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REPRODUCTION IN HUMANS

What is reproduction ?
Means of multiplication of organisms. Maintains the continuity of species. At the cellular level it is the multiplication of the cells. Process by which a living being produces a new individual similar to itself.

Patterns of reproduction
spores Yeast and binary fission

Features of asexual reproduction


Involves one parent Occurs without the formation of reproductive cells Offsprings formed by the mitotic divisions of body cells and identical to the parent Examples bacteria.fungi. Algae and protozoans Chief methods binary fission.budding.fragmentation. Spore formation and vegetative propagation 4

What is sexual reproduction ?


1.Involves the fusion of male and female gamete 2.The gametes are haploid 3. The fusion produces a diploid zygote 4. This process is called fertilization 5. From the zygote a new individual develops

The structure of a human egg and sperm

Define sexual dimorphism :


The male and female gametes produced in separate individuals called the male and the female sex. Males and females show separate external morphological differences.
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Secondary sexual characters in males


Puberty at the age of 12-14 years Appearance of beard and moustache Growth of axillary and pubic hairs Broadening of chest and shoulders Deepening of voice Development of muscular body Broadening of external genitalia

Secondary sexual characters in females


Appear at the age of 1012 years Widening of the pelvis region Enlargement of breasts Growth of axillary and pubic hairs Sweetening of voice Initiation of menstrual cycle ( menarche )

Male reproductive system

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Primary reproductive organs :


Testes Oval structure 4-5 cm long and 10-12 gm in weight Extra abdominal Lie in loose fold of skin called the scrotum Cavity of the scrotum is divided into 2 compartments by a muscular septum One testes lie in each compartment and is suspended in the scrotum by a spermatic cord
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Function: Maintain temperature of testes approx. 30 C below normal body temp.

Scrotum
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Spermatic cord
In the embryonic stage testes are contained in the abdominal cavity They descend into the scrotum shortly after birth If they to descend into scrotum they fail to produce sperms and lead to steritity
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Temperature regulation in scrotum


Temperature 2-3 degrees lower than the body temperature which is suitable for the maturation of sperms When too hot the scrotum loosens and testes hangs away from the body When cold skin of the scrotum contracts and draws the testes close to the body.
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Testis Cross Section

Interstitial Cells Produce Testosterone


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Structure of the testes


Each testis divided into 200300 compartments called lobules ; Each lobule consists of the following : Seminiferous tubules : Lined by germinal epithelium These cells give rise to sperm cells by the process of spermatogenesis Sertoli cells provide nourishment to the developing sperms

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Structure of testis

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Interstitial cells : Present in the connective tissue between the seminiferous tubules Also called leydig cells Produce the male sex hormone called testosterone Regulate the primary and secondary sexual characters in males.

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What are the functions of the testes


Production of sperms Secretion of male sex hormone

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Vasa efferentia
Arise from testes Conduct spermatids into epididymis

Number varies from 12 14

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Epididymis
6 m long tightly coiled narrow tube Consists of 3 parts : Head : cap on the upper end of the testis and connected with the seminiferous tubules with the vasa efferentia Middle ; extends along the side of the testes Tail or cauda epididymis : Connected with vas deferens
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Function: Sperm storage and maturation.It serves as a duct for passage of sperm from testis to vas deferens.

Epididymis
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Function: sperm duct arises from the tail end of the epididymis and enters the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.It passes over the urinary bladder and joins the duct of seminal vesicla to form ejaculatory duct

Vas Deferens

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Functions: Urination and Copulation.Cylindrical. Muscular.spongy and highly vascular organ.During sexual excutement the penis becomes stiff and erect.

Penis

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Functions: Transport urine & semen. A narrow duct passing through the penis

Bladder

Urethra

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Function: Produce 60% of alkaline semen including fructose to provide energy for sperm during their journey through the female genital tract.Present at the base of the urinary bladder above the prostate gland.

Seminal Vesicles
Ejaculatory Duct

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Function: Produces up to 1/3 of the semen(30%) & includes nutrients & enzymes to activate sperm.Bilobed tubular gland at the base of the urinary bladder. The alkalinity of the fluid keeps the sperms alive and help them to swim actively

Prostate

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Function: or bulbourethral glands are ovoid that lie below the prostate gland. Their secretion serves as a lubricant.

