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ALOPECIA

WHAT IS ALOPECIA?

IT IS ABSENCE OR LOSS OF HAIR

FORMS OF ALOPECIA

AREATA - BALD SPOTS PATCHY HAIR LOSS (LOSS OF HAIR IN PATCHES) TOTALIS - COMPLETELY BALD OR WITH LITTLE VISIBLE HAIR ON SCALP (LOSS OF ALL SCALP HAIR AND EYEBROWS.)

UNIVERSALIS - NO VISIBLE HAIR ON BODY

Predisposing factors
General Anxiety Fatigue Poor Health Heredity ( Alopecia Universalis is often congenital)

ALOPECIA AREATA
Alopecia areata is caused by an abnormality in the immune system. This particular abnormality leads to autoimmunity. As a result, the immune system attacks particular tissues of the body. In alopecia areata, for unknown reasons, the body's own immune system attacks the hair follicles and disrupts normal hair formation. Biopsies of affected skin show immune cells inside of the hair follicles where they are not normally present. What causes this is unknown. Sometimes, alopecia areata occurs within family members, suggesting a role of genes and heredity.

Alopecia areata is sometimes associated with other autoimmune conditions such as allergic disorders, thyroid disease, vitiligo, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis.

ALOPECIA TOTALIS

Alopecia totalis is the loss of all head hair. Its causes are unclear, but it is an autoimmune disorder. Stress is sometimes thought to be a contributor to the hair loss caused by alopecia, however many people leading relatively stress-free lives have experienced the symptoms.

ALOPECIA TOTALIS (CONTD)

In alopecia totalis, immune system cells called white blood cells attack the rapidly growing cells in the hair follicles that make the hair. The affected hair follicles become small and drastically slow down hair production.

Pathological Changes
Hair becomes thin and falls out of follicles. Atrophy of hair follicle Sebaceous glands are less active.

Clinical Features
01) Onset is usually insidious. 02) Clumps of hair come away in the comb. 03) Bald patches appear in which the skin is very white. 04) Patient is very distressed.

Treatment
Medical Treatment Physiotherapy Treatment Surgical Treatment

Medical Treatment
Hormonal Modulators: Oral contraceptives or spironolactone can be used for female-pattern hair loss Corticosteroids: Injections of cortisone into the scalp can be used to treat alopecia areata. This type of treatment is repeated on a monthly basis. Physician may prescribe oral pills for extensive hair loss due to alopecia areata. Results may take up to a month to be seen.

Physiotherapy Treatment
Massage : UVR :

Massage

Therapeutic massage using essential oils. Massage will decrease stress level.

They increase blood supply, oxygen and nourishment to the hair follicle and roots. It will help to stimulate growth of hair follicle.

UVR Treatment

To improve General Health:

UVR with theraktin tunnel for general body treatment. Dosage : suberythemal or E1 Dose Duration : 6 8 Treatment session

For Promotion of nutrition: UVR is given with Kromayer Lamp. It is given on individual patches. Dosage : E2 or E3 Duration : one or two times per week

It is important that patient has to sleep and an area of the head must be able to take pressure. So there must be a plan or order of the treatment of the patches.

Patient may attend for 2-3 months. If there is no sign of recovery after this time then treatment should be stopped and the condition reviewed in 2 3 Months.

PUVA

PUVA Treatment : 8 methoxy psoralen drug with UVA PUVA Box

Side effects of PUVA treatment


Headache and dizziness. An overdose of PUVA can result in a sunburn-like reaction called phototoxic erythema which is more likely in fair skinned patients who sunburn easily. Nausea Redness of the skin. Temporary mild pricking or itching of the skin,as the skin is often rather dry.

Stinging sensation. Tan or darkening of the skin which lasts several months. Although the skin appears brown it may still burn easily on sun exposure. Skin aging

Surgical Treatment

Hair transplant: A dermatologist or cosmetic surgeon takes tiny plugs of skin, each which contains a few hairs, and implants the plugs into bald sections. The plugs are generally taken from the back or sides of your scalp. Several transplant sessions may be necessary.