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Factory Physics Introduction

Factory Physics Background


An analytical approach to understanding manufacturing systems behavior First articulated in the book Factory Physics: Foundations of Manufacturing Management by Wallace Hopp & Mark Spearman (Irwin 1996; 2nd edition in 2000, now available in relatively lower cost paperback form)

Factory Physics Motivation ..


Need for a Science-based approach rather an empirical/ judgement-based approach Original application: Computer & Electronics Component manufacturing Evaluative approach aimed at understanding and decision support, rather than prescriptive black-box approach that gives solutions Practices change, but principles persist!

What is Factory Physics


A systematic description of the underlying behavior of manufacturing systems.
Seeks a science of manufacturing, by establishing building block concepts, stating manufacturing laws, and identifying general insights from specific practices.

.. Motivations for Factory Physics Approach


Identify opportunities for improving existing systems
Design effective new systems, with controls that are consistent with their natural tendencies Make the trade-offs needed to coordinate policies from disparate areas into an environment of continual improvement

Scope of Factory Physics Analysis

Process

Line or Cell

System

Product vs. Factory Design

Factory Design Question


Requirements:
3000 units per day, with a lead time of not greater than 10 days, and with a service level (percent of jobs that finish on time) of at least 90%.

Can we do it? At what cost? Answer:

Factory Design Question


Requirements:
3000 units per day, with a lead time of not greater than 10 days, and with a service level (percent of jobs that finish on time) of at least 90%.

Can we do it? At what cost? Answer:


Cant say!

Factory Tradeoff Curves (Fig. 7.1)


22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 74 77 81 85 89 93 97

Lead Time(days)

Service in %
2400 2600 2800 3000

HAL Case
Large Panel Line: produces unpopulated printed circuit boards
Line runs 24 hr/day (but 19.5 hrs of productive time)

Recent Performance:
Throughput = 1,400 panels per day (71.8 panels/hr) WIP = 47,600 panels FT = 34 days (663 hr at 19.5 hr/day) customer service = 75% on-time delivery

How lean is HAL? How do we decide?

Factory Physics Notation

Characteristics of Factory Physics Approach


Emphasis on Basics: Evolve language and concepts for decision making
Building Intuition: developing insights into behavior, identifying key leverage points, evaluating impacts, and help in taking decisions

Integrative Problem Solving Framework and Synthesis: Bringing together individual components into a single whole.