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Development of Endocrine System

Fe A. Bartolome, MD, MAEd, FPASMAP Our Lady of Fatima University

Functions of the Endocrine System


1. Regulation of organic metabolism and water & electrolyte balance 2. Induction of adaptive changes to help the body cope with stressful situations 3. Promotion of smooth, sequential growth and development 4. Controlling reproduction 5. Regulating rbc production 6. Along with ANS, controlling and integrating activities of both the circulatory and digestive systems

Functions of the Endocrine System


1. Regulation of organic metabolism and water & electrolyte balance 2. Induction of adaptive changes to help the body cope with stressful situations 3. Promotion of smooth, sequential growth and development 4. Controlling reproduction 5. Regulating rbc production 6. Along with ANS, controlling and integrating activities of both the circulatory and digestive systems

Pituitary Gland/Hypophysis

Germ layer of origin: ECTODERM


Develops from:

1. Rathkes pouch Ectodermal out-pouching/evagination of the stomodeum (primitive oral cavity) immediately in front of oropharyngeal membrane Appears when embryo is ~3 wks old In close contact with infundibulum by end of 2nd month; lose connection with oral cavity 2. Infundibulum Downward extension of the diencephalon

FATES
RATHKES POUCH

ANTERIOR WALL

POSTERIOR WALL fuse into pars nervosa

ADENOHYPOPHYSIS Pars intermedia

Pars distalis Pars tuberalis

FATES
INFUNDIBULUM

Infundibular process

Infundibular stalk

Pars nervosa

Neuroglial cells pituicytes

POSTERIOR LOBE/ NEUROHYPOPHYSIS

Hormones secreted by Adenohypophysis (Pars distalis)

Hormone secreted by Pars intermedia: POMC (Proopiomelanocortin)

Hormones secreted by Neurohypophysis

Clinical Anomalies:

Pharyngeal Hypophysis
Ectopic adenophypophysis Roof of pharynx Persistent proximal root of Rathkes pouch (fails to degenerate)

Clinical Anomalies:
Craniopharyngioma

Distal remnants of Rathkes pouch


Two varieties: 1. Intrasellar
o o Less common Pituitary dysfunction (ADH deficiency) or growth failure in children More common Impingement of optic chiasm visual disturbance

2. Suprasellar

Benign tumors Thick-walled

Locally invasive
Complex mass with multiple nodules

Pineal Gland

Germ Layer of Origin: ECTODERM


Initially appears as epithelial thickening on midline From most caudal part of roof of diencephalon 7th week of development evagination occurs becomes solid located on roof of mesencephalon Later accumulates calcified corpora arenacea light up on CT scan & marker for midline of brain

Germ Layer of Origin: ECTODERM

Thickening of roof plate at opposite side from influndibulum small evagination of tissue forming pineal gland will later accumulate calcium (corpora arenacea) Secretion: melatonin and arginine vasotocin (oxytocin)

THYROID GLAND

Germ Layer of Origin: ENDODERM

First of the bodys endocrine glands to develop approx. 24th day of gestation Originates as a proliferation of endodermal epithelial cells on median surface of developing pharyngeal floor

Germ Layer of Origin: ENDODERM

Primordial thyroid gland (Thyroid primordium)


Appears as epithelial proliferation on floor of pharynx at the foramen cecum between tuberculum impar and copula o Tuberculum impar (median tongue bud) caudal level of 1st pharyngeal arch part of body of tongue o Copula hypobranchial eminence at level of 2nd, 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches root of tongue

Germ Layer of Origin: ENDODERM

Primordial thyroid gland

Descends in front of pharyngeal gut as a bilobed diverticulum (thyroid diverticulum) Remains connected to the tongue by a narrow canal (thyroglossal duct) solidifies and obliterates by 7 10 wks AOG

Germ Layer of Origin: ENDODERM


7th week final position in front of the trachea Two lateral lobes and an isthmus (remnant of thyroglossal duct) 12th week secretion of thyroxine and triiodothyronine & calcitonin Follicular cells endoderm; thyroxine & T3 Parafollicular cells/C cells neural crest cells entering caudal 4th pharyngeal pouch (ultimobranchial body); calcitonin

Congenital Anomalies

Ectopic Thyroid Tissue


Thyroid tissue on any area, anywhere along route of descent of the gland

Path of descent and sites of ectopic thyroid remnants during embryonic development.

