Questionnaire filled out by respondents without intervention of interviewer Mostly conducted at locations with captive audiences: theatres, airports ,malls, hotels or sent through posts (mail surveys) or through emails Brief questionnaires are given to respondents & collected back either through drop box or return of mail

Self-Administered Questionnaires
SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES PAPER QUESTIONNAIRES ELECTRONIC QUESTIONNAIRES

MAIL

IN-PERSON DROP-OFF

INSERTS

FAX

E-MAIL

INTERNET WEB SITE

KIOSK

Kiosks
Kiosks are multimedia touch screen computers Have ability to display full colour screen images, play stereo sound clips & show videos Computers are pre-programmed to administer complex surveys Successfully tried at trade shows & now also at retail stores Does not involve interviewer & less expensive

There is no best form of survey; each has advantages and disadvantages.

Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique

Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary? Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated? Will cooperation be easily attained? How quickly is the information needed? Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire? How large is the budget?

Pretesting
A trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions of survey design

Survey Research: Time Frame For Data Collection

Time Frame For Data Collection For some research projects data can be gathered in a single survey Some other studies require multiple surveys & extend over a longer period of time Based on time period surveys are classified as ---- Cross sectional studies -----Longitudinal studies

Cross sectional Studies


Most commonly used in BR One shot research study at a given point in time Consists of a sample (Cross section) of population of interest It is simple & flexible in nature Analysis can be simple or complex To study profile of bank customers

Longitudinal Studies
Research studies that use multiple surveys to gather data over a period of time Help in measuring current situations as also their variations over time Different types of longitudinal studies are ---- Trend Studies ----Panel Surveys ----Cohert Panels

Trend Studies
A series of cross sectional surveys conducted at two or more points in time New sample taken each time is from the same segment of population originally surveyed Consistent questions are asked in each study Data from several cross sectional studies are compared to find trend in characteristics of interest Changes in customer satisfaction levels over a period of time

Panel Studies
A longitudinal survey that involves collecting data from same sample units across time (Individuals, HHs, Retail stores) Panel is a sample of respondents who have agreed to provide information at specified intervals over an extended period Consumer panel to study consumption of products/brands, viewer ship of TV, readership of magazines . Retail panel (audit) to study products/brands stocked, shelf space allotted, sales, promotions etc

Cohort Panels
A longitudinal survey that takes process of generation replacement explicitly into account One or more generations are followed over their life course Cohort is a group of respondents who experience the same event within the same time interval A birth (or age) cohort is a group of people who were born during the same time interval, say, 1951 to 1960. Cohort analysis is a study in which there are measures of some characteristics of two or more cohorts at two or more points in time

Cohort Panels
It is unlikely that any of the individual studied at time one will also be in the sample at time two Age cohort of people between 8-19 years old was selected & their soft drink consumption was examined every 10 years for 30 years In other words every 10 years a different sample of respondents is drawn from population of those who then were between 8-19 years old Similar findings were obtained for other age cohorts

Consumption of Various Soft Drinks by Various Age Cohorts


Percentage consuming on a typical day Age 8-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50+ C1: C2: C3: C4: cohort cohort cohort cohort 1950 52.9 45.2 33.9 23.2 18.1 born born born born 1960 62.6 60.7 46.6 40.8 28.8 C1 prior to 1900 1901-10 1911-20 1921-30 1969 73.2 76.0 67.7 58.6 50.0 C2 C5: C6: C7: C8: 1979 81.0 75.8 74.4 68.8 59.9 C3 cohort cohort cohort cohort born born born born C8 C7 C6 C5 C4 1931-40 1940-49 1950-59 1960-69

Cohort Panels
Consumption of cohort did not decrease as the cohort aged (Diagonal readings) Contradiction to common belief that consumption of soft drink would decline with graying of America A single cross sectional study (each column read in isolation) leads to this erroneous conclusion Cohort of voters ( people with similar voting pattern during a given interval) are questioned about their voting preference to predict election results