Cowpers Gland

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THE HUMAN SPERM

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HUMAN FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


PRIMARY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS

A pair of ovaries
ACCESSORY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS

A pair of oviducts Uterus Vagina External genitalia called vulva


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OVARIES
Lie in the lower portion of the
abdominal cavity Ovaries are small and almond shaped 3-4 cm across and is attached to the uterus by a mesentary called the mesovarium

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Function: Produce oocytes & the


hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Ovaries

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HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE

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Lining of the ovary made up of a layer called germinal epithelium The cells of the epithelium proliferate thousands of primordial follicles Stroma contains several undeveloped ovarian follicles Each follicle is made of a primary ovum called oocytes
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FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARY


Secretion of female sex hormones called oestrogen and progesterone Production of mature by the process of ovulation

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OVIDUCTS OR FALLOPIAN TUBES


MUSCULAR TUBES ABOUT 10 CM IN LENGTH OPENING OF THE FUNNEL IS CALLED OSTIUM OR INFUNDIBULUM MARGINS OF OSTIUM HAVE FINGER LIKE PROJECTIONS CALLED FIMBRIAE THE FIMBRIAE PICK UP THE OVUM AND CONVEY IT TO THE UTERUS
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Function: Passageway for oocyte and site of fertilization.


Uterine Tubes

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Function: Sweep ovarian surface to draw oocyte into ovarian tube.

Fimbriae

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UTERUS
PEAR SHAPED MUSCULAR ORGAN,WITHIN WHICH THE EMBRYO DEVELOPS DOME SHAPED UPPER PART FUNDUS TAPERING CENTRAL PART- BODY OF UTERUS LOWER NARROW PART CERVIX ENDOMETRIUM IS THE MUSCULAR WALL OF THE UTERUS
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Function: Provides passageway for sperm, receives blastocyst, retains & nourishes
fetus & expells foetus

Uterus

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Function: Cervical mucosa secretes mucous blocking cervical canal entrance to uterus.

Cervix
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VAGINA
SHORT,WIDE AND MUSCULAR TUBE MEASURES ABOUT 10 CM WALL IS HIGHLY MUSCULAR

SMOOTH MUSCLES WIDEN VAGINAL OPENING DURING CHILD BIRTH


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FUNCTIONS OF VAGINA
RECEIVES SPERMS DURING INTERCOURSE BIRTH CANAL DURING CHILDBIRTH PASSAGE FOR MENSTRUAL FLOW HYMEN IS THE THIN MEMBRANE FOUND IN THE OPENING OF THE VAGINA IN YOUNG GIRLS GETS RUPTURED DURING FIRST INTERCOURSE
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Function: Receives penis & semen and serves as birth canal & passage

for menstrual flow.

Vagina
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Function: Uterine lining in which implantation occurs.

Endometrium

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Function: Muscular contractions.

Myometrium

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VULVA

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EXTERNAL GENITALIA OF HUMAN FEMALE

LABIA MAJORA LARGE LIPS IT IS A PAIR OF THICK FOLDS OF SKIN CONTAINING PUBIC HAIR, SWEATAND SEBACEOUS GLANDS

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LABIA MINORA (SMALL LIPS)


PAIR OF SMALL FOLDS OF SKIN LYING ON THE INNER SIDES OF THE LABIA MAJORA DEVOID OF HAIR AND SWEAT GLANDS RICH IN SEBACEOUS GLANDS
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CLITORIS
SMALL ERECTILE AND HIGHLY SENSITIVE ORGAN LOCATED AT THE UPPERMOST ANGLE OF THE VULVA IN FRONT OF THE URETHRAL OPENING THE URINARY MEATUS IS SITUATED BELOW THE CLITORIS AND ABOVE THE VAGINAL OPENING
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THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

DEFINITION
THE PERIODIC DISCHARGE OF BLOOD, MUCUS AND EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM THE LINING OF THE UTERUS IS CALLED MENSTRUATION OCCURS EVERY 28 DAYS AND LASTS 4-5 DAYS

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What is the menstrual cycle ?


In females the fertility period extends from 1213 years upto 45-50 years. During this period the females pass through a monthly sequence of events controlled by the sex hormones During each cycle an ovum matures and is released once every 28 days
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Four different phases


Menstrual phase : Lasts for 3-5 days during which the uterine lining is shed off Follicular phase : Starts from the 5th day and lasts upto the 13th day Primary follicle matures to form the graafian follicle This follicle produces the hormone oestrogen Uterus gets thickened.

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Ovulatory phase :
On 14th day graafian follicle ruptures to release the ovum.This process is called ovulation The released egg is picked up by the fimbriae and descends down the oviduct by the contraction of the muscular wall.

