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# DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL

EDUCATION,A.P.
Name : B.RAJARAO
Designation : Lecturer
Branch : Electronics & communication Engg
Institute : Govt. Polytechnic, Visakhapatnam
Year/Semester : III Semester
Subject : Electronics -I
Subject Code : EE-305
Topic : Special devices
Duration : 50Mts.
Sub Topic : Photo Transistor
Teaching Aids : Diagrams

EE-305.54 1
Recap

• Photodiode construction.

• Working of Photodiode.

• Characteristics of Photodiode.

EE-305.54 2
Objectives

## • Upon completion of this period the student will be

able to know

• Phototransistor construction.

• Working of Phototransistor.

• Characteristics of Phototransistor.

• Applications of Phototransistor.

EE-305.54 3
Do you know

## • Reverse current in a photodiode depends on.

• Thermal runaway.

## • Total collector current in a transistor.

EE-305.54 4
Construction of Photo transistor

## DEVICE CIRCUIT SYMBOL

EE-305.54 5
Construction of Photo transistor

• A photo transistor is
nothing but an ordinary
bi-polar transistor in
which the base region is
exposed to the
illumination.

EE-305.54 6
Construction of Photo transistor
• These photo transistors are
available in both the P-N-P and +V cc
N-P-N types.

generally used.

## • In a photo transistor, the base

terminal is made open. The fig
shows an N-P-N Transistor, in
common emitter configuration
with open base.

EE-305.54 7
Construction of Photo transistor

EE-305.54 8
Principle of Photo Transistor

## • In general, the expression for collector current IC is given by

IC = β IB + (1+ β) ICBO

## • Where β = Current amplification factor in CE configuration

IB = base current
ICBO = Collector-to-base leakage current

## • Since base terminal open, IB = 0

IC = (1+ β) ICBO

EE-305.54 9
Principle of Photo transistor

## • In this case the collector current is equal to the collector-

emitter leakage current CEO which is given by.

## • ICEO = (1+ β) ICBO

EE-305.54 10
Principle of Photo Transistor

## • When the collector junction is illuminated by incident

light, I CBO increases, similar to the reverse saturation
current in a photo diode.

## • From the above equation that when ICBO is increased,

the collector current IC also increases proportionately.

## • Since ‘beta’ is large even a small variation of I CBO can

produce a considerable variation in IC.

EE-305.54 11
Principle of Photo Transistor

• A photo transistor
provides larger output
current than that of a
photo diode for a given
amount of illumination
intensity.
• The device is embedded
in a clear plastic casing.
In general TO-type lens
package with a lens on
the top.

EE-305.54 12
V-I Characteristics of Photo transistor

• The collector
characteristics of photo
transistor is shown in the
fig

## • The curves show the

variation of the collector
current IC , with collector-
to-emitter voltage VCE for
different illumination
intensities.

EE-305.54 13
V-I Characteristics of Photo transistor

## • The graph is almost

similar to the output
characteristics of
common emitter
configuration.

EE-305.54 14
V-I Characteristics of Photo transistor

## • But here, instead of base

current, the illumination is
varied for getting different
curves.

## • It can be seen that the

collector current
increases for the
increased illumination
level.

EE-305.54 15
Applications of Photo Transistor

## • Arrays of photo transistors are widely used as photo

detectors is punched card and tape read out.

## • They are used as light operated switches.

EE-305.54 16
Applications of Photo Transistor

## • In production line, photo transistors can be used for

counting objects.

## • In addition to the above, photo transistors can also be

used in place of photo diodes for many applications
when higher sensitivity is required.

EE-305.54 17
SUMMARY

increases.

EE-305.54 18
Quiz

## 1) Photo transistor is mostly preferred than photo diode

because it provides________ for same light illumination.

(i) no current.

EE-305.54 19