DETAILS GIVING ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF EACH METHOD

Door-to-Door Personal Interview


It is a traditional survey method which involves consumers being interviewed at their homes It has direct face to face contact with the interviewee

Door-to-Door Personal Interview


Speed of data collection
Moderate to fast

Geographical flexibility
Limited to moderate

Respondent cooperation
Excellent

Versatility of questioning
Quite versatile

Door-to-Door Personal Interview


Questionnaire length
Long

Item nonresponse
Low

Possibility of respondent misunderstanding


Lowest

Door-to-Door Personal Interview


Degree of interviewer influence of answer
High

Supervision of interviewers
Moderate

Anonymity of respondent
Low

Door-to-Door Personal Interview


Ease of call back or follow-up
Difficult

Cost
Highest

Special features
Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated; extended probing possible

Mall Intercept Personal Interview


It involves stopping or intercepting shoppers in a mall at random Asking their willingness to participate Conducting the interviews right on the spot or in the research agencys interviewing facility located at the mall

Mall Intercept Personal Interview


Speed of data collection
Fast

Geographical flexibility
Confined, urban bias

Respondent cooperation
Moderate to low Versatility of questioning
Extremely versatile

Mall Intercept Personal Interview


Speed of Data Collection
Fast

Geographical Flexibility
Confined, urban bias

Respondent Cooperation
Moderate to low Versatility of Questioning Extremely versatile

Mall Intercept Personal Interview


Questionnaire length
Moderate to long

Item nonresponse
Medium

Possibility of respondent misunderstanding


Lowest

Mall Intercept Personal Interview


Degree of interviewer influence of answers
Highest

Supervision of interviewers
Moderate to high

Anonymity of respondent
Low

Mall Intercept Personal Interview


Ease of call back or follow-up
Difficult

Cost
Moderate to high

Special features
Taste test, viewing of TV commercials possible

Telephone Surveys
It has come of age as one of the best cost effective alternatives on account of various developments in telephonic interviews Random digit dialing as a sampling procedure -----Central location telephone interviews -----Computer assisted telephone interviews -----Completely automated telephone surveys

Telephone Surveys
Speed of Data Collection
Very fast

Geographical Flexibility
High

Respondent Cooperation
Good

Versatility of Questioning
Moderate

Telephone Surveys
Questionnaire Length
Moderate

Item Non response


Medium

Possibility of Respondent Misunderstanding


Average

Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answer


Moderate

Telephone Surveys
Supervision of interviewers
High, especially with central location WATS interviewing

Anonymity of respondent
Moderate

Ease of call back or follow-up


Easy

Telephone Surveys
Cost
Low to moderate

Special features
Fieldwork and supervision of data collection are simplified; quite adaptable to computer technology

Central location telephone interviewing (CLTI)

Interviewers make calls from a centrally located marketing research facility Wide Area Telecommunication Service (WATS) lines are used Facilitates unlimited long distance calls at fixed rates Supervisors can monitor &control the whole process

Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) Telephonic interview responses can be directly entered into the computer The telephonic interviewer is seated at a computer terminal Closed ended questions appear on the computer screen one at a time Interviewer reads out the question & enters the response of the interview into the computer CATI technology has useful features like random selection of tel.nos, dialing them, data entry & its speedy tabulation

Completely automated telephone surveys( CATS)

Computer uses recorded voice of a professional interviewer to ask questions Respondents answer by pressing number button on their telephone sets to mark their choice Options selected are recorded by the computer If respondent does not answer first couple of questions computer dials next respondent Produces quality data at good speed &less cost

Self Administered questionnaires


Questionnaire filled out by respondents without intervention of interviewer Mostly conducted at locations with captive audiences: theatres, airports ,malls, hotels or sent through posts (mail surveys) or through emails Brief questionnaires are given to respondents & collected back either through drop box or return of mail

