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Fundamentals of Nicrowave S

Satellite Technologies
TEL 117
Telekomunikasi Dasar
istorical Perspective
Founded during WW!!
Used for longhaul telecommunications
Displaced by fiber optic networks
Still viable for rightofway bypass and
geographic obstruction avoidance
Nicrowave Spectrum
Range is approximately 1 C
to 40 C
Total of all usable frequencies under
1 C gives a reference on the
capacity of in the microwave range
Nicrowave !mpairments
Equipment, antenna, and waveguide
failures
Fading and distortion from multipath
reflections
Absorption from rain, fog, and other
atmospheric conditions
!nterference from other frequencies
Nicrowave Engineering
Considerations
Free space S
atmospheric
attenuation
Reflections
Diffractions
Rain attenuation
Skin affect
Line of Sight (LOS)
Fading
Range
!nterference
Free Space S Atmospheric
Attenuation
Free space S atmospheric attenuation is
defined by the loss the signal undergoes
traveling through the atmosphere.
Changes in air density and absorption by
atmospheric particles.
Reflections
Reflections can occur as the microwave
signal traverses a body of water or fog
bank, cause multipath conditions
Diffraction
Diffraction is the result of variations in
the terrain the signal crosses
Rain Attenuation
Raindrop absorption or scattering of the
microwave signal can cause signal loss
in transmissions.
Skin Affect
Skin Affect is the concept that high
frequency energy travels only on the
outside skin of a conductor and does
not penetrate into it any great distance.
Skin Affect determines the properties of
microwave signals.
Line of Sight
Fresnel Zone Clearance
Fresnel Zone Clearance is the minimum
clearance over obstacles that the signal
needs to be sent over. Reflection or
path bending will occur if the clearance
is not sufficient.
LOS S FZCcont'd
Fresnel Zone
72.2
D1 X D2
F x D
secret formula
Nicrowave Fading
ormal Signal
Reflective Path
Caused by multi-path reflections and heavy rains
Range
The distance a signal travels and its
increase in frequency are inversely
proportional
Repeaters extend range
Backtoback antennas
Reflectors
Rangecont'd
igh frequencies are repeated/received
at or below one mile
Lower frequencies can travel up to 100
miles but 2S30 miles is the typical
placement for repeaters
!nterference
Adjacent Channel !nterference
digital not greatly affected
Overreach
caused by signal feeding past a repeater to
the receiving antenna at the next station in
the route. Eliminated by igag path
alignment or alternate frequency use
between adjacent stations
Components of a Nicrowave
System
Digital Nodem
Radio Frequency (RF) Unit
Antenna
Digital Nodem
The digital modem modulates the
information signal (intermediate
frequency or !F).
RF Unit
!F is fed to the RF unit which is
mounted as close physically to the
antenna as possible (direct connect is
optimal).
Antenna
The antenna is a passive device that
radiates the modulated signal. !t is fed
by direct connect of the RF unit, coaxial
cable, or waveguides at higher
frequencies.
Waveguides
Waveguides are hollow channels of
low-loss material used to direct the
signal from the RF unit to the
antenna.
Nodulation Nethods
Primarily modulated today with digital
FN or AN signals
Digital signal remains quiet until failure
threshold bit error rate renders it unusable
Bit Error Rate (BER)
The BER is a performance measure of
microwave signaling throughput
10 or one error per million transmitted bits
of information
Data fail over is at 10, voice traffic can
withstand this error rate

Diversity
Space Diversity
Frequency Diversity
ot Standby
PR!
Space Diversity
ormal Signal
Transmitter Receiver
Space Diversitycont'd
Space Diversity protects against multi
path fading by automatic switch over to
another antenna place below the
primary antenna. This is done at the
BER failure point or signal strength
attenuation point to the secondary
antenna that is receiving the
transmitted signal at a stronger power
rating.
Frequency Diversity
Receiver
Active Tx
Frequency #1
Protect Tx
Frequency #2
Rx
Frequency #1
Rx
Frequency #2
Transmitter
Frequency Diversitycont'd
Frequency Diversity uses separate
frequencies (dual transmit and receive
systems), it monitors primary for fail
over and switches to standby.
!nterference usually affects only one
range of frequencies. Not allowed in
noncarrier applications because of
spectrum scarcity.
ot Standby*
Receiver
System Tx
Primary #1
System Tx
Standby #2
failure switch
Active Rx
#1
Standby Rx
#2
Transmitter
*Hot standby is designed for equipment failure only
PR! (Primary Rate !nterface)
Receiver Transmitter
Connect to
PRI interIace
& PSTN
Connect to
PRI interIace
& PSTN
%o PS%
%o PS%
System
Transmission
Facilities
System
Receiver
Facilities
PR! is an !SDN service providing user with 23,64 kbps for channel message and 1,64
kbps data channel for control S signalling. PR! is !SDN E1 interface.
