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M.Ed. (Educational Leadership)

University of Malta

The sources of authority for leadership
Sources Assumptions Leadership/Sup Consequen
when use of this ervisory ces
source is primary strategy
Bureaucrat Teachers are “Expect and With proper
ic subordinates in a inspect” is the monitoring
authority: hierarchically overarching rule. teachers
Hierarchy arranged system. Rely on respond as
Supervisors are predetermined technicians,
Rules and
trustworthy, but standards, to executing
subordinates are which teachers predetermin
(teachers ed scripts,
comply or not. must measure up.
and their
face Goals and interests Identify their
consequenc of teachers and needs and “in-
is narrowed.
es) supervisors are not service” them.
the same, and Directly supervise
supervisors must be and closely
watchful. monitor the work
Hierarchy equals of teachers, to
expertise, and so ensure 2
supervisors know compliance.
Personal The goals and Develop a school Teachers
authority interests of climate respond as
Motivational teachers and characterized by required when
technology supervisors are high congeniality rewards are
Interpersonal not the same but among teachers available, but
can be bartered and between not otherwise;
skills Human
so that each side teachers and their
gets what it supervisors. involvement is
wants. “Expect and calculated and
(teachers will
Teachers have reward.” performance is
want to comply needs, and if
because of the narrowed.
they are met at
congenial “what gets
work, the work
climate and the rewarded gets
gets done as
rewards.) done.”
relationships and Use
a harmonious psychological
interpersonal authority in
climate make combination with
teachers bureaucratic and
content, easier technical-
to work with, relational 3
must be experts
in reading
needs and in
other people-
handling skills,
to barter
successfully for
compliance and
increases in
Professional Situation of Promote a Teachers
authority practice are dialogue among respond to
Informed craft idiosyncratic, teachers that professional
knowledge and and no one best explicitly states norms; their
personal way exists professional practice
expertise Scientific values and becomes
(teachers knowledge and accepted tenets collective, they
respond in light professional of practice. require little
of common knowledge are Translate them monitoring,
socialization, different, with into professional and their
professional professional standards. performance is
values, accepted knowledge Give teachers as expansive.
created in use
The purpose of Require
scientific teachers to
knowledge is to hold one
inform, not another
prescribe accountable for
practice. meeting
Authority practice
cannot be standards
external but Make
comes from the assistance,
context itself support and
and from within
the teacher.
Authority from opportunities
context comes available.
from training
and experience.
Authority from
within comes
and internalized
values 5
Moral authority Schools are Identify and Teachers
Felt obligation professional make explicit the respond to
and duties learning values and community
derived from communities. beliefs that values for moral
widely shared Communities define the centre reasons; their
are defined by of the school as a practice
their centres of community. becomes
values, ideas, and
ideals. shared values, Translate them collective, and
beliefs and into informal their
(teachers respond
commitments. norms that performance is
to shared govern
In communities, expansive and
commitments and behaviour.
what is sustained.
considered right Promote
and good is as collegiality as
important as internally felt and
what works and morally driven
what is interdependence.
effective; Rely on the
people are ability of
motivated as community
much by members to
emotion and respond to duties
beliefs as by and obligations.
self-interests; 6
Rely on the
• Follow me leadership:
• it cannot work without some external force that
pushes or pulls people in a desired direction
• It requires follow up in the form of monitoring, to
ensure that the desired movement continue.
• Skilfully practised it gets people to cooperate, but
it cannot inspire the kind of commitment that will
make schools work well as it tends to induce
some sense of subordination.
• Moral leadership:
• Leadership is based on moral authority. Teachers
are expected to respond to shared commitments
and felt interdependence.
• Instead of asking the “why?” or “who to follow?”
question in doing things, the members start
asking “what to follow?” – the shared values and
beliefs that define us as community and the
ideals that define us as professionals.
• Than we will ask “why?”, because it is morally
right to do so. It is our duty and obligation. 7
• Instead of relying on rules and
interpersonal skills, leaders will be
able to rely on standards of practice
and professional norms as reasons
for doing things. Leadership itself
will become less direct and intense
as standards and norms take hold
(Sergiovanni, 1992)
• The norms and values associated
with professionalism as well as the
norms and values that define the
school as a learning community, will 8
The Head, Heart and Hand of
• The heart the head the
(what I value (my mindscape (my
and believe) of how the world
actions and works)

