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Semester1, 2011-2012

Lecture 1

Course objectives

The objectives of this course are to: 1. provide an understanding of ISO standards for measurement technology. 2. learn the techniques of linear and form measurements of components used in science and engineering technology. 3. provide an understanding on the application of computers for measurement technology. 4. expose the students to measuring techniques of force, pressure, temperature and non-destructive testing.

Upon completing this course, the students should be able to:

1) Identify several types of equipment/instruments that are appropriate to specific scientific and engineering applications. 2) Implement ISO standards for measurement technology for quality control purposes. 3) Carry out inspection of work-pieces of various configurations. 4) Use computer software in measurement techniques 5) Calibrate and apply calibration concept and techniques on measuring equipment. 6) Apply the basic principles and knowledge of measurement techniques in engineering research.

Method of Evaluation

Method Quizzes Assignment Project Mid-term Exam Final Examination % 10 5 10 25 50

References

Required: Galyer, J. F.W. & Shotbolt, C. R. (1990). Metrology for Engineers. Prentice Hall. Recommended Busch, T., Harlow, R., & Thompson, R. (1998). Fundamentals of Dimensional Metrology. Delmar Publishers. Doebelin, E. O. (2004). Measurement Systems-Application and Design. McGrawhill. Fargo, F. T., & Curtis, M. A. (1994). Handbook of Dimensional Measurement. Industrial Press Inc. Morris, A. S. (1997). Measurement and Calibration Requirements for Quality Assurance to ISO 9000. John Wiley & Sons.

Introduction

We measure dimensions and other surface features of a part to make sure that it is manufactured consistently and within the specified range of dimensional accuracy A manufactured product comprises of parts and they must fit and be assembled properly so that the product performs its intended purpose during its service life

Introduction contd.

Therefore need to learn how parts are measured and inspected before they are placed into assemblies after gaining knowledge of dimensional accuracies in specific manufacturing processes Examples of assembly: - a piston should fit into a cylinder within specified tolerances. - The slideways of a machine tool must be produced with a certain accuracy so that the parts produced on the machine are, in turn, accurate within specified tolerances

What is metrology?

It is the science of weights and measures - Refers primarily to measurements of length, weight, time, etc.

It also includes other engineering measurements for the establishment of a flat, plane reference surface

Measurement defined

Measurement - is an act of assigning a specific value to physical variable - The physical variable becomes the measured variable

Measurement - the process of finding the value of a physical quantity (measurable quantity, e.g. length, mass, time) experimentally with the help of special technical means called measuring instruments

Result of a measurement

- the value of a physical quantity expressed as the product of a numerical value and a unit adapted for these quantities

Engineering metrology - measurement of dimensions: length, thickness, diameter, taper, angle, flatness, profiles, and others. We consider, for example cross-section of a machine tool slideway shown in the Figure below The width, depth, angles, and other dimensions have to be produced accurately for the machine to function as expected

Measurement is the language of science It helps us communicate about size, quantity, position, condition etc. The purpose of measurement is essentially to represent a property of an object by a number expressed in sanctioned units of measurements Simple measurement error can cost a company a contract, work, jobs, and lots of money Measurements provide a basis for judgments about: process information, quality assurance and process control

Measurable parameters

What do we want to - Length or distance - Temperature - Viscosity - Time - Forces - Strain - Depth measure? - mass - Elemental composition - Displacement or distortions - Pressure - Stress - Roughness - Friction etc

Normal or Gaussian distribution curve is such a good description of the variations that occur in most quality characteristics in industry that it is the basis for many techniques. All normal distributions of various variables can be converted to standardized normal distribution (Fig. above) by using the standardized normal value, Z.

Fig. shows a relationship between the standard deviation and the area under the curve. These percentages hold true regardless of the shape of the normal curve

Fig. shows three normal curves with the same mean but different standard deviations. The figure illustrates the principle that the larger the standard deviation, the flatter the curve (data are widely dispersed), and the smaller the standard deviation, the more peaked the curve (data are narrowly dispersed).