Self-Administered Questionnaires
SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES PAPER QUESTIONNAIRES ELECTRONIC QUESTIONNAIRES

MAIL

IN-PERSON DROP-OFF

INSERTS

FAX

E-MAIL

INTERNET WEB SITE

KIOSK

Kiosks
Kiosks are multimedia touch screen computers Have ability to display full colour screen images, play stereo sound clips & show videos Computers are pre-programmed to administer complex surveys Successfully tried at trade shows & now also at retail stores Does not involve interviewer & less expensive

Mail Surveys

Mail Surveys
Speed of data collection
Researcher has no control over return of questionnaire; slow

Geographical flexibility
High

Respondent cooperation
Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have low response rate

Mail Surveys
Versatility of questioning
Highly standardized format

Questionnaire length
Varies depending on incentive

Item non response


High

Mail Surveys
Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
Highest--no interviewer present for clarification

Degree of interviewer influence of answer


None--interviewer absent

Supervision of interviewers
Not applicable

Mail Surveys
Anonymity of respondent
High

Ease of call back or follow-up


Easy, but takes time

Cost
Lowest

How to Increase Response Rates for Mail Surveys


Write a sales oriented cover letter Money helps - As a token of appreciation - For a charity Stimulate respondents interest with interesting questions Follow Up - Keying questionnaires with codes Advanced notification Sponsorship by a well-known and prestigious institution

Increasing Response Rates


Effective cover letter Money helps Interesting questions Follow-ups Advanced notification Survey sponsorship Keying questionnaires

E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys


Speed of data collection
Instantaneous

Geographic flexibility
worldwide

Cheaper distribution and processing costs

E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys


Flexible, but
Extensive differences in the capabilities of respondents computers and e-mail software limit the types of questions and the layout

E-mails are not secure and eavesdropping can possibly occur Respondent cooperation
Varies depending if e-mail is seen as spam

Internet Surveys
A self-administered questionnaire posted on a Web site. Respondents provide answers to questions displayed online by highlighting a phrase, clicking an icon, or keying in an answer.

Internet Surveys
Speed of data collection
Instantaneous

Cost effective Geographic flexibility


worldwide

Visual and interactive

Internet Surveys
Respondent cooperation
Varies depending on web site Varies depending on type of sample When user does not opt-in or expect a voluntary survey cooperation is low. Self-selection problems in web site visitation surveys - participants tend to be more deeply involved than the average person.

Internet Surveys
Versatility of questioning
Extremely versatile

Questionnaire length
Individualized based on respondent answers Longer questionnaires with panel samples

Item nonresponse
Software can assure none

Internet Surveys
Representative samples The quality of internet samples may vary substantially. A sample of those who visit a web page and voluntarily fill out a questionnaires can have self-selection error.

Internet Surveys
1) not all individuals in the general public have internet access 2) many respondents lack powerful computers with high-speed connections to the internet 3) many respondents computer skills will be relatively unsophisticated.

Internet Surveys
Possibility for respondent misunderstanding
High

Interviewer influence of answers


None

Supervision of interviewers not required

Internet Surveys
Anonymity of Respondent
Respondent can be anonymous or known

Ease of Callback or Follow-up


difficult unless e-mail address is known

Special Features
allows graphics and streaming media

Welcome Screen
Welcome Screen like a cover letter It contains the name of the research company and how to contact the organization if there is a problem or concern. "If you have any concerns or questions about this survey, or if you experience any technical difficulties, please contact (NAME OF RESEARCH ORGANIZATION).

Welcome Screen should ask for password and give instructions


Please enter your personal password from your invitation.Then, press the "enter" key to begin the survey or simply click on the right arrow at the bottom of the page to begin the survey (after you have read the remaining instructions): During the survey, please do not use your browser's FORWARD and BACK buttons. Use the arrows on the lower right to move backward and forward through the survey.

Pretesting
A trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions of survey design