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Taste Smell Vision Hearing Balance

Taste and smell are involved with specific receptor cells called chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in an aqueous solution food dissolved in saliva airborne chemicals dissolved in mucous membrane

The Tongue

Taste Buds

Filiform papilla

Fungiform papilla

Circumvallate Papilla

Connective tissue

Tongue epithelium

Why are they important?

Umami- savory/meaty
Bitter- alkaloid

Sour- H+ Salty- metallic ions Sweet- sugar

Gustatory Pathway from Taste Buds

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Figure 16.2

Sensory Receptors

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Facial nerve (afferent) 2/3 anterior portion of tongue Glossophyngeal posterior 1/3 of tongue Vagus nerve- few taste buds on epiglottis an pharynx These afferent fibers synapse in medullathalamus gustatory cortex in parietal lobes and fibers to hypothalamus in limbic system

Taste triggers reflex involved in digestion; causes an increase of saliva in mouth (amylase) and gastric juice in stomach
acids cause strong salivary reflex bad tasting food causes gagging or reflexive vomiting taste can change over time taste is 80% smell

Mouth also contains:


Thermoreceptors
Mechanoreceptors Nociceptors- sensitive nerve fibers that are aware of painful stimuli

Smell not as good as animals; however, some people are wine tasters, perfumers
If you smell a particular odor all day, you wont recognize its presence, you become accustomed, ex. garbage men Old people lose sense of smell- lots of perfume Humans can distinguish 10,000 or so chemicals What we really smell is pain: ex. chili, ammonia, menthol (cold) Specific chemicals cause specific patterns of neurons to fire

Olfactory epithelium

Olfactory tract

Olfactory bulb

Nasal conchae

(a)

Route of inhaled air


Figure 15.21a

Olfactory tract

Mitral cell (output cell) Glomeruli Olfactory bulb Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Filaments of olfactory nerve

Olfactory gland Olfactory epithelium Mucus (b)

Lamina propria connective tissue Axon Basal cell Olfactory receptor cell

Supporting cell
Dendrite Olfactory cilia Route of inhaled air containing odor molecules
Figure 15.21a

loss of sense of smell


Lose sense of smelllose taste
May be genetic or a cold (mucus), allergy, zinc deficiency Uncinate- olfactory hallucinations; may be psychological ex. rotting meat smell

Olfactory auras- prior to epileptic attack

palpabre
Lacrimal caruncle Medial commisure

cornea

sclera
lateral commisure

tear drainage canal

iris
palpabre

pupil

bright light

normal light

dim light

FLOW OF TEARS Lacrimal gland Lacrimal ducts Sup. or inf. lacrimal canal Lacrimal sac Nasolacrimal duct Nasal cavity

Superior oblique

Superior rectus

optic nerve
Medial rectus
Inferior oblique Inferior rectus Lateral rectus

Fibrous tunic- sclera and cornea (outer most layer)


Composed of dense avascular connective tissue

Vascular tunic- uvea: choroid, cilliary body, iris, pupil (middle layer) Choroid- rich vascular nutritive layer; contains a dark pigment that prevents light scattering within the eye Cilliary body- lens is attached; contains muscles that change the lenses shape

Iris- pigmented ring of muscular tissue composed of circular


and radial muscles reflex contraction of circular muscle in bright light (small dia of pupil)

reflex contraction of radial muscle in dim light (large dia of pupil)

Pupil- central hole in iris

Sensory tunic- retina (inner most layer)

Photoreceptors:
rods (dim light, contains pigment rhodopsin) and Cones (color vision, not evenly distributed, concentrated in fovea)

Optic disc- blind spot because its where optic nerve leaves the eyeball (no rods or cones)

Macula lutea- yellow spot, area of high cone


Fovea centralis- in center of macula lutea, contains only cones, area of greatest visual acuity

The Eye and Vision

Visual organ the eye 70% of all sensory receptors are in the eyes 40% of the cerebral cortex is involved in processing visual information

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Accessory Structures of the Eye

Lacrimal apparatus keeps the surface of the eye moist

Lacrimal gland
produces lacrimal fluid Lacrimal sac fluid empties into nasal cavity

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 16.5b

Olfactory Receptors

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 16.3a, b

The Fibrous Tunic

Most external layer of the eyeball

Composed of two regions of connective tissue


Sclera posterior five-sixths of the tunic White, opaque region Provides shape and an anchor for eye muscles Cornea anterior one-sixth of the fibrous tunic Limbus junction between sclera and cornea Scleral venous sinus allows aqueous humor to
drain

