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May 13, 2005

Functions Covered
• Sort Command • IPMT
• Filter • PPMT
• If function • NPER
• ‘And’ and ‘OR’ • Converting Text file
• Upper & Lower case • Paste Special
• Subtotal • Vlookup & Hlookup
• Round up • Pivot Tables
• MID • Customize Toolbar
• Auditing • Protecting Worksheet
• Goal Seek • Break Links
• NPV • Shortcut Keys
Sort Command
Function : Helps to arrange data
in ascending / descending
order either by date, alphabet
or number.

Use : Should be used for entire

selection to preserve data
integrity. Can be used to sort
upto 3 categories.

Fast Keys
Data selection : + + +
Sort : + D +S
Function : To select a value
from drop down list or
define range of values to
be displayed.

Use : Can be used to filter

different columns. Custom
function can be used to
define a range of items to
be displayed.

Fast Keys
Filter : +D+F+F
IF Function

Function : Helps in evaluating

data based on conditions

Use :
1= True , 0=False
Advanced :

Function : Used with IF

function to enable more
complicated logical

ctory")= One condition True
actory")= Both conditions True
Upper & Lower Case

Function : Converts the text

string in Upper or Lower

Upper (Cell reference)
Lower (Cell reference)
Sub Total
Function : Want to add lines with
subtotals in your P&L or balance
sheet, but still need to run the total
over all numbers? Don’t want to
get confused with nested subtotals
and totals in your spreadsheet?

– At each change – Can be
character, value, etc
– Function – Can be count, sum,
average product of the value
defined in the range above.
– Add Subtotal to : Place where
subtotal is to be defined.
Round up
Function : To round off the decimals.

– ROUND(Number,Digits) ==> Round
the number (or cell) to the specified
number of digits
• If Digit = 0, then Number is rounded
to nearest integer
• If Digit > 0, then Number is rounded
to the specified number of decimal
• If Digit < 0, then Number is rounded
to the specified number of digits left
of the decimal place
– ROUNDDOWN(Number,Digits) and
ROUNDUP(Number,Digits) work the
same way as ROUND, but the
direction of rounding is specified by
the function
MID Function
Function : Gives the characters
from middle of text based on
starting position and length

– Text :Cell reference where
function is to be applied
– Start number : Position of
number which is to be extracted
based on count of numbers
– Num chars : Numbers of
characters from the text to be
– Eg : MID(B1,3,4)

Function : Quickly find the cells referenced by a formula

and/or quickly find which cells reference a particular cell of

– Select View : Toolbars : Customize from the menu bar.
Check the Auditing box from the Toolbars tab
– Click on the cell of interest
– Select the Trace Precedents or Trace Dependents icon from
the Auditing Toolbar
Goal Seek

Function : Easily find what one input variable needs to be to

achieve some desired result in a calculation

– Select the calculated cell
– Select Tools : Goal Seek from the menu bar
– Enter the desired resulting calculation into the “To Value”
form in the dialog that appears
– Enter the input cell in the “By changing cell:” form
NPV Function

Function : Helps in
calculation of NPV without
working out the discounted

– Rate: The rate of discount.
– Value 1 to __ : Cash flow
values for period 1 to n
PMT Function

Function : Returns the EMI

of loan amount based on
monthly payment

– Rate: The Interest rate on
– Nper : Period of loan
– PV : Amount of loan
– FV : Value if any after
payment of loan
– Type : Whether installment
is in advance or arrears.
IPMT Function
Function : Returns the Interest
payment for given period of
investment based on periodic
constant payment & Interest rate.

– Rate: The Interest rate on loan.
– Period for which interest payment
is to be determined.
– Nper : Period of loan
– PV : Amount of loan
– FV : Value if any after payment of
– Type : Whether installment is in
advance or arrears.
PPMT Function
Function : Returns the Principal
payment for given period of
investment based on periodic
constant payment & Interest rate.

