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INTRODUCTION TO BIOMASS AND BIOGAS GENERATION

BIOMASS
Material of plants and animals including their wastes and residues is called biomass. Solar energy photosynthesis biomass energy generation

Considered as a renewable energy source because plant life renews add to itself every year. Biomass fall into 3 categories: Biomass in its traditional solid mass Biomass in non-traditional form The third category is to ferment the biomass anaerobically to obtain a gaseous fuel called biogas.

ENERGY PLANTATION
Method of tapping maximum energy by growing plants. Energy farms are ideal solar collectors requiring virtually no maintenance, it is economically and non polluting. In India about 23% of total land area is under forest. Utilization of biogas as energy source, the sewage sludge was anaerobically digested and utilized in sewage treatment plant itself for heating. Anaerobic digestion of wastes result not only for biogas production but also it has fertilizer value.

DNES has taken up project worth 5MW aggregate capacity split into mechanical and electrical application systems through gasifiers Engines working on biomass at various locations in country.

BIOGAS GENERATION
Biogas is a mixture containing 55-65% methane, 3040% CO2 and the rest being impurities can be produced from the decomposition of animal, plant and human waste. Slow burning gas, 5000-5500cal/kg, directly used for cooking, reducing demand of fire wood

Biogas is produced by digestion, pyrolysis or hydrogasification. Digestion is biological process that occurs in the absence of oxygen and in presence of anaerobic organisms at ambient temp(35-70C) Anaerobic digestion: Organic matter undergoes fermentation through aerobic digestion biogas is generated produces CO2, CH4, H2, and other gases. In aerobic CO2 & NH3 produced. In biogas plant, aim is to generate methane so anaerobic digestion preferred 3 phases: Enzymatic hydrolysis, fats, starches and proteins in cellulose biomass broken into small compounds

Acid formation, anaerobic groups are acid farmers Methane Formation, converted into methane by aerobs Biomass process and Energetics CxHyOz + (x-y/4-z/2)H2O (x/2-y/8+z/4)CO2 + (x/2+y/8-z/4)CH4 For cellulose this become (C6H10O5)n + nH2O 3nCO2 + 3nCH4

Factors affecting Generation of Gas Hydrogen ion concentration Temperature Loading rate Carbon to nitrogen ratio Nutrients

CLASSIFICATION OF
BIOGAS PLANTS

Continous & batch types


The Dome & Drum types Different variations in the drum type

CONTINOUS PLANT
There

is a single digester in which raw material are charged rerularly goes on without interuption except for repair and cleaning continous process may be completed in a single stage or separated into two stages

Process

The

SINGLE STAGE PROCESS


The

conversion of complex organic compound into biogas is computed in a single chamber

Chamber

is regularly fed with the raw material while the spent residue keeps moving out
is a problems when agricultural residues fermented in a single stage process

There

DOUBLE STAGE PROCESS


The

acidogenic stage and methanogenic stages are physically separated into two chambers

Biogas

collected from the second chamber

Considering

problems encounted in fermenting fibrous plant waste materials the two stage process may offer higher potential of success

FEATURES OF CONTINOUS PLANT


It

will produce gas continuosly require small digestion chamber

It

It

needs lesser periods for digestion

It

has less problems compared to batch type and it is easier in operation

BATCH PLANTS
The

feeding is between intervals.the plant is emptied once the process of digetion is complete are charged and emptied one by one in a synchronous manner which maintains regular supply of the gas through a common gas holder systems have been generally installed in European countries

these

Such

FEATURES OF BATCH PLANT


The

gas production in it, is intermittent , depending upon the clearing of the digester needs several digesters or chamber for continuous gas production, they are fed alternatively

It

Batch

plants are good for long fibrous materials

This

plant need addition of fermented slurry to start the digestion process is expensive

Plant

THE DOME AND DRUM TYPE


Two

types are The floating gas holder plant

The

floating gas holder digester which is used in India is known as KVIC plant gas holder is separated from the digester of the gas holders well as the cost of gas holder are the main drawback of the system

The

Rusting

Fixed

dome digester

The

gas holder and the digester are combined fixed dome digester is usually built below ground level and suitable for cooler regions

The

the

pressure inside the digester varies as the gas is collected

DIFFERENT VARIATION IN THE DOME


TYPE
There

are two variations in the floating drum type design with water seal and the other without water seal other variation are of material used in the construction