System defined

A system - a process which generates information Examples of a system:- a chemical reactor, a jet fighter, a gas platform, a submarine, a car, a human heart, and a weather system

System variables

Information variables commonly generated by processes (system) include the following: Acceleration, Velocity, Displacement, ForceWeight, Pressure, Torque, Volume, Mass, Flow rate, Level, Density, Viscosity, Ph, Humidity, Temperature, Heat/Light, flux Current, Voltage, Power. A car (system) generates displacement, velocity and acceleration variables, and a chemical reactor generates temperature, pressure and composition variables.

Measurement system:- includes all components in a chain of hardware and software that leads from the measured variable to processed data

Links an observer to a process. A car driver, a plant operator for e.g., needs information the from process The purpose of a measurement system is illustrated in the Fig. below:

Measurement systems are important tools for quantification of the physical variable Measurement systems can detect and recognize different degrees of physical variables For scientific and engineering measurement, the selection of equipment, techniques and interpretation of the measured data are important

A Measurement system may consist of several elements or blocks However, a generalized Measurement system consists of: 1- Basic functional elements i.e. Sensing, Signal conditioning, Signal processing and Data presentation 2- Auxiliary functional elements

The Fig. below shows the primary structure of a measurement system

Input True Value

Sensing element

The information variable is a measured variable. The input to the measurement system is the true value of the variable; the system output is the measured value of the variable.

Sensing element:- This is in contact with the process and gives an output which depends in some way on the variable to be measured. E.g. - In thermocouple, the millivolt e. m. f. depends on temperature - In strain gauge, the resistance depends on mechanical strain

Signal conditioning element:- This takes the output of the sensing element and converts it into a form more suitable for further processing, usually a d. c. voltage, current or frequency signal. E.g.

- Amplifier amplifies millivolt to volts

Signal processing element:- Takes the output of the conditioning element and converts it into a form more suitable for presentation E.g. Analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) converts a voltage into a digital form for input to a computer

Data presentation:- Measured value is presented in a form which can be easily recognized by the observer. - E.g. simple pointer-scale indicator - Chart recorder - Visual display unit (VDU)

Measurement Features

A measurement is always performed with the help of some measuring instrument Measurement is impossible without measuring instruments Measurement is always an experimental procedure

Uniformity of measuring instruments refers to the state of instruments in which they are all carriers of the established units

Instrument errors and other properties are important in order for them to be used as intended, fall within the established limits.

Unity of measurements:- refers to a common quality of all measurements performed in a region (in a country, in a group of countries, or in the world) such that the results of measurements are expressed in terms of established units The measurement results agree with one another within the limits of estimated error or uncertainties

Measurement Methods

Measurement methods can be classified as follow: Direct Measuring: A process by which the measured value is determined directly, e.g.. micrometer, vernier caliper, vernier height gauge, bevel protractors etc. Such instruments are simple and most widely used in production. Indirect Measuring method: Here the dimension is determined by measuring other values functionally related to the required value, e.g., divider, caliper, sine bar etc.

Comparative: The deviations of the measured dimensions from a master gauge are determined, e.g., dial indicators. Contact method: Measuring tip of the instrument actually touches the surface to be measured, e.g., micrometers, calipers, dial indicators etc. Contactless or non-contact method: No contact is required for measurement, e.g., tool maker's microscope, projection comparator etc.

According to their functions, the measuring instruments are classified as: Linear or length measuring instruments Examples of theses include steel rule, caliper, divider, micrometer, vernier caliper etc. Angular or angle measuring instruments: These include combination set, bevel protractor, sine bar, square, dividing head etc.

A length may be expressed as the distance between two lines or as the distance between two faces. Thus, the instruments used for the direct measurement of linear dimensions fall into two categories:(i) Line standards (ii) End standards

Line Standards: The measurement is made between two parallel lines engraved across the standard. The most common example of line standard or line measurement is the 'rule' with its divisions shown as lines marked on it. End Standards: Measurement is made between two flat parallel faces. Examples are slip gauges, end bars, micrometers, vernier calipers etc.

End

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