– Rate: The Interest rate on loan.
– Period for which interest payment
is to be determined.
– Nper : Period of loan
– PV : Amount of loan
– FV : Value if any after payment of
– Type : Whether installment is in
advance or arrears.
NPER Function

Function : Returns the Period

for an investment based on
periodic constant payment &
Interest rate.

– Rate: The Interest rate on
– Pmt : Payment to be made
each period
– PV : Amount of loan
– FV : Value if any after
payment of loan
– Type : Whether installment is
in advance or arrears.
Converting Text File
Function : To convert a text
file into excel

Use : System Generated text

Open>file location
Paste Special
Function : To paste either
values, format, formula or
comments of copied cell

Use : Right click mouse or

Edit>paste special
Allows to automatically lookup a particular cell of data from a larger
data range. This is especially useful when
• A large data section that contains information for multiple
records somewhere on the spreadsheet (e.g., a small database)
• A calculation area somewhere else, and you need to refer to
some specific data elements for specific records
• To look up data pertaining to a particular value.
• Parameters to be defined for look up
• Value pertaining to which data is to be found
• Table array within which data lookup is to be defined
• Column pertaining to value where the probable lookup value is
• Match to be exact or nearest possible
Vlookup (Cont.)
ued! $A$1:$C$120,3,0)
Look up Value = A1
Table Array =
Col_index_num = 3
Range = 0 (False)

Hlookup : To look up the

values horizantlly, i.e. vale
lying in the row.
Vlookup (Cont.)

Vlook up when there are

more than one values in
table array pertaining to
the look up value.
A additional field should be
added to look up value
like date to make the
look up value unique.
Pivot Table
Function: Most powerful tool
to arrange huge amounts of
data in a more structured
way than pure sorting.
PivotTable report is an
interactive table that quickly
combines and compares
large amounts of data. You
can rotate its rows and
columns to see different
summaries of the source
data, and you can display
the details for areas of
– Select the data range for
which pivot is required.
– Select Data>pivot table
– Step 1 of 3 - Click Next
Pivot Table (Cont.)

– Click Next (Step 2 of 3)
– Data range is defined here. The
same can be changed by
clicking browse
– Step 3 of 3 – Location of the
pivot table needs to be
specified whether in new
worksheet o existing worksheet
– In case of existing worksheet
cell reference from where pivot
table should be made is to be
– Layout of the chart and options
should be defined.
Pivot Table (Cont.)
Use : Layout
– Page: A field that's assigned to a
page orientation in a PivotTable.
You can either display a summary of
all items in a page field, or display
one item at a time, which filters out
the data for all other items. More
than one page fields can be defined.
– Row: A field that's assigned a row
orientation in a PivotTable. Items
associated with a row field are
displayed as row labels.
– Column: A field that's assigned a
column orientation in a PivotTable.
Items associated with a column field
are displayed as column labels.
– Data: A field from a source list,
table, or database that contains data
that is to be summarized in a
PivotTable. A data field usually
contains numeric data, such as
statistics or sales amounts.
Customize Toolbar
Function : To customize the toolbar
for the functions used frequently.

Use :
• View>Toolbars>customize
• Click on command menu
• Drag items on & off toolbars
• Right click toolbar area
• Select Customize
• Select Commands tab in
Customize dialog box
• From appropriate menu, find
the command for which you
want to add button
• Drag button to location on
Customize Toolbar
Some Favorite shortcuts :

Select Visible
Show All
Auto filter
Merge Cells
Freeze Panes
Paste Values
Save As
Break Links
Break Links : Vlookup
function in worksheet or
other links between
worksheets increases the
size of file due to links and
calculation. Subsequent
calculation in same sheet
becomes time consuming.