One

The

Ferro

cement rings are used in the construction of digester is used in the construction of the gasholder

Polyethylene

ADVANTAGES OF FIXED DOME TYPE


PLANT
It

has low cost compared to floating drum type as it uses only cement no steel has no corrosion trouble maintenance

It

No

ADVANTAGES OF FLOATING DRUM


PLANT
It

has less scum trouble because solids are constantly submerged problem of gas leakage gas pressure

No

Constant

Minimize

formation of explosive mixture

TYPES OF BIOGAS PLANTS IN INDIA

Fixed Dome Biogas Plants: Janta biogas plant Deen Bandhu biogas plant

Floating Biogas Holder Plant: KVIC type biogas plant Pragati Design biogas plant Ganesh biogas plant Ferro Cement Digester biogas plant

JANTA BIOGAS PLANT


First

developed by the planting , Research and Action Division, Lucknow in 1978. version of Chinese fixed dome

Improved

type.
Foundation

is laid at the base of the underground pit on a levelled ground which bear the load of slurry as well as digester walls.

Digester

is in cylindrical shape with bricks and cement-holds the slurry for a retention period.

Diameter

: Height : : 1.75 : 1

The

gas is stored in gas portion, between dome and digester. The height of the gas portion is above the inlet and outlet openings to beginning of dome and is equal to the maximum gas to be stored and equal to volume of slurry to be displaced at inlet and outlet.

Dome

:- constructed over the gas portion, with volume of 60% of the plant capacity. Must be constructed carefully integrating it with digester and gas portion so that no leakage of gas can take place.

Inlet

and outlet :- larger sizes, facing each other. The discharge of slurry is due to pressure of gas in the plant.

DEEN BANDHU BIOGAS PLANT


Developed

by Action for Food production , New Delhi, which is a low cost biogas plant . foundation is in spherical shape- on the outer periphery of this , the dome shaped digester is constructer with same base diameter. In this way the digester, gas portion and dome look as a single unit.

The

The surface area is reduced with same digester volume, reducing the earth work and cost of construction without sacrificing the efficiency. At the top of the foundation, a window opening is kept for the outward movement of slurry.

KVIC TYPE BIOGAS PLANT


The

design was developed and perfected in India in the year 1954. This was taken up for propagation in the villages in the year 1962 by Khadi and Village Industries Commission, Bombay. this the digestion takes place in a masonry well and the drum floats as the gas collects and is taken out from the top. design is available in sizes of 1Cum to 140Cum gas per day.

In

The

PRAGATI DESIGN BIOGAS PLANT


The

design has been developed by United SocioEconomic Development and Research Programme , Pune in order to have a cheaper floating drum biogas plant. foundation of this is of conical shape, with difference of one feet between outer periphery and its centre so as to reduce the earth and digester wall work.

The

The

digester start from the foundation in dome shape thereby reducing the constructional area. Dome shape construction takes place upto collar base, where a central guide frame is provided. digester wall above guide frame is constructed in cylindrical shape. wall is constructed in the digester for 4 Cum. And bigger sizes so as to control the flow of slurry inside the digester. It divides the digester in to two parts separating inlet and outlet.

The

Partition

GANESH BIOGAS PLANT


It

is basically a KVIC plant constructed with bamboo and polythene sheet. It was developed in district Rampur of UP. Only the digester is made of an angle iron frame, bamboo and polythene sheet. KVIC gas holder and guide frame are used in this design also. cost of this plant is 70% of KVIC plant.

The

The

FERRO-CEMENT DIGESTER BIOGAS PLANT


Ferro-cement

is a form of reinforced concrete made of a wire mesh, sand, water and cement.

In

this composite materials layers of thinwise mesh distributed throughout the thickness of element are integrated with thick cement mortar over an inverted mould. In fact, it is reinforced mortar having high resistance to cracking and permeability.

The

periphery is divided in to 4 or 6 segments, which are casted at a central place over a prepared masonry or wooden mould. These precasted segments are then transported and erected at the plant site. type of digester is an ideal substitute for brick register in areas where good quality bricks are not available and also solves the problems of leakage through masonry joints.

This

All

the systems of the plant are of KVIC design and specification.