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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH
Name of the Staff Member : K..Vijaya Kumar
Designation : Lecturer
Branch : Electronics and Communication Engg.

Institution : Dr BRA GMR POLYTECHNIC, Rajahmundry.


Semester : III Semester
Subject : Circuit Theory
Sub. Code : EC-303
Topic : Resonance in AC Circuits
Duration : 50 Minutes
Sub. Topic : Resonance
Teaching Aids to be use : Diagrams& Images
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Objectives

On completion of this period, you will be able to

• know Definition of resonance.

• know Types of resonance.

• Construct of series resonance circuit.

• Derive the expression for resonant frequency.


of series resonant circuit.

• plot response curves.

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Recap
In the previous session we have learnt

• AC Series circuits
•AC Parallel circuits
•The Voltage current relationships

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Resonance

Resonance is a phenomenon that occurs in AC RLC


circuits when Net Reactance becomes Zero

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Resonance Types

1. Series Resonance

3. Parallel Resonance

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Series Resonance

R L C (VL-VC) V
VL=IXL

VR VL VC
Φ

VR(=IR)
~
(VC=IXC)

V= vm sinωt

Fig1 Series RLC circuit

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RESONANCE

In a series R,L,C Circuit Frequency variation results


in 3 conditions

•XC> XL At low frequencies (f <fR)

•XC= XL At Resonant frequency (fR)


At High frequencies (f>fR)
•XC< XL

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Resonance

Case1 : At Frequencies less than resonant


frequency

• Inductive reactance (XL) is Less

• While Capacitive reactance (Xc) is High

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Resonance

Case2 : At frequency fR

•Inductive reactance (XL) is Equal to Capacitive reactance (XC)

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Resonance

Case3 : At Frequencies higher than resonant


frequency

• Inductive reactance (XL) is High

• While Capacitive reactance (Xc) Less

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AC through Series RLC Circuit

VL= I X L
(VL-VC) V
VR(=IR) VL=IXL
Φ
VR= I R=V

(VC-VL) I
Φ
V
VC=IXC (VC=IXC) VR(=IR)
VC= I X C

XC> XL XC= XL XC< XL

Fig 2 Series RLC circuit Vector diagram

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Resonance conditions

• This is because of the opposite characteristics of

L and C elements
• For a given LC combination there must be a frequency
at which (X L) equals (Xc)

• This results in Net reactance equal to Zero


• This condition is Known as

Series resonance

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Resonant frequency fr

Figure3 Resonant frequency curve

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Effect of L and C

• Larger values of ‘L’ and ‘C’ provides lower resonant


frequency.

• Smaller values of ‘L’ and ‘C’ provides higher resonant


frequency.

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Resonant frequency

• The frequency at which the Net reactance is equal to zero is


Known as resonant frequency and is given by

1
fr =
2π LC

where L = Inductance in henrys.


C = Capacitance in Farads.
fr = resonant frequency in Hertz

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Conditions at Resonance

 The applied voltage V and the current I are in phase.


 This effect is called series resonance.
 VL = VC
 Z = R (the minimum circuit impedance possible in an L–C–R
 circuit)
 I =V/R (i.e. the maximum current possible in an L–C–R circuit)

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Conditions at Resonance
 Since XL = XC, then

 from which,

 Where fr is the resonant frequency.

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Expression for the resonant frequency using
J notation
• The total impedance for the series RLC circuit is
Z = R + j( X L − X C )
Z = R + j (ω L − ω C )
• Since net reactance is equal to Zero at resonance
• Z= R and (XL-XC) =0
• therefore
• XL = XC

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Or
1
ω =
L
ωC

1
2πf r L =
2πf r C
2 1
fr =
4π2 LC

1
fr =
2π LC

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Response Curve

Figure.6

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Impedance at Resonance
• In a series resonant circuit the inductive reactance and capacitive
reactance will be equal at resonance frequency. Net reactance is
zero. Hence Z=R.

• Impedance is minimum at resonant frequency.

Z impedance
impedanceΩ

fr F, frequency
Hz

figure7
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Combined relationship between current and
impedance at resonant frequency

Z impedance
impedanceΩ

current

I,current

frr F, frequency
Hz

figure8

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Applications of Resonance

Series resonant circuits find their applications in


• Filter circuits
• In Q meters

• Series resonance is less preferred because the impedance


becomes minimum at Resonance and circuit draws a high
current

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summar
y
• A circuit is said to be in resonance when its response is
maximum
• The inductive reactance is equal to capacitive reactance
(xL= xc)at resonance.
• Resonance is of two types:
series resonance
parallel resonance
• In series resonant circuit the current is maximum and
impedance is minimum at resonance .
• The resonance frequency of a series resonant CKT in
1
fr =
2π LC
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Important Questions
1. Define resonance ?

2 Derive the expression for resonant frequency of series


resonant circuit ?

3. Explain relationship between current and impedance at


resonance frequency ?

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Quiz
1. At resonance frequency fr , the relation between
reactances
XL and XC is

a) XL > XC

b) XL < XC

c) XL = XC

d) none of these

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2. The resonant frequency for series resonance circuit is

a) fr = π/2√LC

b) fr = 1/2π√LC

c) fr = 1/π√LC

d) fr = 2/π√LC

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1. In a series resonance circuit the current at resonant
frequency

a) Zero

b) Maximum

c) Minimum

d) None

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1. In a series resonant circuit the impedance at resonant
frequency is

a) Maximum

b) Zero

c) Minimum

d) None

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