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Medial View of the Eye

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Figure 16.7a

The Vascular Tunic

The middle coat of the eyeball Composed of choroid, ciliary body, and iris Choroid vascular, darkly pigmented membrane

Forms posterior five-sixths of the vascular tunic Brown color from melanocytes Prevents scattering of light rays within the eye

Choroid corresponds to the arachnoid and pia maters

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Posterior View of the Anterior Half of the Eye

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 16.9a

The Vascular Tunic

Ciliary body thickened ring of tissue encircles the lens Composed of ciliary muscle

Ciliary processes posterior surface of the ciliary


body Ciliary zonule (suspensory ligament)

Attached around entire circumference of the lens

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Vascular Tunic

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 16.8

Vitreous humor- behind lens, gel-like substance with fine collagenic fibrils imbedded in as viscous ground substance- binds with water transmits light supports the posterior surface of the lens and holds the neural retina firmly against pigmented layer contributes to intraoccular pressure, helping to counter act the pulling force of the extrinsic eye muscles

Aqueous humor- in front of lens, anterior segment, watery fluid Supplies cornea and lens with nutrients Helps to maintain the shape of the eye Produced and renewed every 4 hrs by the cilliary body

Binocular vision

Outer ear- pinna (auricle), lobule, external auditory canal; elastic cartilage External auditory canal has: ceruminous glands- wax secreting glands- protects delicate lining of meatus and helps prevent microorganisms from entering the ear

Tympanic membrane- membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves

Middle ear- Includes 3 small bones (ossicles)hammer (mallus), anvil (incus), stirup (stapes) Pharyngeotympanic auditory tube (Eustachian tube)- equalizes pressure; connects middle ear to pharynx. Oval window- found on cochlea; stirrup presses against cochlea Round window- pressure window on cochlea Otis media- inflammation of the middle ear; due to bacteria or allergies, common in children whose auditory tubes are short and horizontal

malleus

incus

stapes oval window round window

external auditory canal

tympanic membrane

Auditory tube

Inner ear- bony labyrinth filled with perilymph fluid (similar to CFS) and membranous labyrinth filled with endolymph fluid (similar to K+ rich intracellular fluid); these fluids conduct sound vibrations Bony labyrinth (includes vestibule, semicircular canal, and cochlea) Vestibule- posterior to cochlea and anterior to the semicircular canals Perilymph fluid suspends 2 membranous sacs: utricle and sacule-- they house equilibrium receptors called maculae that respond to the pull of gravity

Semicircular canal- contains endolymph fluid; anterior, posterior, and lateral canal; contains equilibrium receptors (ampulla) Cochlea- filled with perilymph fluid

Organ of Corti- rests a top basilar membrane; has long row of hair cells

Biology 100 Human Biology

semicircular canals

vestibulochoclear nerve

utricle saccule cochlea

Properties of sound: Sound travels at 331 m/sec It's a pressure disturbance originating from the vibration Frequency- cycles/sec (hertz); Reflects sound intensity Human hearing- 20 to 20,000 htz Pitch- different frequency's; high vs low; pure tone is a single frequency Quality- sound mixture with several frequencies Intensity- corresponds to amplitude of height; loudness measured in decibels

Transmission of sound: Airborne soundexternal auditory canaltympanic membranehammer, anvil, stirrupoval windowvestubularcochlear nervecochlear nuclei in medulla superior oliveup the lateral leminiscusinferior colliculusprimary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe

Auditory ossicles Malleus Incus Stapes Cochlear nerve Scala vestibuli Oval window
2

Helicotrema

Scala tympani Cochlear duct

Basilar membrane

Tympanic Round membrane window (a) Route of sound waves through the ear

Hearing loss- due to disease (ex. meningitus), damage, or age related

Conduction deafness- prevention or blocking sounds from entering inner ear. Ex. ear wax, ruptured ear drum, middle ear inflammation (otis media), and otosclerosis (hardening of the ossicles of the ear)
Sensoneural deafness- damage to the neural structures from any point from the cochlear hair cells to and including the auditory cortical cells Partial or complete deafness, or gradual loss over time

Tinnitus- ringing or clicking sound in the absence of auditory stimuli; 1st symptom of cochlear nerve degeneration may result from inflammation of the inner or middle ear

side effect from medicine such as aspirin


Symptoms- vertigo, nausea, hearing loss

Meniere's Syndrome- labyrinth disorder; effects both semicircular canals and cochlea