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Brief History of Quality Control


Joseph Juran: Retired in 1989

Author, Lecturer,

Definition of Quality:

Fitness for Use

Definition of Quality: System: Performance Standard: Measurement: Conformance to Requirements Prevention Zero Defects Cost of Quality

Generally considered as the degree of excellence In relation to sea foods.. quality is the sum total of its composition, nutritional value, degree of freshness, physical damage, deterioration while handling,processing,storage,distribution & marketing, hazards to health, satisfaction on eating & yield & profitability to the producer & middleman

Quality control & Quality assurance

Quality control may be defined as the maintenance of quality at levels & tolerance to the buyer while minimizing costs for the vender. Bolton(1980) defined Quality control as: the regulatory process through which we measure actual quality performance, compare it with standards & act on the difference

Quality control is concerns with
1. The control of the actual processing of the total. 2. Raw materials & final products to ensure that they comply with standards laid down & 3. Line sanitation.

Quality assurance is a total programme encompassing all aspects of a product & the conditions under which a product is processed,packed,distributed & stored.

Quality assurance deals with much wider aspects such as..

a) The evaluation of raw materials & final product standard. b) The design of the factory. c) Process line outline, d) The design of the machinery

Uniqueness of seafood quality control In seafood harvesting under the most difficult conditions. Unpredictability of catch. Presence of large number of species in limited quantities of making quality control more difficult.

History of seafood quality control in India

1953 Export of fish & fishery products from India commenced. - with the export of small consignment of frozen shrimp from cochin. Quality control & pre-shipment inspection system was introduced. 1st Sep.1964 -" Export act 1953 came into force. - voluntary pre inspection system introduced, 15th March 1965 Compulsory pre-shipment inspection system. 1st May 1969 Marine products was taken by the EIA. - initially only frozen shrimps & canned shrimps were inspected. - initially inspection of fishery products was confined to end products. - consignment-wise inspection. 31st Dec.1977 Govt. of India introduced IPQC scheme - for processed seafood.

- processing unit approved by a panel of exports

- panel ( 1 member each from EIA,CIFT,MPEDA,BIS & the industry) 31st Dec.1977 Govt. of India notification S.O.4007 to EIA - To qualify approval, the processing units must have min. sanitary & hygienic facilities. 9th April 1988 Quality Control & Inspection in Approvedunits(QCIA) - as per Govt. of India notification S.O.1153 & S.O.1153 A. Another change was introduced of a new system Modified In Process Quality control(MIPQC) scheme which is at present retitled as In Process Quality Control(IPQC) The world now moving towards the HACCP concept. With a view to harmonizing the various quality management systems the international standard organization has developed a set of standard called ISO 9000 series.

Brief History of Quality

Pre -Industrial Revolution
Skilled craftsmen controlled their own quality through pride of workmanship. They were involved in the product from beginning to end.

1880S - Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management

Mass production, assembly lines, and division of labor. Introduction of work standards and wage incentives

1920S - Shewhart Introduces Statistical Process Control

Methods based on continual on-line monitoring of process variation. Concept of common cause and assignable cause variability.

1930 - Dodge and Romig Introduce Acceptance Sampling Methods

Probabilistic approach to predicting lot acceptability based on sampling results. Centered on defect detection; concept of acceptable quality level (AQL)

1950 - Deming Introduces Statistical Process Control to Japan 1970s - Many U.S. Companies Begin Losing Market Share to Global Competitors

1980 - Quality Revolution Begins in America

NBC airs a white paper entitle If Japan Can, Why Cant We? Deming hired by Ford as a consultant

1984 - U.S. Government Designates October as National Quality Month 1987 - Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award is Established 1990s - Quality Programs Spread to Service Industries
Proliferation of Quality programs: TQM, QFD, Six Sigma, Kaizen, Poke Yoke, Taguchi Methods, Benchmarking, CQI, FMEA, etc.