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Cells

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The Basic Unit of Life!!

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Essential question:

To what extent can cells do the things that we can do?

Cell Theory
1. All life is made of one or more cells (S&S) 2. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life (S&S) 3. New cells come from preexisting(old) cells (Virchow)

History of Cells
Historical Scientists 1665 Robert Hooke looked at cork cells under microscope named for monks rooms Schleiden observed plant cells Schwann observed animal cells
**S&S-Together developed CELL THEORY

Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1700s described living cells; improved microscopes Pasteur(1860)- disproved Spontaneous generation (abiogenesis) Virchow-3rd pt. of cell theory

Redis meat maggots experiments (1668)


Hypothesis: flies come from other flies 1. Meat in jars - open 2. Meat in covered jars Conclusion: covered or meshed jars: NO MAGGOTS! No spontaneous generation

Pasteur comes along 1860s

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1a. Swan neck and straight neck - both open Swan neck - no growth! 1b. Tipped swan neck to get dust: growth! Conclude: NO SPG!

2. ALL cells have:


Structure of cell can be organized into 3 parts 1. Cell membrane 2. Cytoplasm = sol-gel fluid * gives shape * supports organelles * stores chemicals * transports materials by cytoplasmic streaming 3. Ribosomes (only organelle ALL cells have) 4. Genetic material (chromatin):DNA/RNA

Genetic material in cells


RNA
o o o o o o o o

single stranded, 3 types used to carry out DNA instructions double stranded contains all genetic information and instructions for the cell wound up DNA form DNA is in most of the time. more tightly condensed & organized In eukaryotes, NOT prokaryotes

DNA Chromatin Chromosomes

Question!
Why is it that all cells are basically built the same yet there is tremendous variation among them??
ANSWER: Different arrangements in the DNA code Result= UNITY WITHIN DIVERSITY!!!

CELL STRUCTURES Inner life of the cell

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In ALL cells

Cell Membrane
Function:
a. Regulation b. Protection c. Shape

Structure:
a. bilipid layers hydrophobic vs hydrophilic ends-note positions! b. fluid mosaic model: lipids, proteins, cholesterol (for stability) c. not static-it moves!
** Connected to ER (endoplasmic reticulum)

Cell membrane (cont)


Selectively permeable:
Solvent sieve theory: some things can pass through & some cannot

Protein recognition molecule:


RADAR - outer part of membrane Recognizes self vs not self - alerts immune system

In ALL cells

Ribosomes

Function: Protein production Structure:


a. No membrane b. Made of a type of RNA (rRNA) c. Large and small subunits

Attached: on Endoplasmic Reticulum Makes proteins for transport out of cell Free: floating in cytoplasm
Makes proteins for use inside cell

What are the characteristics of a eukaryotic cell?


Organelles: little organs- the small structures found INSIDE the cell that make it up
Getting started

Nucleus
Function:
1. controls processes 2. stores genetic information

Structure:
Surrounded by nuclear membrane Fluid inside = nucleoplasm Contains nucleolus (RNA production)
o
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Can have more than one (nucleoli)

Contains chromatin (chromosomes/DNA) Has nuclear pores Connected to ER (endoplasmic reticulum)

Cell Wall
Function: 1. protection 2. shape Structure:
1. 2. 3. 4. rigid stiffer than membrane geometric shape OUTSIDE membrane

Distinguishing Characteristics:
Plant: cellulose Fungi: chitin Bacteria: peptidoglycan

Cell Lab: Onion


Make a slide for onion and complete the sheet. You will estimate the size(typical length) using : Diameter at Scan = 4000m Diameter at Low = 2000 m Diameter at High = 500 m

Size and Shape/Structure --> Specialization


Cells exist in a variety of sizes and shapes; both are related to the function of a cell.
Ex. Red blood cells: (p 988)
flexible-squeeze through capillaries one at at time.

Ex. Nerve cells: (p1005)


Long- like powerline wires message goes long distances quickly

Neither is structured to do the others job-they are specialized http://www.cellsalive.com/h owbig.htm

QUESTION!!
How many nerves are there between your stubbed toe and feeling the pain??

Ghosts of lessons past (older archived slides) Types of microscopes

4. Methods for Cell Study (cytology):


A. Microscopes
1. Light (LM) Function: Light bounced off or thru organism Advantage: Simple; accessible; color natural; movement seen; Living Disadvantage: Not as detailed; cant be too thick

2. Scanning Electron (SEM)


Function: Bounces e- (electrons) off the surface Advantage: 3D view of surface Disadvantage: No inside detail; dead specimens; no color http://micro.magnet.fsu.ed u/primer/java/electronmi croscopy/magnify1/inde x.html

3. Transmission Electron (TEM)


Function: e- go through Advantage: extreme detail inside cell Disadvantage: Dead; very thin; not a total cell at one time; no color

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4. Phase contrast
Function: Bounces light thru; but show differences like sonar Advantage: contrast; close objects; some detail; living Disadvantage: Actual organelle picture more distorted shadows

5. Stereoscope
Function:
Bounces light

Advantage:
Simple; no electricity; large thick objects

Disadvantage:
Not very magnified; not inside of cells; mostly only large objects at surface

Resolving Power
Ability of microscope to differentiate visually between 2 close objects

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Application question:
Which scope would you choose to see: Stereoscope A whole,live fly? Transmission electron A nuclear pore? Outside of a pollen grain? Scanning electron A moving ameba?
Light

B. Centrifuge
Separates solids and liquids into layers by mass. Spins fast: more dense/heavy objects go to the bottom Can remove a layer and spin faster to separate even more EX: Blood Donation

Whats in the blood?


*Hematocrit gives total blood volume *Too many WBC= Leukemia * Need iron to carry O2 in RBC cant carry enough O2-moon shaped cells get stuck in capillaries Platelets given to Hemophiliacs Plasma given for burns
Sickle cell anemia

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C. Microtome
Make a very thin slice of a tissue EX: making a crosssection through a leaf to see the inside

Micromanipulators/ pipettes
Small tools to work at the cellular level Ex: if removing the nucleus for cloning purposes - changes large hand motions to micro motions

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Differential Stains
Stains which dye specific cell parts or shows a difference in type
Ex: gram stain of bacteria show a cell wall. Difference helps diagnose which antibiotic to use Ex: Iodine stains onion nucleus and potato leucoplasts so visible
Kidney with parasite

Prokaryote vs Eukaryote
Prokaryote: NO membrane organelles, NO nucleusonly organelle is ribosomes (no membrane)ONLY BACTERIA!! *Eukaryote: HAS membrane bound organelles, HAS a nucleus- all plants, animals, fungi cells

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Viruses -a problem
1. Basic structure: a. protein outside b. DNA or RNA inside-not both
2.Compared to life characteristics

a. Has the chemicals that are found only in living things b. Can be reproduced, but cant do it by itself c. Is NOT a cell, has NO metabolism, etc. - no other traits of living

3. Is it ALIVE?

Most say NO, some say acellular lifeform

NEW DISCOVERY!: Virophage infecting viruses

Viroids vs prions (see notes)