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Nomenclature (Tatanama)

 Latin: nomen (nama) dan calare ( memanggil/


menyebut). Nomenclature: memanggil
dengan nama
 Properti paling penting dari nama taksa
c. keunikan: harus unik karena merupakan kunci
untuk semua literatur yang terkait dengan
spesies atau kategori takson lebih tinggi
tersebut.
d. Universalitas: nama harus bisa diterima
dimanapun diseluruh dunia (satu bahasa)
e. Stabilitas (tidak berubah menurut ruang dan
waktu)
 Common name: dibentuk tanpa
aturan tertentu (akan berbeda tiap
wilayah)

 Scientific name:
- bahasa latin/dilatinkan
- mengikuti aturan internasinal
tertentu,
- terikat pada tipe spesimen,
- binominal nomenclature (particularly
in
zoological circles), binary
nomenclature
(particularly in botanical circles) terdiri
atas nama genus dan penunjuk species
(specific name),
- Nama genus diawali huruf kapital
sedang
- penunjuk spesies diawali huruf kecil,
a general term for the word identifying the
species is the specific descriptor

 in zoology, the word identifying the species


is called the specific name

 inbotany, the word identifying the species is


called the specific epithet
- ditulis miring, jika ditulis tangan diberi garis
bawah
Ex. Homo sapiens

- penunjuk species merupakan kata sifat


sehingga harus sesuai dengan jenis kelamin
nama genus (akan terlihat diakhir nama), jika
nama genus berubah maka nama penunjuk
spesies juga harus berubah.
Ex. Melaleuca nervosa / Callistemon
nervosus
- penunjuk species merupakan kata sifat
sehingga harus sesuai dengan jenis kelamin
nama genus (akan terlihat diakhir nama), jika
nama genus berubah maka nama penunjuk
spesies juga harus berubah.
Ex. Melaleuca nervosa / Callistemon nervosus

- Pencipta nama hewan adalah orang pertama


yang menerbitkan dalam suatu penerbitan
berkala dengan memberikan uraian tentang
hewan tersebut

- Jika suatu genus baru diusulkan, tipe


speciesnya harus ditunjukkan

- Nama familia dibentuk dengan menambahkan


akhiran -idea dan subfamilia dengan
penambahan akhiran -inae
 Nama botani dan zoologi harus berbeda
 Tidak boleh ada dua nama genus dan species
yang sama
 A genus name should be spelt out in full the first
time it is used and then may be abbreviated to an
initial letter. Example: Puntius javanicus; P.
Javanicus
 Nama takson diatas kategory species hanya
terdiri atas satu nama
 Nama subspecies bersifat trinomial/trinominal
 Olive-backed
Pipit are Anthus
hodgsoni berezowskii and Anthus
hodgsoni hodgsoni

 The Bengal Tiger is Panthera tigris


tigris and the Siberian Tiger Panthera
tigris altaica
Melogena corona corona Gmel. (Siput laut)
Melongena : nama genus
corona (1) : petunjuk species
corona (2) : petunjuk subspecies (starin)
Gmel. : nama Author (pemberi
nama) singkatan dari Gmelin.
the main entry for the binomial is followed
by the abbreviated (in botany) or full (in
zoology) surname of the scientist who first
published the classification.

If the species was assigned in the


description to a different genus from that
to which it is assigned today, the
abbreviation or name of the describer and
the description date is set in parentheses.
For example: Amaranthus retroflexus
L. or Passer domesticus (Linnaeus,
1758) — the latter was originally
described as member of the genus
Fringilla, hence the parentheses.
• When used with a common name,
the scientific name usually follows
in parentheses.

• For example, "The house sparrow (


Passer domesticus) is decreasing
in Europe.“
• The genus name and specific descriptor
may come from any source. Often they are
ordinary New Latin words, but they may
also come from Ancient Greek, from a
place, from a person a name from the local
language, etc.