• The head of leadership has to do with the

mindscapes, or theories of practice, that leaders
develop over time, and with their ability in light of
these theories to reflect on the situation they
• Reflection combined with personal vision and an 9
Moral authority or covenant of
shared values
• From Moral or Sacred authority are
derived values as purposing, or building a
covenant of shared values, one that bonds
people in a common cause and transforms
a school from an organization into a
• Schools based on a value system:
 They all focus on a particular group of
people, ‘a chosen people’. Membership
automatically provides emotional security.
 They all promote a particular way of
organizing society, a belief that provides
an emotional identity.
 They all require an emotional stimulus,
such as a mission, a sense of purpose or a10
EmileDurkheim: “The Division of
Labour in society”
• “When we are without values, goals and norms
we become alienated from ourselves, from others
and ultimately from society, with all the
imaginable negative consequences”.
• Involvement in community has three elements:
 Duty; implying a sense of self-constraint through
duty to collectivity
 Attachment, involving a sense of membership,
commitment and identity with the collectivity.
 Self-determination, involving knowledge, and a
rational sense of awareness regarding the
reasons for duty and attachment to the
• When the collective conscience is lost, we are
deprived of opportunities to respond to duty, to
become attached, to express self-determination.
This leads to a sense of normlessness and 11
• In communities it is the authority of
virtue not the power of position that
licenses one to lead. Virtue is
embedded in what a community
shares and in its collective wisdom.
• Plato – ‘Utopia’:
 “Until…political greatness
(leadership) and wisdom meet in
one, and those commoner natures
who pursue either to the exclusion of
the other are compelled to stand
aside, cities will never have rest from
their evils – no nor the human race.”
The notion of “Covenant”
in schools
• Purposing involves both the vision of
school leaders and the covenant that the
school shares….A covenant provides the
added dimension of values and moral
authority to make purposing count.
• The school’s covenant; it is not enough
for schools to be successful to have
worked out what people stands for and
what is to be accomplished. A binding and
solemn agreement must emerge, one that
represents a value system for living
together and forms the basis for decisions
and actions.
• A covenantal relationship rests on a 13
• “covenants are solemn and binding
agreements between tow or more
parties that provide reciprocal rights,
duties, and obligations on the one
hand, and guidelines for action, on
the other. They define how one
should live as an individual and one’s
collective life as a member of the
community” (Sergiovanni, 1992)
• Covenant must be built from the
bottom up, as the school strives to
complete the transformation from
organization to community. 14
Leader as servant
• One dimension of the professional
virtue is the caring ethic. Caring
places teachers and administrators in
the service to others.
• As servant, the school fully accepts
its responsibility to do everything it
can to care for the full range of
needs of its students, teachers and
• Students are served in many ways.
One way to respect and serve them
is to share time with them. Since 15
The Leader: the one who serves

• The caring ethic. Caring places teachers

and administrators in service to others. As
servant, the school fully accepts its
responsibility to do everything it can to
care for the full range of needs of its
students, teachers and parents.
• One way to respect and serve students is
to share time with them. Since time is a
scarce resource, how it is used
communicates powerful messages.
• Invites participation from all members of
the school community in shaping decisions
that concerns the school, therefore their 16
• The leader understands that serving
others is important but that the most
important thing is to serve the values
and ideas that help shape the school
as a covenantal community. In this
sense all the members of a
community share the burden of
servant leadership.
• The effectiveness of a leader lies in
his ability to make activity
meaningful for those in his role set –
not to change behavior but to give
others a sense of understanding
what they are doing and especially to17
• Principals have special stewardship
2. They must plant the seeds of
3. Nurture budding community and
protect the community once it
emerges. To do this:
 They lead by following
 They lead by serving
 They lead by inviting others to
share in the burdens of leadership
 They lead by knowing 18
• What do principles do in schools that
are becoming communities of

• Many things. They preach and teach,

they encourage, they help, and
sometimes they even yell and tell.
But mostly they serve.