Anda di halaman 1dari 14

DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH
Name of the faculty : T. Madhavi Kumari.
Designation : Lecturer.
Branch : Electronics &Communication Engg.
Institute : Govt. Polytechnic ,Vijayawada.
Semester : III Semester.
Subject : Electronics –I.
Subject Code : EE-305.
Topic : Introduction to Amplifiers
Duration : 50 Minutes.
Sub Topic : Determine the operating point.
on the set of output characteristic.
Teaching Aids : PPT, Animations, Diagrams.
EE-305.64 1
Recap

Already we discussed about the

Base resistor method (or) fixed bias.

Biasing with feed back resistor method.

Voltage divider method

EE-305.64 2
Objectives

After the completion of the period , student will be


able to know

• Determine the operating point on the set


of output characteristics.

EE-305.64 3
Graphical solution for determining the Q point

• For analyzing any transistor circuit collector current for


various collector emitter voltages are required.

• There are two methods for determining the collector


current and collector emitter voltage.

1. Using output characteristics of transistor.

1. Load line method (It is quite easy).

EE-305.64 4
Transistor load line Equation IC

• A graph of IC verses VCE for


any given value of RC
IB
• The value of collector emitter VCE RC
voltage at any time is given by

VCE = VCC – IC RC NO SIGNAL

IC = ( VCC –VCE)/RC IE

•This is a first degree linear equation VBB VCC

EE-305.64 5
Two end points of load line

IC
• VCE = VCC – IC RC

A
• Point B VCC / RC
When IC = 0
VCE = VCC .
• Point A
When VCE = 0 , B
IC = VCC / RC
VCC VCE

• By joining these two points


EE-305.64 6
D.C load line is constructed.
Why is the load line useful ?

• It is a visual summary of all possible transistor operating


points.

• When the base current varies IC and VCE are varied.

• It is the more convenient method for analyzing


Transistor applications.

EE-305.64 7
Operating point

• The zero signal values of IC and VCE are known as


Operating point.

• It is called operating point because variations of IC and


VCE take place about this point when signal is applied.

• It is also called Q point. Q stands for Quiescent. Q


means silent , still or resting.

EE-305.64 8
Obtaining the Q point from the load line
• Let IB = 5 µA in the absence of
signal IC

• IC and VCE condition is represented


by some point on IB = 5 µA A
characteristic

• IC and VCE condition is represented


by some point on the D.C load line Q IB=5µA
AB
B
• The point Q where the load line and
characteristic intersect is only point VCC VCE
which satisfies both these condition

EE-305.64 9
Pb1: For the given circuit diagram draw the D.C load line.
What will be the Q point if zero signal base current is 20 µA
and β=50?
IC

2mA
Sol: Loadline
VCE = VCC – IC RC
Q
• IC = 0, VCE =VCC= 12V 1mA
• VCE = 0 , IC = VCC / RC= 2mA B

Operating point VCC 12V


• IC = β IB = 1mA 6V
6V
• VCE = VCC – IC RC=
EE-305.64 10
Summary

We have discussed about

• Transistor D.C load line

• Graphical solution to obtain the operating point

EE-305.64 11
QUIZ

1. When the Q point moves along the load line , the


voltage increases when current

(a) Decreases

(b) Stays the same

(c) Increases

(d) None of the above

EE-305.64 12
2. The lower end of the load line is known as

(a) Saturation point

(c) Cutoff point

(e) Operating point

(g) None of these

EE-305.64 13
Frequently Asked Questions

• Explain the significance of operating point?

2. Explain the transistor load line?

EE-305.64 14