Congenital Anomalies

Thyroglossal cysts
Mobile but painless cysts found in the midline, usually over hyoid bone can differentiate into thyroid epithelium

PARATHYROID GLAND

Germ Layer of Origin: ENDODERM

Arise from cranial portions of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches; 5th week of fetal life
o Epithelium of dorsal wing of 3rd pouch inferior parathyroid glands o Epithelium of dorsal wing of 4th pouch superior parathyroid glands o Pouches bilateral 4 parathyroids

PANCREAS (ISLETS OF LANGERHANS)

Germ Layer of Origin: ENDODERM


Foregut ventral & dorsal pancreatic buds Ventral pancreatic bud head & uncinate process; duct of Wirsung Dorsal pancreatic bud distal pancreas; ducts of Wirsung & Santorini Main ducts of ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds fuse duct of Wirsung Progenitor cells of endocrine pancreas arise from protodifferentiated stage of exocrine pancreas

Schematic representation of pancreas development. The embryonic pancreas in vertebrates forms from a dorsal and ventral protrusion of the primitive gut epithelium. These two pancreatic buds grow, branch, and fuse to form the definitive pancreas.

Germ Layer of Origin: ENDODERM


Two lines of committed endocrine precursor cells o First line forms and (F) cells glucagon and pancreatic polypeptides, respectively o Second line and cells insulin and somatostatin respectively 20th week functional

Hormones Cells Alpha cells Beta cells Delta cells G cells F cells Hormone Glucagon (15th wk) Insulin (10th wk) Somatostatin Gastrin Pancreatic polypeptide

ADRENAL GLANDS

Adrenal Cortex
Germ Layer of Origin: MESODERM 5th week of fetal life two waves of mesenchymal coelomic cells:
1. 1st wave: Mesothelial cells between mesentery and developing gonads proliferate penetrate mesenchyme differentiate into large acidophilic organs (fetal or primitive adrenal cortex) 2. 2nd wave: Mesothelial cells penetrate mesenchyme surround the original acidophilic cell mass become definitive adrenal cortex

Week 8 9 fetal adrenal cortex synthesizes cortisol


Adult cortex mesothelium mesenchyme encloses fetal cortex Late fetal period differentiates to form cortical zones At birth zona glomerulosa & fasciculata present; fetal cortex regresses Year 3 zona reticularis present Puberty adult structure of cortex achieved

Adrenal Medulla
Germ Layer of Origin: ECTODERM (NEURAL CREST) Simultaneous with development of fetal adrenal cortex Neural crest cells (neuroblasts) migrate toward coelomic cavity wall form cords and clusters of cells adrenal medulla Invade medial end of fetal adrenal cortex

Adrenal Medulla
Neuroblasts from neural crest cells migrate form sympathetic chain & pre-aortic ganglia second migration to adrenal medulla (chromaffin cells)
Chromaffin cells modified post-synaptic sympathetic neurons Innervated by splanchnic nerve; secrete epinephrine & norepinephrine Visualized by staining with chromium salts

Schematic drawings illustrating development of the suprarenal glands. A, At 6 weeks mesodermal primordium of the fetal cortex. B, At 7 weeks addition of neural crest cells. C, At 8 weeks fetal cortex and the early permanent cortex beginning to encapsulate the medulla. D and E, Later stages of encapsulation of the medulla by the cortex. F, Newborn infant fetal cortex and two zones of the permanent cortex. G, At 1 year, the fetal cortex has almost disappeared. H, At 4 years adult pattern of cortical zones.

Human embryo (7 weeks, stage 22) adrenal gland showing the fetal and permanent adrenal cortex. Note that the medulla of the adrenal gland is not yet encapsulated by the cortex.

Layers Adrenal cortex Zona glomerulosa Zona fasciculata Zona reticularis Adrenal medulla

Hormone Aldosterone Cortisol Sex hormones Adrenalin/Epinephrine Noradrenalin/NE

TESTIS (LEYDIG CELLS)

Adrenal glands and gonads share a common primordium, from which adrenal gland, testis and ovary will be formed. (Modified from Morohashi 1997)

Germ Layer of Origin: MESODERM


Leydig cells develop from original mesenchymal cells of the gonadal ridge 8th 20th week fetal type Leydig cells; testosterone production begins Adult type Leydig cells differentiate in the postnatal testis and are quiescent until puberty

Gonadal Primordium

Primordial Germ Cells

Somatic Progenitor Cells

Sertoli Cells

Leydig Cells

Fetal Leydig Cells


With hormonal role in male genitalia differentiation & lost post-natally Arise at approx. 6 weeks in humans Initial differentiation requires both LH & ACTH

Adult Leydig Cells Hormonal role in puberty & sexual maturation Initial differentiation from peritubular mesenchymal cells

OVARY (THECA INTERNA CELLS)

Intermediate mesoderm

Urogenital ridge

Gonadal ridge

Indifferent gonad Gonadal cord (cortical cords, testis cords)

Germ Layer of Origin: MESODERM

Cells on surface epithelium of primordial female gonad proliferate form secondary or

cortical cords primordial follicles (oogonium


surrounded by follicular cells) follicular cells

theca interna cells (produce estrogen)