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& Scanning
Marketers have two advantages
• They have disciplined methods of collecting
• They spend more time with the customer
Internal Records & Marketing
• Marketing Managers rely on internal reports
of orders ,sales ,prices,cost etc
• By analyzing this information they can spot
important opportunities and problems
The order Payment Cycle
• Heart of Internal Record System
• Now days improved order payment cycle is
• Customers favor firm that can promise timely
• Order-Pay can also be done online.This
process is called as EDI-Electronic Data
• Eg: Cisco,Dell,Ebay
• A database is a collection of information that is
organized so that it can easily be accessed,
managed, and updated.

• In one view, databases can be classified according

to types of content: bibliographic, full-text,
numeric, and images.
Types Of Databases
1.Relational Database:Basically a tabular database in which
data is defined so that it can be reorganized and accessed
in a number of different ways.
2.Distributed Database:A distributed database is one that can
be dispersed or replicated among different points in a
3.Object Oriented Programming(OOP):This database is one
that is congruent with the data defined in object classes
and subclasses.
Oracle launches 11g software
in India,18 Sept,07

• Database 11g is a software product

providing security of data to customers
besides helping in data warehousing and
content management applications
Format of Data Storage
Data transmission

• Data Transfer is the amount of

data that can be transferred
over the network in a fixed
amount of time.

• A procedure whereby data is

moved from one type of
processing environment to
How Data is Transferred
• Whenever we send the data the data is cut
into small pieces and then transformed in
form of packets.

• These packets travel and reach to the exact

destination .
Open System Interconnection
This layer interacts with software applications that
implement a communicating component.

establishes a context between Application Layer

controls the dialogues/connections (sessions) between
It provides transparent transfer of data between end users

It provides the functional and procedural means of

transferring variable length data sequences from a source
to a destination via one or more networks

It provides the functional and procedural means to transfer

data between network entities
It defines the electrical and physical specifications for
Two types of Data Transmission
1.Serial Transmission:
It is the sequential transmission of signal elements
of a group representing a character or other entity
of data.
Characters are transmitted in a sequence over a
single line, rather than simultaneously over two or
more lines
2.Parallel Transmission:

• It is the transmission of several bits at the same time,

with each bit transmitted over a
separate wire.

• Characters are transmitted simultaneously over two or more

Data Warehousing

• A warehouse is a subject-oriented,
integrated, time-variant and non-
volatile collection of data in support of
management's decision making process.
Reason we need Data
Subject Oriented:
Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a company's
ongoing operations.

Data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety of sources and merged
into a coherent whole.

All data in the data warehouse is identified with a particular time period.

Data is stable in a data warehouse. More data is added but data is never removed. This
enables management to gain a consistent picture of the business.
Data Mining
• It is the process of analyzing data from different
perspectives and summarizing it into useful information -
information that can be used to increase revenue, cuts
costs, or both.
• It allows users to analyze data from many different
dimensions or angles, categorize it, and summarize the
relationships identified.
• Technically, data mining is the process of finding
correlations or patterns among dozens of fields in large
relational databases.
Example of Data Mining
Example 1:
One Midwest grocery chain used the data mining capacity of Oracle software to analyze local
buying patterns.
They discovered that when men bought diapers on Thursdays and Saturdays, they also tended to
buy beer.
Further analysis showed that these shoppers typically did their weekly grocery shopping on
On Thursdays, however, they only bought a few items. The retailer concluded that they
purchased the beer to have it available for the upcoming weekend.
The grocery chain could use this newly discovered information in various ways to increase
revenue. For example, they could move the beer display closer to the diaper display. And, they
could make sure beer and diapers were sold at full price on Thursdays
Example 2:

The National Basketball Association (NBA) is exploring a

data mining application that can be used in conjunction
with image recordings of basketball games. The Advanced
Scout software analyzes the movements of players to help
coaches orchestrate plays and strategies.
Data mining consists of five major elements:
•Extract, transform, and load transaction data onto the data
warehouse system.
•Store and manage the data in a multidimensional database system.
•Provide data access to business analysts and information technology
•Analyze the data by application software.
•Present the data in a useful format, such as a graph or table.
Manager Thinking Manager Need


Economically Feasibls
Marketing Intelligence System
• It is a process of acquiring and analyzing information in
order to understand the market; to determine the current
and future needs and preferences, attitudes and behavior of
the market; and to assess changes in the business
environment that may affect the size and nature of the
market in the future.

• A set of procedures and sources used by managers to

obtain everyday information about developments in the
marketing environment
Way in which MIS can be carried
• Train and motivate the sales force
• Company can tell its distributors to share
the information
• Company can use its external network
• Company can take feedback from its
• Economic environment
• Social environment
• Natural environment
•Technological environment
• political-legal environment
• Market requires purchasing power as well
as people.
• purchasing power depends upon current
income, prices, saving etc.
• Marketers must pay careful attention to
trends affecting purchasing power.
20 JAN 2008 (Economic times)
• Macroeconomic indicators provides overall
health of economy as well as direction of
economic growth.
• marketers needs to understand the
distribution of income to make more
meaningful conclusions.
• Purchasing power is directed towards
certain goods &services.
• People absorb, unconsciously a worldview
that defines relationship to organization, to
themselves, to society, to nature, and to
Microsoft steps up on search R&D IN
This is because maximum usage is in
European countries.
• Deterioration of natural environment is
major concern.
• Cities like Mumbai, Bangalore etc. reached
dangerous levels.
• Some regulation hit industries very hard.
E.g.. Steel industry
Accenture pioneering
• ISO14001 is recognized as worldwide
demonstrating commitment to improving
environmental performance.
Microsoft’s environmental
Microsoft announces a new green wireless
This is environment friendly because it uses six
month long battery.
• Technology has released such wonders like
open heart surgery
• It has also released hazards like hydrogen
bomb, nuclear bomb etc.
• Marketing decisions are strongly affected
by development in political and legal
• Increase in business legislation
• protecting the welfare of consumers
Infosys rethinking expansion plan in
west Bengal
• It is headline of economic times on 8 sep
2008 after singur problem of TATA.
What is Demographic environment?

• The demographic environment includes the

study of human populations in terms of size,
density, location, age, sex, race, occupation,
and other statistical information.
World Population Growth

• World population shows explosive growth

ie: in 2000 it was 6.1 billon and it exceeds
to 7.9 billon by 2025
• Explosive population growth has major
implication for business.
• Example :-GOLDMAN Scahs BRIC report
has projected that India in next 30 year
might grow up to 3rd largest economy in
Population Age Mix
• In population age mix marketers are
increasingly recognizing the potential of
youth segment (ie :-marketers are focused
on youth )

• Eg: Titan the well-known watch marketer

introduced a range of Sung glass which is
call “Eye Gear” under the brand Fast Track
Literacy Of Population

• Literacy of Population is mainly divided

• A) Literate
• B) illiterate
• C)Educated
• D)Uneducated