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Luteal phase
Cells of the ruptured follicle form the corpus luteum If the ovum is fertilized the corpus luteum remains intact and secretes the hormone progesterone and the embryo is imp lanted in the wall of the uterus During pregnancy the menstrual cycle stops.
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WHAT IS FERTILIZATION
FUSION OF THE MALE AND THE FEMALE GAMETE

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HOW DOES FERTILIZATION TAKE PLACE DURING INTERCOURSE SPERMS ARE RELEASED IN THE VAGINA A SINGLE EJACULATION CONTAINS 2-4 HUNDRED MILLION SPERMS ONE SPERM FERTILIZES THE EGG THE SPERM PASSES THROUGH THE CERVIX INTO THE UTERUS AND FINALLY THE FALLOPIAN TUBES

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SPERM AND OVUM

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MOVEMENT OF SPERM IN VAGINA AND UTERUS

SPERM MOVES UP THE VAGINA IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS : 1. LASHING MOVEMENT OF THE TAIL 2. CONTRACTION OF MUSCLES IN THE WALL OF UTERUS AND VAGINA 3. THE HEAD OF ONE SPERM ENTERS THE EGG AND THE TAIL IS LEFT BEHIND- INTERNAL FERTILIZATION 4. ENTRY OF OTHER SPERMS IS 67 PREVENTED

SPERM APPROACHING AN OVUM

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ZYGOTE UNDERGOES MITOTIC DIVISIONS THE ZYGOTE UNDER GOES REPEATED CELL DIVISIONS AND GROWS INTO A ROUND BALL OF HUNDREDS OF CELLS. THIS IS CALLED THE MORULA STAGE

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BLASTOCYST
HOLLOW BALL OF CELLS FORMED FROM CLEAVAGE

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IMPLANTATION

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DEFINITION
ONE WEEK AFTER FERTILIZATION THE BLASTOCYST SINKS INTO THE ENDOMETRIUM OF THE UTERINE WALL AND GETS FIXED TO IT. THIS PROCESS OF ATTACHMENT OF THE BLASTOCYST WITH UTERINE WALL IS KNOWN IS IMPLANTATION
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What is pregnancy ?
The female is said to be pregnant once the embryo is implanted in the uterine wall The duration is 280 days. The extra embryonic membranes develop Placenta is formed between embryo and uterus The embryo grows into a foetus with the formation of the placenta.
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Embryonic development
Embryonic development completed by 18-20 weeks Next 8 weeks the foetus grows and its organs mature further 28-40 weeks is for embryonic maturation and fat deposition Uterus is enlarged Weight increases Breasts get enlarged Abdomen is distended
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Preembryonic Development

Bone Formation

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What are foetal membranes ?


During early development the blastocyst gets surrounded by the extraembryonic membranes or the foetal membranes They are the following : Chorion Allantois Amnion
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Definitions & Functions


Chorion: Outermost embryonic membrane which forms the placenta & produces human chorionic gonadotropin.Exchange oxygen,nutrients and waste materials with the maternal blood Chorion with allantois forms allanto chorionic placenta

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Definitions & Functions


Amnion:
Membrane which surrounds embryo to form the amniotic cavity & produces amniotic fluid.

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Definitions & Functions


Amnionic Fluid:
Protects fetus from trauma & permits free movement without adhesion.Acts as a cushion for the embryo and protects it from mechanical shocks.

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Placenta : The life support system of the foetus


Placenta is the association between the extra-embryonic membranes and uterine wall of the mother. Umbilical cord is a cord containing blood vessels that connects placenta with the foetus

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Definition & Function


Chorionic Villi:
Finger-like growths of the trophoblasts into the endometrium to form the placenta.

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Development of the Placenta

Functions of the placenta :


As a respiratory organ As a nutritive organ As an excretory organ As an endocrine gland

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What is the gestation ?


The full term of the development of an embryo in the mothers uterus. Lasts for 40 weeks or 280 days.

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Birth and parturition


The stages involved in child birth are : Stage of dilation of the cervix Stage of expulsion

Stage of parturition Separation of the placenta from the uterine wall is called parturition.

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Twins
Depending upon the number of eggs released and fertilized the women may give birth to 2, 3, 4 or more babies These are called twins, triplets or quadruplets.

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Twins may be identical or fraternal

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What are identical twins ?


Formed by the division and separation of one fertilized egg into two identical blastomere cells Either both boys or both girls Identical genes or chromosomes
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What are fraternal twins ?


Formed by the release and fertilization of two separate eggs with two sperms May be both boys, both girls or one boy one girl. Like real brothers or sisters.
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What are siamese twins ?


Conjoined twins Develop from one egg but blastomeres remain incompletely separated Joint at certain parts of the body. First such twins were studied in 1811 to a chinese woman in Siam now in Thailand.
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Some recent medical advances in reproduction

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

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TEST TUBE BABIES

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SURROGATE MOTHER
SURROGATEMOTHER

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