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Impact Testing

Chapter 6 Mechanical Testing and Properties

6.7  The Impact Test  impact strength 

Yield Strength: A > B Impact Strength: B > A
Need for toughness testing
• The sudden and complete failure of
structures at stress well below their yield
• Indicated that other considerations
besides the conventional tensile properties
must be included during the design of
such structures.
• Analysis of these failures and reanalysis of
previous failures indicated that the fracture
usually initiated at “notches”
• Design failure: Two rigid member attached
at a sharp angle(900 or less).
• Fabrication procedure: Weld arc strikes,
Tool gouges.
• Flaws in the material: Flakes, porosity.
Brittle cleavage fracture
• The basic factors which contribute to a
brittle cleavage type of fracture are:
• The tri-axial state of stress (stress
• A low temperature (often sub zero)
• A high strain rate or rapid rate of loading
(impact testing)
• Factors one and two are responsible for
most of the brittle failure
Impact Testing
• Dynamic load is applied suddenly- as from
the result of a moving pendulum hammer
to determine:
• Notch toughness of the material.
• Ductile to brittle transition temperature.
• Two types of notched bar impact test are:
i) Izod (UK) ii) Charpy (USA)
Charpy test
• 10mm sq steel bar, V notch at 45 is cut
across its on edge. 2mm deep with a 0.25
mm root radius.
• The specimen is supported at two ends as
a simple beam.
• Struck a blow with a blunt hardened knife
edge with a fixed amount of K.E
• On the opposite side and directly behind
the notch.
To evaluate the brittleness of a material subjected to a sudden blow.
Izod test
• Either circular or 10 mm sq in x-section
and contains a V-notch near one end.
• The specimen is clamped vertically like a
• Struck with the pendulum hammer at the
opposite end on the side of the notch.
Impact tester
Transition temperature curve
• Notched bar impact test is more
meaningful when conducted over a range
of temperature.
• The temperature at which ductile to brittle
transition takes place can be determined.
Chapter 6 Mechanical Testing and Properties
6.7  The Impact Test  impact strength 

Impact strength vs. Temperature

Note: BCC metals have transition temperature, but most FCC metals do not.
• A steel ductile and insensitive to a notch
at one T may be brittle at a lower
• A steel that appears ductile and
insensitive to notch at slower strain rate
may be brittle at high strain rate.
• Small notched specimen may be ductile
while geometrically large specimen may
be brittle
Metallurgical Factor Affecting
Transition Temperature
• Decreasing Carbon lowering Transition
• P,N,O,H are undesirable element--- increase the
tendency towards brittle fracture.
• Ni improve toughness
• A ratio of Mn/C 3:1 is desirable
• Coarse grain size higher the transition
• Inclusions ,oxides, raises the transition
Plane stress and Plane strain

• Plane Stress : State of stress in which one or two of the

pairs of faces on an elemental cube are free of any
• e.g Torsion of thin wall tube. Expansion of a thin walled
spherical shell under internal pressure.
• Plane strain: State of tress where one of the pair of
faces on an elemental cube undergoes zero strain.
• e.g Torsion of thin walled tube. Piece of material being
compressed in a die .
Draw ability
• Deep drawing test i.e. Plasticity ability of
the material to be formed into desired
shape without rupture.
• Ductility : the plasticity exhibited by a
material under tension.
• A measure of ductility is elongation
• A measure of ductility is reduction
• Both identify ductility.
• However there is no relationship between
elongation and reduction in area.
• Elongation: A measure of stretching.
• Reduction: A measure of contraction.
• No ductile material has been reported to
have zero values of each.
Test in the workshop
• Closed bend test: the piece is bend on
itself and flattened.
• Angle bend test: The metal is bent over a
former. The radius of the nose of the
former and the angle of bend are fixed .
• Reverse bend test: The metal is bent
round a former of specified nose radius
either through 900 or 1800 for a specified
number of times.
-For many years there has been need of a rapid test which
could be used to differentiate between different sheet
metals for use in metal forming operations.
-Cold forging, cold extrusion, cold rolling, tube-sinking or

- Erichsen test is used to determine the relative capability

of deformation of a certain sheet metal.
-Erichsen test is a very popular test which gives an
excellent account of current metallurgical practice in
producing pressed and deep drawn components.
Erichsen number
-In the Erichsen test, the punch is pressed
into the sheet until fracture occurs.
-This point the test is stopped immediately
and the depth of the bulge noted.
-This depth (mm) gives the Erichsen
Forming limiting diagram (FLD)
• Sheet blank is marked with a grid pattern
of circles or similar pattern (chemical
etching or photo printing).
• The blank is stretched over an un
lubricated punch and the deformation of
the circle is observed and measured.
• The circles are made as small as possible.
• After stretching the original circle has
deformed into an ellipse.
• The major axis of the ellipse determine
major strain (always positive).
• Minor axis of the ellipse represents the
stretching (positive) or shrinking (negative)
• Notch-Toughness
• Notch toughness is the ability that a material possesses
to absorb energy in the presence of a flaw. As
mentioned previously, in the presence of a flaw, such as
a notch or crack, a material will likely exhibit a lower level
of toughness. When a flaw is present in a material,
loading induces a triaxial tension stress state adjacent to
the flaw. The material develops plastic strains as the
yield stress is exceeded in the region near the crack tip.
However, the amount of plastic deformation is restricted
by the surrounding material, which remains elastic.
When a material is prevented from deforming plastically,
it fails in a brittle manner
To evaluate the brittleness of a material subjected to a sudden blow.