Availability Formula
Percent Availability equals:
1 (outage hours7 hours per year)
Private microwaves have 99.99 availability
Nicrowave Path Analysis
Transmitter output power
Antenna gain
proportional to the physical characteristics
of the antenna (diameter)
Free space gain
Antenna alignment factor
Unfaded received signal level
Nicrowave Radio Applications
Satellite Communications
SatelliteRelated Terms
Earth Stations antenna systems on or near earth
Uplink transmission Irom an earth station to a
satellite
Downlink transmission Irom a satellite to an
earth station
Transponder electronics in the satellite that
convert uplink signals to downlink signals
ays to Categorize
Communications Satellites
Coverage area
Global, regional, national
Service type
Fixed service satellite (FSS)
Broadcast service satellite (BSS)
Mobile service satellite (MSS)
General usage
Commercial, military, amateur, experimental
ClassiIication oI Satellite Orbits
Circular or elliptical orbit
Circular with center at earth`s center
Elliptical with one Ioci at earth`s center
Orbit around earth in diIIerent planes
Equatorial orbit above earth`s equator
Polar orbit passes over both poles
Other orbits reIerred to as inclined orbits
Altitude oI satellites
Geostationary orbit (GEO)
Medium earth orbit (MEO)
Low earth orbit (LEO)
Geometry Terms
Elevation angle the angle Irom the
horizontal to the point on the center oI the
main beam oI the antenna when the antenna
is pointed directly at the satellite
Minimum elevation angle
Coverage angle the measure oI the portion
oI the earth's surIace visible to the satellite
Minimum Elevation Angle
Reasons aIIecting minimum elevation angle
oI earth station`s antenna (~
o
)
Buildings, trees, and other terrestrial objects
block the line oI sight
Atmospheric attenuation is greater at low
elevation angles
Electrical noise generated by the earth's heat
near its surIace adversely aIIects reception
GEO Orbit
Advantages oI the the GEO orbit
No problem with Irequency changes
Tracking oI the satellite is simpliIied
High coverage area
Disadvantages oI the GEO orbit
eak signal aIter traveling over , km
Polar regions are poorly served
Signal sending delay is substantial
CEO : Ceosynchronous equatorial orbit
LEO Satellite Characteristics
Circular/slightly elliptical orbit under 2 km
Orbit period ranges Irom 1. to 2 hours
Diameter oI coverage is about km
Roundtrip signal propagation delay less than 2
ms
Maximum satellite visible time up to 2 min
System must cope with large Doppler shiIts
Atmospheric drag results in orbital deterioration
LEO : Low earth orbit
LEO Categories
Little LEOs
Frequencies below 1 GHz
MHz oI bandwidth
Data rates up to 1 kbps
Aimed at paging, tracking, and lowrate messaging
Big LEOs
Frequencies above 1 GHz
Support data rates up to a Iew megabits per sec
OIIer same services as little LEOs in addition to voice
and positioning services
MEO Satellite Characteristics
Circular orbit at an altitude in the range oI to
12, km
Orbit period oI hours
Diameter oI coverage is 1, to 1, km
Round trip signal propagation delay less than
ms
Maximum satellite visible time is a Iew hours
NEO : Nedium Earth Orbit
Satellite Systems
SOURCE: WASHINGTON UNIV.
GEO
MEO
LEO
GEO (22,300 mi., equatoriaI)
high bandwidth, power, Iatency
MEO
high bandwidth, power, Iatency
LEO (400 mi.)
Iow power, Iatency
more sateIIites
smaII footprint
V-SAT (Very SmaII Aperture
TerminaI)
private WAN
SATELLITE MAP
Geostationary Orbit
SOURCE: BILL LUTHER, FCC
CPS Satellite Constellation
Global Positioning
System
Operated by USAF
28 satellites
6 orbital planes at a
height of 20,200 km
Positioned so a
minimum of 5 satellites
are visible at all times
Receiver measures
distance to satellite
SOURCE: NAVSTAR
Frequency Bands Available Ior
Satellite Communications
Satellite Link PerIormance Factors
Distance between earth station antenna and
satellite antenna
For downlink, terrestrial distance between earth
station antenna and 'aim point oI satellite
Displayed as a satellite Iootprint (Figure 9.)
Atmospheric attenuation
AIIected by oxygen, water, angle oI elevation, and
higher Irequencies
Satellite Footprint
Satellite Network ConIigurations
Capacity Allocation Strategies
Frequency division multiple access
(FDMA)
Time division multiple access (TDMA)
Code division multiple access (CDMA)
FrequencyDivision Multiplexing
Alternative uses oI channels in pointtopoint
conIiguration
12 voiceIrequency (VF) voice channels
One Mbps data stream
1 channels oI 1. Mbps each
channels oI kbps each
channels oI kbps each
One analog video signal
Six to nine digital video signals
FrequencyDivision Multiple
Access
Factors which limit the number oI
subchannels provided within a satellite
channel via FDMA
Thermal noise
Intermodulation noise
Crosstalk
Forms oI FDMA
Fixedassignment multiple access (FAMA)
The assignment oI capacity is distributed in a Iixed
manner among multiple stations
Demand may Iluctuate
Results in the signiIicant underuse oI capacity
Demandassignment multiple access (DAMA)
Capacity assignment is changed as needed to respond
optimally to demand changes among the multiple
stations
FAMAFDMA
FAMA logical links between stations are
preassigned
FAMA multiple stations access the
satellite by using diIIerent Irequency bands
Uses considerable bandwidth
DAMAFDMA
Single channel per carrier (SCPC) bandwidth
divided into individual VF channels
Attractive Ior remote areas with Iew user stations near
each site
SuIIers Irom ineIIiciency oI Iixed assignment
DAMA set oI subchannels in a channel is treated
as a pool oI available links
For Iullduplex between two earth stations, a pair oI
subchannels is dynamically assigned on demand
Demand assignment perIormed in a distributed Iashion
by earth station using CSC
Reasons Ior Increasing Use oI TDM
Techniques
Cost oI digital components continues to
drop
Advantages oI digital components
Use oI error correction
Increased eIIiciency oI TDM
Lack oI intermodulation noise
FAMATDMA Operation
Transmission in the Iorm oI repetitive sequence oI
Irames
Each Irame is divided into a number oI time slots
Each slot is dedicated to a particular transmitter
Earth stations take turns using uplink channel
Sends data in assigned time slot
Satellite repeats incoming transmissions
Broadcast to all stations
Stations must know which slot to use Ior
transmission and which to use Ior reception
FAMATDMA Uplink
FAMATDMA Downlink