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# STATISTICS Sampling Techniques

## Determining Sample size

N n= + Ne2 1
n is the sample size N is the population size e is the margin of error

Margin of Error e
N n= + Ne2 1
e is the margin of error The margin of error is a value which quantifies possible sampling errors.

Sampling error means that the results in the sample differ from the target population because of the luck of the draw.

GMA! GMA!

Sampling Error
Suppose in a sample of 100 people who intend to vote, 55 (55%) said they will vote for GMA while 45 (45%) said they will vote for ERAP.
What does this imply?

ERAP! ERAP!

Sampling Error
This implies that majority of the voters including people not included in the sample but who will vote in the election will vote for GMA. No!

Do you agree?

Yes!

Sampling Error
What if by chance majority in the 100 samples will vote for GMA while majority in the population will vote for ERAP?

Why not?
There might have sampling errors?

No!

Sampling Error
No!. Sampling errors does not make surveys useless.
That is why e is very important!

## Does it mean surveys are useless?

The role of margin of error is to summarize the strength of the information in a survey.

Margin of Error
The laws of probability make it possible for us to calculate intervals of the form:

## Estimate +/- margin of error

Such intervals are sometimes called 95% confidence intervals and would be expected to contain the true value at least 95% of the time.

Margin of Error
GMA! (55%)

## Estimate +/- margin of error

Suppose in the GMA-ERAP poll e is +/-10%. Therefore a 95% confidence interval for the percentage supporting GMA is 55% - e to 55% + e. That is

55% - 10% to 55% + 10%, or simply 45% to 65% This implies that in the population, ERAP! the support for GMA could range from 45% to 65%. (45%)

Margin of Error
GMA! (55%)

## Estimate +/- margin of error

While a 95% confidence interval for the percentage supporting ERAP is 45% - e to 45% + e. That is 45% - 10% to 45% + 10%, or simply 35% to 55%
This implies that in the population, ERAP! the support for ERAP could range from 35% to 55%. (45%)

Sampling Error
Suppose now the survey is on 1000 people who intend to vote, 550 (55%) said they will vote for GMA while 450 (45%) said they will vote for ERAP.

## This time the survey is done at e = +/-3%.

ERAP! ERAP! What is the 95% confidence interval for the proportion of support for the two candidates?

## Determining Sample size

Example 1:Find n if N = 10,000 & e = 5%

## Determining Sample size

Example 2:Find n if N = 10,000 & e = 1%

## Determining Sample size

What happened to your n when you decreased e?

Why?
Does the number of sample help in reducing errors in research?

Sampling Techniques

## Sampling is the process of selecting samples from the given population

Sampling Techniques
I. Probability Sampling: Samples are chosen in such a way that each member of the population has a known though not necessarily equal chance of being included in the sample.

Sampling Techniques
II. Non-Probability Sampling: Each member of the population does not have a known chance of being included in the sample. Instead, personal judgment plays a very important role in the selection.

Sampling Techniques
I. Probability Sampling
1. Simple random sampling: All members of the population has a chance of being included in the sample Ex. Lottery sampling & using the table of random numbers 2. Systematic sampling: It selects every Kth member of the population with the starting point determine at random. Ex. Selecting every 4th member of N = 100 with 5 as a random start gives us: 5, 9, 13,

Sampling Techniques
I. Probability Sampling
3. Stratified random sampling: This is used when the population can be sub-divided into several smaller groups or strata, and then samples are randomly selected from each stratum.

Sampling Techniques
I. Probability Sampling
3. Stratified random sampling
Ex.
Strata High Income Average Income Low Income No. of Family/Percentage 1,000 0.2 or 20% 2,500 0.5 or 50% 1,500 0.3 or 30% N = 5,000

## Then suppose we want to draw n = 200, using proportional allocation we have

Sampling Techniques
3. Stratified random sampling
Strata High Income Average Income No. of Family/Percentage/n 1,000 0.2 or 20% .2(200) = 40 2,500 0.5 or 50% .5(200) = 100

Low Income

## 1,500 0.3 or 30% N = 5,000

.3(200) = 60 n = 200

What if we want to draw n = 200, using equal allocation, how many from each group should be included?

Sampling Techniques
II. Non-Probability Sampling
1. Convenience sampling: It is used because of the convenience it offers to the researcher.

## Ex. Gathering of data through telephone

Sampling Techniques
II. Non-Probability Sampling
2. Quota sampling: This is very similar to the stratified random sampling. The only difference is that the selection of the members of samples is not done randomly. Ex. To get the most popular noontime show, each field researcher is given a quota of 200 viewers per area.

Sampling Techniques
II. Non-Probability Sampling
3. Purposive sampling: Choosing the respondents on the basis of predefined criteria laid down by the the researcher. Ex. Suppose the research is about the level of maturity of teenage parents. Of course only teenage parents will be the respondents.

STATISTICS
Week 2

## Data Gathering Techniques

DATA GATHERING
Techniques
1. The Direct of Interview Method: In this method, the researcher has a direct contact with the respondents.

Ex. A researcher would interview respondents regarding their stand or view on a particular issue.
Warning! This method is costly and time consuming.

DATA GATHERING
Techniques
2. The Indirect or Questionnaire Method: The researcher gives or distributes the questionnaire to the respondents either by personal delivery or by mail. Ex. A researcher makes a survey regarding the opinion of CSB students on the implementation of dress code. Warning! The researcher cannot expect that all distributed questionnaires can be retrieved because some respondents simply ignore them.

DATA GATHERING
Techniques
3. The Registration Method: This method of gathering data is governed by laws.
Ex. If a researcher wants to know the number of registered cars, s/he just have to go to the Land Transportation Office; the list of registered voters in the Philippines is found at the COMELEC; etc

Take Note! This method of collecting data is the most reliable because this is enforced by laws.

DATA GATHERING
Techniques
4. The Experimental Method: This method of gathering data is used to find out cause and effect relationships.
Ex. The researcher wants to know if Online Statistics will increase the academic performance of the students. What s/he has to do is to get two Statistics classes of equal intelligence. Give ordinary classroom lecture in one group while the other will be enrolled online. At the end of the term, give the same test to both groups, compare their scores and by the use of some statistical tools, find out if their academic performance are significantly different.