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Communication

Skills

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Concepts
• Words Mean Different Things to
Different People.
• The Initiation of a Message
Provides No Assurance It Has
Been Received.
• Communications Often Become
Distorted as They Are
Transmitted.

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Why is Communication
Important?
• Everything a manager does
involves communication.
• Effective communication
skills can lead to problems
for the manager.
• Communication of content
• Supportive communication

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Communication of Content
• Channel choices
• In person
• Telephone
• Email
• Written
• Third party

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Supportive
Communication
• A focus on processes.
• Two categories:
 Coaching: giving advice, direction or
information to improve performance… focus
on abilities
 Counselling: helping the person understand
and resolve a problem themselves by
displaying understanding… focus on
attitudes
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What Is the Interpersonal
Communication Process?
• Communication
• Sequential Steps
• Encoded
• Transmitted
• Decoding
• Noise
• Feedback

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Exhibit 3-1: The Communication Process Model

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Basic Interpersonal
Communication Skills
• Avoid Barriers to Communication.
• Send Understandable Messages:
Effective communication.
• Actively Listen.
• Utilize Non-verbal Signals.
• Give and Solicit Meaningful Feedback.
• Adapt to Diversity of Communication
Styles… try multiple channels

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What Are the Barriers
To Communication?
• Frames of Reference
• Semantics
• Value Judgments
• Selective Listening
• Filtering
• Distrust

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Attributes of effective
communication
• Problem oriented not person oriented

“I don’t like the way you dress for work.”


“You are not very professional.”

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Attributes of effective
communication
• Congruence versus incongruence
• Mismatch between what one feels/thinks
and what one says

“I’m disappointed that we didn’t reach our


target and that we aren’t getting our
bonuses.”

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Attributes of effective
communication
• Descriptive versus evaluative
• Avoid judgment
• How:
4. describe objectively;
5. focus on the behaviour and your reaction not the
other’s attributes;
6. focus on solutions
“You screwed up”

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Attributes of effective
communication
• Invalidation: • Validation:
• Superiority • Respectful
• Rigidity • Flexible
• Indifference • Two way
• impervious communication
• Identify areas of
agreement

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Attributes of effective
communication
• specific not global
“you never ask for my advice”
“You are lazy”

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Attributes of effective
communication
• Conjunctive not disjunctive
• Lack of equal opportunity to speak?
• Extended pauses?
• Who controls the flow?
A continuum…

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Attributes of effective
communication
• Owned not disowned
• Use of “I statements” not “you or other
statements”
“I’ve heard that you…”

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Attributes of effective
communication
• Two way not one way
• Listening by responding

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Exhibit 3-2: Guides for Giving and Receiving Feedback

Criteria for Giving Feedback

3. Make sure your comments are intended to help recipient.


4. Speak directly and with feeling.
5. Describe what the person is doing and the effect the
person is having.
6. Don’t be threatening or judgmental.
7. Be specific, not general (use clear and recent examples).
8. Give feedback when the recipient is open to accepting it.
9. Check to ensure the validity of your statements.
10. Include only things the receiver can do something about.
11. Don’t overwhelm the person with more than can be
handled.
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Exhibit 3-2: Guides for Giving and Receiving Feedback
(continued)

Criteria for Receiving Feedback

3. Don’t be defensive.
4. Seek specific examples.
5. Be sure you understand (summarize).
6. Share your feelings about the comments.
7. Ask for definitions.
8. Check out underlying assumptions.
9. Be sensitive to sender’s nonverbal messages.
10. Ask questions to clarify.

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How Do You Receive and
Understand Messages Accurately?
• Listening
• Active Listening
• Sensing
• Attending
• Reflecting

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How Can You
Utilize Nonverbal Cues?
• Visual
• Tactile
• Vocal
• Time and Space

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Exhibit 3.3: Means of Nonverbal Communication

VISUAL
Components Examples Meanings Communicated

Image Clothing, hygiene Values, competence


Facial Expressions Frown, smile, sneer Unexpressed feelings
Eye Movements Looking away, staring Intentions, state of mind
Posture Leaning in, slumped Attitude
Gestures Handshake, wave Intentions, feelings

TACTILE

Touch Pat on the back Approval


Gentle touch on an arm Support and concern

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Exhibit 3.3: Means of Nonverbal Communication
(continued)

VOCAL

Components Examples Meanings Communicated

How things are said Loudness, pitch, rate Different meanings, e.g.
Vocal intonations Rhythm, pitch, clarity Sarcasm, disapproval

SPACIAL

Body closeness 0 – 2 feet Feelings of intimacy


Furniture arrangement Large pieces far apart Formal and serious

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How Can You Adapt to Diversity
of Communication Styles?
• Differences in
Communication Styles
• The Socializer
• The Director
• The Thinker
• The Relater

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Cultural Differences

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Gender Differences

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How Can You Facilitate
Communication with Diversity?
• Assume Differences
• Emphasize Description
• Empathize
• Treat Interpretations as
Guesses

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