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Is this behaviour ethical?

Is it ethical to
take office stationary for home use? Make personal long-distance calls from the office? Use company time for personal business? Or do these behaviours constitute stealing?

If you exaggerate your credentials in an interview, is it lying? Is lying to protect a coworker acceptable? How do you differentiate between a bribe and a gift?

Is it immoral to do less than your best in terms of work performance? If there are slight defects in a product you are selling, are you obliged to tell the buyer? If you pretend to be more successful than you are in order to impress your boss, are you being deceitful?

Values and Ethics

Ehtics is an extension of value considerations. There is increasing evidence that ethical practices translate into better financial performance for organizations. (188 Fortune 500 companies convicted for unethical practices had significantly lower return on assets as well as returns on sales. Luthans,2002) In India companies like Tata, WIPRO, Infosys and L&T show how ethics and profitability go together.

What is Value?
Values are broad preferences concerning courses of action or outcomes. They represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence.

Certain Characteristics of Values

Values contain a judgmental element They are relatively stable and enduring Values are not fixed, but they change slowly Values contain content attributes( mode of conduct) and intensity attributes

Types of Values ( Milton Rokeach Value Survey)

Terminal Values- the desirable end-states of existence ( a comfortable life, freedom, working for the unprivileged) Instrumental values-the preferable modes of behaviour, or means of achieving the terminal values ( hardworking, helpful, responsible)

Terminal Values
Happiness; satisfaction in life Knowledge and wisdom Peace and harmony in the world Pride in accomplishment Prosperity; wealth Lasting friendships Recognition from peers Salvation; finding eternal life Security; freedom from threat Self-respect

Instrumental Values
Assertiveness; standing up for yourself Being helpful or caring toward others Dependability; being counted upon by others Education and intellectual pursuits Hard work and achievement Obedience; following the wishes of others Open-mindedness; receptivity to new ideas Self-sufficiency; independence Truthfulness; honesty Being well-mannered and courteous toward others

Sources of Value System

A significant portion is established during early years The environment in which the individual is brought up also influences ones value system Certain values are developed over time and these are continuously reinforced ( In America achievement, peace, cooperation, equity and democracy are societal values. In India tolerance, sacrifice, respect, god fearing and renunciation are important social values)

Socio-cultural-Work-ethics, Achievement needs, Religious & cultural values

Max Webers seminal work Protestant Ethics & the rise of Capitalist Economy argues that the protestant approval of acquisition of property and its investment with a motive to add to personal wealth provided the basis for capitalist economy.

Religious orientation (Complacent, renunciation)

Work values of different generations

Veterans(65+) hardworking, conservative, confirming, loyalty Boomers ( 40-65) success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority, loyalty to career Xers- (20-40) work-life balance, team oriented, dislike of rules, loyalty to relationships Nexters- < 30 confident, financial success, self reliant, team oriented, loyalty to self & relationship

Values Across Culture

(Greet Hofstead's findings)
Power distance Individualism versus collectivism Masculinity Vs femininity Uncertainty avoidance

Certain Conclusions
Value system of employees are important They differ among different groups Value system keeps on changing from one generation to another OB theories and concepts are not universally applicable to manage people around the world, especially in countries where work values are different.

What is an attitude?
Attitude can be defined as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object. They are evaluative statements- either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects, people, or events.

Job related Attitudes

Job satisfaction Job involvement Organisational commitment

Are Attitudes Consistent?

People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behaviour. When there is an inconsistency, attempts are made either to alter the attitudes or the behaviour or to develop rationalization for the discrepancy.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Leon Festinger)

Cognitive Dissonance refers to any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his or her attitudes or between his or her behaviour and attitudes. The desire to reduce the dissonance would be determined by The importance of the elements The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements The rewards that may be involved in the dissonance

How to change attitudes?

Persuasion Communication New information Resolving the discrepancies Influence of friends & peers Reduced relevance of an object Use of fear and reward Training

What is job satisfaction?

Job satisfaction is the overall attitude of an individual toward his or her job. E.A. Locke(1976) defines job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience.

How satisfied people are?

People are generally satisfied with their jobs. Satisfaction level is going down Satisfaction level varies for different groups JS is a relatively stable disposition.

Determinants of Job Satisfaction

Organisational Factors
Reward system Nature of work Quality of supervision Working condition Supportive colleagues Decentralisation of power

Individual Determinants
Status and seniority Age Marital Status No. of dependents Personality General life satisfaction Personality-job fit

The Effect of JS on Work Behaviour

Job performance Absenteeism Turnover Accidents Customer satisfaction OCB Physical and mental health

What satisfies Indian Employees (Results of 17 research studies conducted between 1965to 1997) Managers/Supervisors- Responsibility, work
itself, achievement, recognition , relationship with co-workers are the most important factors contributing to the job satisfaction of Indian managers/supervisor. Domestic life and adequate money also satisfy them. Workers-Most important factor is money. This is followed by job security. ( 12 out of 16 studies confirm this).