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# DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Name of the faculty : T. Madhavi Kumari.
Designation : Lecturer.
Branch : Electronics &Communication Engg.
Institute : Govt. Polytechnic ,Vijayawada.
Semester : III Semester.
Subject : Electronics –I.
Subject Code : EE-305.
Topic : Introduction to Amplifiers
Duration : 50 Minutes.
Sub Topic : Determine the operating point.
on the set of output characteristic.
Teaching Aids : PPT, Animations, Diagrams.
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Recap

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Objectives

able to know

## • Determine the operating point on the set

of output characteristics.

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Graphical solution for determining the Q point

## • For analyzing any transistor circuit collector current for

various collector emitter voltages are required.

## • There are two methods for determining the collector

current and collector emitter voltage.

## 1. Load line method (It is quite easy).

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Transistor load line Equation IC

## • A graph of IC verses VCE for

any given value of RC
IB
• The value of collector emitter VCE RC
voltage at any time is given by

## VCE = VCC – IC RC NO SIGNAL

IC = ( VCC –VCE)/RC IE

## •This is a first degree linear equation VBB VCC

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Two end points of load line

IC
• VCE = VCC – IC RC

A
• Point B VCC / RC
When IC = 0
VCE = VCC .
• Point A
When VCE = 0 , B
IC = VCC / RC
VCC VCE

## • By joining these two points

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D.C load line is constructed.
Why is the load line useful ?

points.

## • It is the more convenient method for analyzing

Transistor applications.

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Operating point

Operating point.

## • It is called operating point because variations of IC and

VCE take place about this point when signal is applied.

## • It is also called Q point. Q stands for Quiescent. Q

means silent , still or resting.

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Obtaining the Q point from the load line
• Let IB = 5 µA in the absence of
signal IC

## • IC and VCE condition is represented

by some point on IB = 5 µA A
characteristic

## • IC and VCE condition is represented

by some point on the D.C load line Q IB=5µA
AB
B
• The point Q where the load line and
characteristic intersect is only point VCC VCE
which satisfies both these condition

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Pb1: For the given circuit diagram draw the D.C load line.
What will be the Q point if zero signal base current is 20 µA
and β=50?
IC

2mA
VCE = VCC – IC RC
Q
• IC = 0, VCE =VCC= 12V 1mA
• VCE = 0 , IC = VCC / RC= 2mA B

## Operating point VCC 12V

• IC = β IB = 1mA 6V
6V
• VCE = VCC – IC RC=
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Summary

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QUIZ

## 1. When the Q point moves along the load line , the

voltage increases when current

(a) Decreases

(c) Increases

## (d) None of the above

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2. The lower end of the load line is known as

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