To break links select :

link>break link

Protecting Worksheet
Function : Protecting a spreadsheet or
workbook involves two steps
• Designating which cells to be locked or
• Protecting the spreadsheet or workbook
– Please Note :
• The default for all cells in a spreadsheet if
LOCKED. So if you want the receiver of your
worksheet to change the content of a cell,
unlock the cell before protecting the
• The formulas in a cell can be seen even if the
spreadsheet is lock -- UNLESS you hide that
cell before protecting the spreadsheet

Use :
– To lock/unlock and hide/unhide a cell, select
the cell(s) and select Format : Cell. Select
the Protection tab when the dialog box
– To protect/unprotect a spreadsheet, select
Tools : Protection : Protect Sheet
Keyboard Shortcuts
Formatting Keys
• Ctrl + Shift + ~ – General Num. Format
• Ctrl + Shift + $ – Currency format
• Ctrl + Shift + % – Percentage format
• Ctrl + Shift + ! – Comma format
• Ctrl + Shift + & – Outline border
• Ctrl + Shift + _ – Remove borders
• Ctrl + b – Bold
• Ctrl + i – Italic
• Ctrl + u – Underline
• Ctrl + 9 – Hide rows
• Ctrl + Shift + 9 – Unhide rows
• Ctrl + 0 – Hide columns
• Ctrl + Shift + 0 – Unhide columns
• Ctrl + 1 – Format Dialog Box
• Ctrl + 5 – Strike Through
• Shift + Space – Select the entire row
• Ctrl + Space – Select the entire column
Keyboard Shortcuts (cont.)
Formatting Keys

• Ctrl + a – Select the entire worksheet

• Ctrl + x/c/v – Cut/copy/paste
– Fills cells down/right
• Ctrl + d/r
– Select the current region around the
• CTRL+SHIFT+* active cell (the current region is an
area enclosed by blank rows and
blank columns)
– Extend the selection by one cell
• SHIFT+ arrow key – Extend the selection to the last
nonblank cell in the same column or
• CTRL+SHIFT+ arrow key row as the active cell
– Extend the selection to the
• SHIFT+HOME beginning of the row
– Extend the selection to the
• CTRL+SHIFT+HOME beginning of the worksheet
– Extend the selection to the last cell
• CTRL+SHIFT+END used on the worksheet (lower-right
Keyboard Shortcuts (cont.)
Windows & Workbook Keys

• Ctrl + F4 – Closes workbook window

• Alt + F4 – Closes Excel
• Ctrl + F10 – Maximizes the workbook
• Ctrl + F9 – Minimizes the workbook
• Ctrl + F5 – Restore window size
• F6 – Next pane
• Shift + F6 – Previous pane
• Ctrl + F6 – Next window
• Ctrl + Tab – Next window
• Shift + F11 – Inserts a new sheet
• F11 – Create a Quick Chart Sheet
• Ctrl + s – Saves the workbook
• F12 – Saves As
• Ctrl + o – Opens a workbook
• Ctrl + n – Creates a new workbook
• Alt + F8 – Macros Dialog Box
• Alt + F11 – Visual Basic Editor
• Alt + down arrow key – Activate the drop down list
Keyboard Shortcuts (cont.)
Windows & Workbook
• ALT + TAB – Switch between applications
• CTRL + TAB – Switch between open Excel files
• CTRL + Page Up/Page Down – Go to previous/next worksheet
• CTRL + Home/End – Go to the first/last cell of the
• CTRL + arrow key
– Go to the next empty cell

• Ctrl + [ – Selects cells directly referred to by

formulas (Precedent Cells)
• Ctrl + Shift + { – Selects directly and indirectly
referred to cells
– Selects only cells with formulas that
• Ctrl + ] refer directly to the active cell
(Dependent Cells)
– Selects all cells within formulas that
• Ctrl + Shift + } directly or indirectly refer to the
active cells

• F2 – Toggle cell edit mode

Keyboard Shortcuts (cont.)
Auditing & Calculation
– If multiple cells are selected,
• SHIFT+BACKSPACE select only the active cell
– Extend the selection down one
• SHIFT+PAGE UP – Extend the selection up one
• CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR – With an object selected, select
all objects on a sheet
– Alternate between hiding
• CTRL+6
objects, displaying objects, and
displaying placeholders for
• CTRL+7 – Show or hide the Standard