• However, names are always treated


grammatically as if they were a Latin
phrase.
• Family names are often derived from
a common genus within the family.
• The genus name must be unique
inside each kingdom. It is normally a
noun in its Latin grammar.
 Beberapa nama Author yang sering
digunakan dalam penamaan hewan
 Gmel.  Gmelin
 Ads.  Adams
 Desh.  Deshayes
 L., Linn.  Linnaeus
 Blkr.  Blaker
 Perubahan nama hewan juga sering
terjadi, sebagai contoh, pada :
 Fasciolaris giganteca  Pleuroploca
giganteca
 Ostrea virginica  Crasssotrea virginica
 Serangga : Tendipes sp.  Chironomus
sp.
 Persetujuan dan penilaian terhadap
penamaan species hewan dan
perubahannya berada pada “The
International Commission for
Zoological Nomenclature”
 International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) (Fungi dan
Cyanobacteria)
 The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB),
International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP)
 The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)
Bacterial Name

 The provisions for nomenclature into a few broad


principles that are still valid today:
1. Names should be stable. This is assured by
retaining the first name to be published, the principle
of priority.
2. Names should be unambiguous. This is assured by
establishing type cultures, which can be referred to
whenever there is doubt about the status of a novel
bacterium. Type cultures are not necessarily
completely typical, but they function as indispensable
points of reference.
3. Names should be necessary. This is assured by
publication of descriptions of the organisms and the
rejection of names that are superfluous.
Virus Name
The ICTV's essential principles of virus nomenclature
are:
 Stability
 To avoid or reject the use of names which might
cause error or confusion
 To avoid the unnecessary creation of names
 Order (-virales)
 Family (-viridae)
 Subfamily (-virinae)
 Genus (-virus)
 Species
 Beberapa contoh yang menjadi dasar
penamaan hewan adalah :
 Nama penemu (Macrobrachium
rossengergii) pertama kali ditemukan
oleh Rossenbergii)
 Daerah penyebaran (Puntius javanicus)
ikan tawes yang penyebarannya di P.
Jawa
3. Habitat/tempat hidupnya (Fasciola
hepatica), cacing parasit yang
hidupnya di hati hospesnya
4. Warna tubuh dewasa (Euglena viridis)
berwarna hijau
5. Morfologi (Paramecium caudatum)
berbentuk seperti sandal
Macam Nama
 homonym is a name for a taxon that is identical in
spelling to another such name, that belongs to a
different taxon
 Cuvier proposed the genus Echidna in 1797 for the
spiny anteater.
 However, Forster had already published the name
Echidna in 1777 for a genus of moray eels.
 Forster's use thus has priority, with Cuvier's being a
junior homonym.
 Illiger published the replacement name Tachyglossus
in 1811.
 synonyms are different scientific names
used for a single taxon
Contoh: Johnius vogleri adalah junior
synonyms dari Johnius borneensis
 Nomen nudum. A name that was not
properly associated with actual specimens.
 Nomen dubium. A name used without
sufficient information so that later authors are
unable to determine what taxon was meant.
 Nomen oblitum.  A name that has priority for
a taxon, but is nevertheless not used in order
to continue usage of a widely used and
accepted name.  A nomen oblitum is
compatible only with a name status of
synonym.
 Nomen novum.  A new name that is used to
replace a valid taxon's original name in the
event of homonymy.  A nomen novum is
compatible with a name status of valid,
temporary, or synonym.
 Nomen protectum.  A name given
precedence over its unused senior synonym or
senior homonym which has become a nomen
oblitum.  A nomen protectum is compatible
Type
• A central concept of the International Code is
use of types as "name bearers."
• When scientists describe new species of
Orthoptera, they designate one individual for
each species as the holotype or name bearer
for that species.
• Just as specimens are designated as
holotypes for species
• species are designated as type species for
genera and subgenera.
Macam Type Species

 Type genus, the "name bearer" for family-


group taxa (taxa with a rank higher than
genus up to superfamily)

 Type species, the "name bearer" for genus-


group taxa (genus or subgenus)
 Type specimen
 Primary types, the "name bearers" for
species names
 Holotype, the single specimen

designated as holotype when the


species was first described

 Syntypes (also known as cotypes),


multiple specimens identified by the
author when the species was first
described without designating a
specific holotype
 Lectotype, the specimen
designated by a subsequent author
and selected from the syntypes

 Neotype, a specimen designated by


a subsequent author as the name
bearer when the original primary
type (s) have been lost or
destroyed
Secondary types, not recognized as
"name bearers" for species names
 Allotype, a specimen of the opposite
sex from the holotype and designated
as allotype when the species was first
described

 Paratype, additional specimens


examined when the species was first
described, but not designated as
holotype or allotype
 Paralectotype, a specimen that was
once a syntype, but is not the
specimen later designated as
lectotype

 Topotype, a specimen collected


from the same locality as the
holotype