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Name:Emine OZDEMIR NIM: 2201408135 Subject:Lang.Teach.Methods Rombel: 307-308 Mr.Rohani

Click to edit Master subtitle style

Name:Emine OZDEMIR NIM: 2201408135 Subject:Lang.Teach.Methods Rombel: 307-308 Mr.Rohani Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/2/12

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CHAPTER

19

TEACHING WRITING

This chapter we will learn abaout “how is writing like swimming?” “give up” and we learn to write if we are members of a literate sociaty, and usually only if someone teacher us. Just as there are non-swimmers, poor swimmers, and excellent swimmers, so it is for Writers.Let’s look at this chapter related questions as we tackle the last of the “four

skills”.
skills”.

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TEACHING WRITING

TEACHING WRITING § RESEARCH ON SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING § TYPES OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE § CHARACTERICTICS OF

§ RESEARCH ON SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING § TYPES OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE § CHARACTERICTICS OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE:

A WRITER’S VIEW § MICROSKILLS FOR WRITING § TYPES OF CLASSROOM WRITING PERFORMANCE § PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING WRITING TECHNIQUES § EVALUATING STUDENT WRITING

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RESEARCH ON SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING

Trends in the teaching of writing in ESL and other foreing languages have, not surprisingly, coincided with those of the teaching of other skills, especially listening and speaking. Over the past few decades of research on teaching writing to second language learners, a number of issues have appeared, some of which remaincontroversial in spite of reams of data on second language writing. Here is a brief look at some of those issues.

Composing vs. Writing 1. Process vs. Product 2. Contrastive rhetoric 3. 5/2/12
Composing vs. Writing
1.
Process vs. Product
2.
Contrastive rhetoric
3.
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1.

Composing vs. Writing

A simplistic view of writing would assume that written language simply the graphic representation of spoken language, and that written performance is much like oral performance, the only difference lying in graphic instead of auditory signals. Written products are often the result of thinking, drafting, and revising procedures that require specialized skills, skills that not every speaker develops naturally. The upshot of the compositional nature of writing has produced writing pedagogy that focuses students on how to generate ideas, how to organize them coherently, how to use discourse markers and rhetorical conventions to put them cohesively into a written text, how to revise text for clearer meaning, how to edit text for appropriate grammar, and how to produce a final product.

1. Composing vs. Writing A simplistic view of writing would assume that written language simply the

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2. Process vs.product

  • a. Focus on the process of writing that leads to the final written product;

  • b. Help student writers to understand their own composing process;

  • c. Help them to build repertoires of strategies for prewriting, drafting, and rewriting;

  • d. Give students time to write and rewrite;

  • e. Place central importance on the process of revision;

  • f. Let students discover what they want to say as they write;

  • g. Give studunts feedback throughout the composing process as they attempt to bring their expression closer and closer to intention;

  • h. Encourage feedback from both the instructor and peers;

  • i. Include individual conferences between teacher and student during the process of composition.

2. Process vs.product a. Focus on the process of writing that leads to the final written

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3. Contrastive rhetoric

According to Connor, a theory of contrasive rhetoric is influenced by more than first language patterns; factors such as linguistic relativity, theory of rhetoric, text acstlinguustics, discourse types and genred, literacy, and translationall constribute toward a comprehensive theory of contrassive rhetoric.

4. Differences between L1 and L2 writing

It is important to determine appropriate approaches to writing instruction for L2 writers with the sociocultural and linguistic

diffences of L2 students, and the assessment of L2 writing may

need to take into account the fundamental differces between

3. Contrastive rhetoric According to Connor, a theory of contrasive rhetoric is influenced by more than

most L1 and L2 writing.

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5.

Authenticity

Another issue in the teaching of writing surrounds the question of how much of our classroom writing is “real” writing. Why do we want students to write? In school, writing is a way of life. Without some ability to express yopurself in writing, you don’t pass the course. Writing exercises, they can learn skills that will help them to succeed in further academic pursuits.

  • 6. The role of the teacher

The gradual recognition of writing as a process of thinking and composing was a natural byproduct of CLT. With its emphasis on learner-centered instruction, student-student negotiation, and strategies-based instruction that values the variablility of learners’ pathways to success, CLT is an appropriate locus for

writing.
writing.

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CHARACTERICTICS OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE: A WRITER’S VIEW
CHARACTERICTICS OF WRITTEN
LANGUAGE: A WRITER’S VIEW

1.

Permanence: The writer abdicates a certain pover: the power to emend, to clarify,to withdraw.

2.

Production time: A writer can indeed become a “good” writer by developing efficient process for achieving the final product.

3.

Distance: One of the thorniest problems writers face is anticipating their audience.

4.

Orthography: Native language has a different phoneme- grapheme system, them some attention is due here.

5.

Complexity: In the previous chapter, the complexity of written-as opposed to spoken-language was illustrated.

6.

Vocabulary: Good writers will learn to take advantage of the richness of English vocabulary.

Formality:

7.
7.

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TYPES OF CLASSROOM WRITING

PERFORMANCE

  • 1. Iminative, or writing down

  • 2. Intensive, or controlled

  • 3. Self-writing

  • 4. Display writing

  • 5. Real writing

    • a. Academic

    • b. Vocational/ technical

    • c. Personal

TYPES OF CLASSROOM WRITING PERFORMANCE 1. Iminative, or writing down 2. Intensive, or controlled 3. Self-writing

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PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING WRITING TECHNIQUES

  • 1. Incorporate practices of “good” writers

  • 2. Balance process and product

  • 3. Account for cultural/ literary backgrounds

  • 4. Connect reading and writing

  • 5. Provide as much authentic writing as possible

  • 6. Frame your techniques in terms of prewriting, drafting, and revising stages

  • 7. Strive to offer techniques that are as interactive as possible

  • 8. Sensitively apply methods of responding to and correcting your students’ writing

PRINCIPLES FOR DESIGNING WRITING TECHNIQUES 1. Incorporate practices of “good” writers 2. Balance process and product

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EVALUATING STUDENT WRITING

The evaluation of writing, especially in a process-oriented classroom, is a thorny issue. Student performance in the ongoing process of developing a piece of written work, how can you also be the judge? What do you judge?

EVALUATING STUDENT WRITING The evaluation of writing, especially in a process-oriented classroom, is a thorny issue.

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