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Cells Structure and Function

PART 2

Cells - What do we know so far?


What is the cell theory? What are the major parts of all cells? What are some of the characteristics of eukaryotic cells (so far)? What parts did you see in the onion?

What are the characteristics of a prokaryotic cell?


NO organelles that have a membrane but DO have a plasma membrane NO NUCLEUS!

Capsule the purple layer


outermost layer for bacteria 3rd layer of protection cannot be easily engulfed by white blood cells-hard to kill Only SOME bacteria have the capsule

Plasmid
circular DNA segment found in bacterial cells-in addition to the linear chromatin (important in genetic engineering)

Pilus (i) Pilus (i) a.Hollow sex tube


to Exchange DNA b.Attach to food (not to eat with) as an anchor

What are the major features of a virus?

Virus
Protein capsid o outer layer of virus o protects DNA or RNA in virus (doe not have both!) Tail or core Tail fiber - attaches to bacteria to allow virus to replicate

ARE VIRUSES ALIVE??


Compared to life characteristics: a. Is NOT a cell, has NO metabolism, etc. - no other traits of living b. Has the chemicals (Nucleic acid and protein) that are found only in living things c. Can cause reproduction of self..but cant do it by itself (does NOT have both DNA AND RNA)
Most say NO, some say acellular life form

NEW DISCOVERY!: Virophage infecting viruses

T4 bacteriophageused in genetic engineering

Bacteria and Virus modeling: a project!

What are the key characteristics of a eukaryotic cell?


What do we know so far?

Nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane- all eukaryotes cell wall - plants and fungus (and prokaryotes too) membrane-bound organelles

What is theory about the origin of modern eukaryotic cell organelles: mitochondria and chloroplasts?

Proposed by Lynn Margulis- some prokaryotic cells absorbed into others and became organelles within eukaryotes. (1.5 Billion years ago) Endosymbiont hypothes -

Evidences used for Endosymbiosis


(a) DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts (b) the DNA is circular, like plasmids in prokaryotes (c) have own ribosomes and these are smaller

What are some more of the characteristics of a eukaryotic

cell?

Mitochondria
Function Powerhouse = ATP (adenosine triphosphate the energy storage molecule) production Structure Cristae internal highly folded membrane

Plastids-in PLANTS all types do storage


Chloroplast: Function: Store chlorophyll Site of photosynthesis Structure: Stacked thylakoid membranes: Leucoplast: Storage: starch, lipids Ex. Potato: has white ovals (w/out stain)

Other plastids: Chromoplast for pigments and amyloplast for starch

Lets check out a potato

Leucoplasts: store what? Lugols iodine - What is the positive test for starch?

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Function:
1. Hallway = internal transport 2. lipid synthesis
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Structure: Smooth ER
1. No ribosomes 2. Where vesicles pinch off with materials inside it for transport 3. Can be continuous with nuclear membrane

Rough ER
1. With ribosomes 2. A whole section of ER can have both smooth & rough
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Golgi Body
Function: Modify and package proteins Structure: a. Series of connected membranes-stack of pancakes b. Vesicles come in & merge; others leave

How ER and Golgi and membrane are connected through vesicles


Rough ER makes protein Travels to smooth ER thru hallspaces Packaged in vesicle that pinches off Travels to golgi Modified, repackaged and vesicle pinches Travel to membrane

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Lysosomes

Function: a.Janitor- clean up/ digest b.Guard destroy bacteria/ viruses that invade

c. *uses phagocytosis = engulfing (like amoeba) ex: tadpole tail, embryos


Structure:
a. Contain digestive enzymes b. pH sensitive so if leak into the cytoplasm wont self digest c. Looks like a circle w/material inside-can look like a vacuole

Vacuoles
Function: Storage: food or water Structure: Animal cell: small, if at all mostly in unicellular organisms SPECIAL type: contractile vacuoleexpel excess water Plant cell: large-for water, surrounded by tonoplast
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Cytoskeleton
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Microfilament

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muscle of cell provides structure Animal only


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Microtubule

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skeleton of cell Connect organelles used to make muscle tissue used in centriole construction

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Centriole
For cell division: spindle fiber organization (9x3 arrangement of microtubules or 9+0) always in pairs Animal only

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Size and Shape/Structure --> Specialization


Cells exist in a variety of sizes and shapes; both are related to the function of a cell.
Ex. Red blood cells: (p 988) Ex. Nerve cells: (p1005)
Long- like powerline wires - message goes long distances quickly flexible-squeeze through capillaries one at at time.

Neither is structured to do the others job-they are

specialized

http://www.cellsalive.com/howbig.htm HOW BIG? HOW BIG?

QUESTION!!
How many nerves are there between your stubbed toe and feeling the pain??

The smallest cells:


Bacteria are REALLY small! Question: How many of these could fit in a mm of space if lined up widthwise, side by side? HINT: 1000m =1mm

100